The Crest Jewel of Discrimination

The Crest Jewel of Wisdom

The first translation here is by John H Richards ( 16/05/1998. The numbering of the Sanskrit and this translation are his. 0
The second English translation has slightly different numbering, (in parenthesis). It also contains embedded Romanised Sanskrit using a different scheme of transliteration. It first appeared in eight installments in The Theosophist between October 1885 and December 1887 translated by Mohini M Chatterji. Until evidence to the contrary appears, this appears to be the first translation into English. (0)


The Crest Jewel of Discrimination

I prostrate myself before Govinda, the true Guru and ultimate Bliss, who is the unattainable resort of all scriptures and Vedanta. 1
I prostrate myself before the true teacher - before him who is revealed by the conclusions of all systems of Vedantic philosophy, but is himself unknown, Govinda the supreme bliss. (1)
Human nature is the hardest of creaturely states to obtain, even more so that of manhood. Brahminhood is rarer still, and beyond that dedication to the path of Vedic religion. Beyond even that there is discrimination between self and nonself, but liberation by persistence in the state of the unity of God and self is not to be achieved except by the meritorious deeds of hundreds of thousands of lives. 2
Among sentient creatures birth as a man is difficult of attainment, among human beings manhood, among men to be a Brahmana, among Brahmanas desire to follow the path of Vedic Dharma, and among those, learning. But the spiritual knowledge which discriminates between spirit and non-spirit, the practical realization of the merging of oneself in Brahmatman and final emancipation from the bonds of matter are unattainable except by the good karma of hundreds of crores of incarnations. (2)
These three things are hard to achieve, and are attained only by the grace of God human nature, the desire for liberation, and finding refuge with a great sage. 3
These three, so difficult of attainment, are acquired only by the kindness of the Devas (Gods), humanity, desire for emancipation, and the guidance of (spiritually) Great Men. (3)
He is a suicide who has somehow achieved human birth and even manhood and full knowledge of the scriptures but does not strive for selfliberation, for he destroys himself by clinging to the unreal. 4
One who, having with difficulty acquired a human incarnation and in that manhood a knowledge of the scriptures, through delusions does not labour for emancipation, is a suicide destroying himself in trying to attain illusive objects. (4)
Who could be more foolish than the man who has achieved the difficult attainment of a human body and even manhood but still neglects his true good? 5
Who is there on this earth with soul more dead than he who, having obtained a human incarnation and a male body, madly strives for the attainment of selfish objects? (5)
People may quote the scriptures, make sacrifices to the gods, perform actions and pay homage to the deities, but there is no liberation without recognising the oneness of ones own true being not even in the lifetime of a hundred Brahmas (countless millions of years). 6
He may study the scriptures, propitiate the gods (by sacrifices), perform religious ceremonies, or offer devotion to the gods, yet he will not attain salvation even during the sucession of a hundred Brahma-yugas, except by the knowledge of union with the spirit. (6)
Scripture declares that there is no hope of immortality by means of wealth, so it is evident that liberation cannot be brought about by actions. 7
The immortality attained through the acquisition of any objective condition is liable to end, as it is distinctly stated in the scriptures (shruti) that Karma is never the cause of emancipation. (7)
So let the man of understanding strive for liberation, abandoning desire for the enjoyment of external aims and pleasures, and after becoming the pupil of a good and great teacher, let him fix his mind on the goal he indicates. 8
Therefore the wise man strives for his salvation, having renounced his desires for the enjoyment of external objects, and betakes himself to a true and great teacher and accepts his teaching with an unshaken soul. (8)
Sunk in the sea of samsara, one should oneself rouse oneself by holding onto right understanding until one reaches the state of the attainment of union. 9
And by the practice of right discrimination attained by the path of Yoga he rescues the soul - the soul drowned in the sea of conditioned existence. (9)
Abandoning all actions and breaking free from the bonds of achievements, the wise and intelligent should apply themselves to selfknowledge. 10
After giving up all karma for the purpose of removing the bonds of conditioned existence, those wise men with resolute minds should endeavour to gain a knowledge of their own \Atman. (10)
Action is for the purification of the mind, not for the understanding of reality. The recognition of reality is through discrimination, and not by even tens of millions of actions. 11
Actions are for the purification of the heart, not for the attainment of the real substance. The substance can be attained by right discrimination, but not by any amount of Karma. (11)
Proper analysis leads to the realisation of the reality of the rope, and this is the end of the pain of the fear of the great snake caused by delusion. 12
A perception of the fact that the object seen is a rope will remove the fear and sorrow which result from the illusory idea that it is a serpent. (12)
The realisation of the truth is seen to depend on meditation on statements about what is good, not on bathing or donations or by hundreds of yogic breathing exercises. 13
The knowledge of an object is only gained by perception, by investigation, or by instruction, but not by bathing or giving of alms, or by a hundred retentions of the breath. (13)
Achievement of the goal depends primarily on a fit seeker. Things like locality and time are merely secondary in this matter. 14
The attainment of the object principally depends upon the qualification of him who desires to attain; all artifices and the contingencies arising from circumstances of time and place are merely accessories. (14)
So he who would know his own nature should practise meditation on the subject after taking refuge with a guru who is a true knower of God and an ocean of compassion. 15
Therefore he who desires to know the nature of his own \Atman, after having reached a Guru who has got \brahmajñaana and is of a kindly disposition, should proceed with his investigation. (15)
It is the wise and learned man, skilled in sorting out the pros and cons of an argument who is really endowed with the qualities necessary for selfrealisation. 16
One who has a strong intellect, who is a learned man, and who has powers of comprehension, is a man qualified for such an investigation. (16)
Discriminating and dispassionate, endowed with peace and similar qualities, and longing for liberation such is the man who is considered fit to practise seeking for God. 17
He, only, is considered worthy to inquire into Spirit who is without attachment, without desire, having \shama and the other qualifications and who is desirous of obtaining emancipation. (17)
The wise talk here of four qualities, possessed of which one will succeed, but without which one will fail. 18
For this purpose there exist four kinds of preparatory training, so say the wise; with them the attempt will be successful; without them unsuccessful. (18)
First is listed discrimination between unchanging and changing realities, and after that dispassion for the enjoyment of the fruits of action both here and hereafter, and then the group of six qualities including peace and of course the desire for liberation. 19
"God is the Truth and the world is unreal." It is this realisation that is considered discrimination between the permanent and the impermanent. 20
Dispassion is the turning away from what can be seen and heard and so on in everything which is impermanent, from the body up to the highest heavenly states. 21
The settling of the mind in its goal, by turning away from the mass of objects by repeatedly observing their drawbacks, is known as peace. 22
The establishment of the senses each in its own source by means of turning away from their objects is known as control. The supreme restraint is in the mind function not being involved in anything external. 23
The first is reckoned to be the discrimination of the eternal and the transitory; then follows renunciation of the desire to enjoy the fruits of action here and hereafter. (19)
Thirdly, the six possession beginning with \shama; and fourthly, aspiration for emancipation. Brahman is true, the transitory world is a delusion; such is the form of the final conclusion which is said to be the discrimination between the transitory and the eternal. Renunciation of desire consists in giving up the pleasures of sight, hearing, etc. Also in giving up all pleasure derivable from all transitory objects of enjoyment from the physical body up to \Brahmaa, the creator, after repeatedly pondering over their defects and shortcomings. (20, 21, 22)
The undisturbed concentration of mind upon the object of perception is called \shama. Dama is said to be the confinement to their own proper sphere of organs of action and of sensual perceptions, after having turned them back from objects of sense. A condition not related to or depending on the external world is true uparati. (23, 24)
Bearing all afflictions without reaction and without mental disturbance is what is known as patience.24
The endurance of all pain and sorrow without thought of retaliation, without dejection and without lamentation, is said to be \titikshhaa. (25)
The holding on to the knowledge of the truth of the scriptures and the gurus teaching is called faith. It is by means of this that reality is grasped.25
Fixed meditation upon the teachings of \shaastra and guru with a belief in the same by means of which the object of thought is realized, is descrived as \shraddhaa. (26)
The continual holding onto the awareness of God alone continually, is known as concentration not just mental self gratification.26
Constant fixing of the mind on the pure spirit is called \samaadhaana. But not amusing the mind by delusive worldly objects. (27)
The wish to be freed by the knowledge of ones true nature from such bonds as seeing oneself as the agent, which are contingent on the body and created by ignorance this is desire for liberation.27
\Mumukshhutva is the aspiration to be liberated by knowing one's true self from all created bonds, beginning with the feeling of personality and ending with the identification of oneself with the physical body by ignorance. (28)
This desire for liberation can bear fruit through dispassion, peacefulness etc. by the grace of the guru, even when only weak or mediocre.28
Even should the qualifications enumerated be possessed in a low or moderate degree, still these qualifications will be strengthened and improved by absence of desire, by \shama and the other qualities and the kindness of the teacher, and will bear fruit. (29)
It is in a man who has strong dispassion and desire for liberation though that peacefulness and so on are really fruitful.29
In one in whom absence of desire and aspiration for emancipation are prominent, \shama and the other qualifications will be productive of great results. (30)
But where there is a weakness in these qualities of renunciation and desire for liberation, apparent peacefulness and such like have as much substance as water in the desert.30
When absence of desire and aspiration for emancipation are feeble, there will be but indications of \shama and the other qualifications, as of water in a mirage. (31)
Among the contributory factors of liberation, devotion stands supreme, and it is the search for ones own true nature that is meant by devotion.31
Among the instruments of emancipation, the supreme is devotion. Meditation upon the true form of the real Self is said to be devotion. (32)
Others say that devotion is inquiry into the reality of ones own nature. He who possesses the above qualities and would know the truth about his own nature should take refuge with a wise guru who can free him from his bonds.32
The guru should be one who knows the scriptures, is blameless, not overcome by sensuality, and a supreme knower of God. He should be at peace in God, tranquil as a fire that has run out of fuel. He should be a boundless ocean of compassion and the friend of those who seek his protection.33
Some say devotion is meditation on the nature of one's \Atman. He who possesses all these qualifications is one who is fit to know the true nature of \Atman. (33)
Such a person must approach the guru from whom freedom from bondage is attainable; one who is wise, well versed in the scriptures, sinless, free from desire, knowing the nature of Brahman. (34)
One who has attained rest in spirit, like the flame which has attained rest when the fuel is consumed, and one whose kindness is not actuated by personal considerations, and who is anxious to befriend those that seek for help. (35)
After prostrating oneself with devotion before the guru and satisfying him with prostrations, humble devotion and service, one should ask him what one needs to know.34
Having obtained the guidance of such a preceptor through devotion, respectful demeanor and service the object of one's inquiry is to be addressed to him when he is not otherwise engaged. (36)
Hail, lord, friend of those who bow before you, and ocean of compassion. I have fallen into this sea of samsara. Save me with a direct glance from your eye which bestows grace like nectar.35
"Salutation to thee, O Lord, full of compassion, O friend of those who bend before thee. I have fallen into the ocean of birth and rebirth. Rescue me by thy never failing glance which rains the ambrosia of sincerity and mercy.. (37)
I am stricken by the unquenchable forest fire of samsara and blown about by the unavoidable winds of circumstances. Save me from death, for I am afraid and have come to you for refuge. I know of no one else to help me.36
"Protect from death him who is heated by the roaring wild fire of changing life so difficult to extinguish, him who is oppressed and buffeted by the blasts of misfortune, since no other refuge do I know. (38)
Good and peaceful, great men living for the good of all, and having themselves crossed the fearful torrent of becoming, with no ulterior motive help others to cross too .37
"The great and peaceful ones live regenerating the world like the coming of spring, and after having themselves crossed the ocean of embodied existence, help those who try to do the same thing, without personal motives. (39)
It is the nature of great souls to act spontaneously for the relief of the distress of others, just as the moon here of itself protects the earth parched by the heat of the fierce rays of the sun.38
"This desire is spontaneous, since the natural tendency of great souls is to remove the suffering of others just as the ambrosia-rayed (moon) of itself cools the earth heated by the harsh rays of the sun. (40)
Pour upon me your sweet words, imbued with the taste of Gods bliss. They spring from your lips as if poured out of a jug, and are pleasing to the ear. For I am tormented by samsaras afflictions, like the flames of a forest fire, Lord. Blessed are those who receive even a passing glance from your eyes.39
"O Lord, sprinkle me, heated as I am by the forest-fire if birth and re-birth, gratify the ear with ambrosial words as they flow from the vessel of thy voice mingled with the essence of thy experience, of the pleasure afforded by \brahmajñaana, sacred and cooling. Happy are they who come into thy sight, even for a moment, for (they become) fit recipients and are accepted (as pupils).(41)
How can I cross this sea of changing circumstances? What should I do, what means employ? In your mercy, Lord, show me how to end the pain of samsara, for I understand nothing.40
"How shall I cross this ocean of birth and re-birth? What is my destiny, what means exist, O Lord, I know not. O Lord, kindly protect me, lighten the sorrows arising from birth and re-birth." (42)
As he said this, tormented by the forest fire of samsara, the great sage looked at him with a gaze full of compassion, urging him to abandon fear, now that he had taken refuge in him.41
The great soul, beholding with eyes moistened with mercy the refuge-seeker who, heated by the forest fire of birth and re-birth, calls upon him thus, instantly bids him fear not. (43)
Out of compassion the sage undertakes his instruction since he has come to him for help in his search for liberation, is willing to do as he is told, is pacified of mind and calm.42
That wise one mercifully instructs in truth the pupil who comes to him desirous of emancipation, and practicing the right means for its attainment, tranquil-minded and possessed of \shama. (44)
Dont be afraid, learned one. Destruction is not for you. There is indeed a means of crossing the sea of samsara, the way taken by which those who have crossed over before, and I will now instruct you in it.43
The Master said:
Fear not, wise man, there is no danger for thee; there exists a means for crossing the ocean of birth and re-birth - that by which Yogis have crossed. I shall point it out to thee.
There is a great means which puts an end to the fear of samsara. Crossing the sea of change by means of it, you will achieve the ultimate bliss.44
There is an effectual means for the destruction of birth and re-birth by which, crossing the ocean of changinfg life, thou wilt attain to supreme bliss. (46)
Supreme understanding springs from meditating on the meaning of Vedanta, and that is followed immediately by the elimination of the pain of samsara.45
By a proper comprehension of the purport of the \Vedaanta is produced the excellent knowledge; by that the great misery of birth and re-birth is terminated. (47)
The practice of faith, devotion and meditation are declared by scripture to be the means to liberation for a seeker after liberation. He who perseveres in these will achieve freedom from the bondage to the body, created by ignorance.46
It is directly pointed out by the sayings of the Scriptures that \shraddhaa, bhakti, \dhyaana and Yoga, are the causes which bring about emancipation. Whoever abides by these, attains emancipation from the bondage of incarnated existence. (48)
Linked with ignorance, your supreme self has become involved in the bonds of non self, and from that in samsara. The fire of the knowledge born from discriminating between these two will burn out the consequences of ignorance along with its very root.47
By reason of ignorance a connection between you who are \Paramaatman and that which is not \Atman is brought about and hence this wheel of embodied existence. By the fire of wisdom arising from this discrimination the growth of ignorance is burnt up to its very roots. (49)
The disciple
Out of compassion hear this question I put to you, so that when I have heard the reply from your lips I will be able to put it into practice.
The Disciple said:
"O Lord, in mercy hear! I am proposing a question, and when I have heard the answer from your own mouth, I shall have accomplished my end.
What exactly is bondage? How does it come about and remain? How is one freed from it? What exactly is non self? What is the Supreme Self? And how does one discriminate between them? Explain this to me.49
"What is bondage? Whence is its origin? How is its maintained? How is it removed? What is non-spirit? What is the supreme spirit? How can one discriminate between them?" (51)
The guru
You are indeed blessed, for you have achieved the true purpose of life and sanctified your family, in that you seek deification by liberation from the bonds of ignorance.
The Master said:
Thou art happy, thou hast obtainned thy end, by thee thy family has been sanctified, in as much as thou wishest to become Brahman by getting rid of the bondage of \avidyaa.
Sons and suchlike are able free their father from debts, but no-one can free someone else from bondage.51
Sons and others are capable of discharging a father's debts; but no one except oneself can remove (his own) bondage.(53)
The pain of something like a weight on the head can be removed by others, but the pain of things like hunger can be put an end to by no-one but oneself.52
Others can remove the pain (caused by the weigbt of) burdens placed on the head, but the pain (that arises) from hunger and the like cannot be removed except by oneself. (54)
A sick man is seen to get better by taking the appropriate medicine not through treatment undertaken by others.53
The sick man is seen to recover by means of medicine and proper diet; but not by acts performed by others. (55)
Reality can be experienced only with the eye of understanding, not just by a scholar. What the moon is like must be seen with ones own eyes. How can others do it for you?54
The nature of the one reality must be known by one's own clear spiritual perception and not through a pandit (learned man); the form of the moon must be known through one's own eye, how can it be known through (the medium of) others? (56)
Who but yourself can free you from the bonds of the fetters of things like ignorance, lust and the consequences of your actions even in hundreds of thousands of years?55
Who but oneself (\Atman) is capable of removing the bondage of \avidyaa, \kaama and Karma (ignorance, passion and action) even in a thousand million of Kalpas? (57)
Liberation is achieved not by observances or by analysis, nor by deeds or learning, but only by the realisation of ones oneness with God, and by no other means.56
Liberation cannot be achieved except by the direct perception of the identity of the individual with the universal self; neither by Yoga (physical training), nor by \Saamkhya (speculative philosophy), nor by the practice of religious ceremonies, nor by mere learning. (58)
The beauty of a lute and skill in playing its cords can bring some pleasure to people but can hardly make you a king.57
The form and beauty of the \viinaa and skill in sounding its strings are for the entertainment of the people and not for the establishment of an empire (in the hearts of subjects through the good government of the king.) (59)
In the same way, speech alone, even a deluge of words, with scholarship and skill in commenting on the scriptures, may achieve some personal satisfaction but not liberation.58
Good pronounciation, command of language, exegetical skill and learning, are for the delection of the learned and not for (obtaining) liberation. (60)
When the supreme reality is not understood, the study of the scriptures is useless, and study of the scriptures is useless when the supreme reality has been understood.59
If the supreme truth remains unknown, the study of scriptures is fruitless, even if the supreme truth is known the study of the scriptures is useless (the study of the letter alone is useless, the spirit must be sought out by intuition). (61)
The tangle of words is a great forest which leads the mind off wandering about, so wise men should strive to get to know the truth about their own nature.60
In a labyrinth of words the mind is lost like a man in a thick forest, therefore with great efforts must be learned the truth about oneself from him who knows the truth. (62)
Except for the medicine of the knowledge of God, what use are Vedas, scriptures, mantras and such medicines when you have been bitten by the snake of ignorance?61
Of what use are the Vedas to him who has been bitten by the snake of ignorance? (Of what use are) scriptures, incantations, or any medicine except the medicine of supreme knowledge? (63)
An illness is not cured just by pronouncing the name of the medicine without drinking it, and you will not be liberated by just pronouncing the word God without direct experience.62
Disease is never cured by (pronouncing) the name of medicine without taking it; liberation is not achieved by the (pronounciation of the) word Brahman without direct perception. (64)
How can one reach liberation by just pronouncing the word God without achieving the elimination of the visible universe and realising the truth about ones own nature? It will just be a waste of speech.63
Without dissolving the world of objects, without knowing spiritual truth, where is eternal liberation from mere external words having no result beyond their mere utterance? (65)
One cannot become a king just by saying, "I am the king," without defeating ones enemies and taking possession of the country.64
Without the conquest of enemies, without command of the treasure of a vast country, by the mere words "I am a king", it is impossible to become one. (66)
A buried treasure cannot be got out just by calling it, but needs a good map, digging, removal of obstructing stones and so on to get at it. In the same way the pure reality, hidden by the effects of Maya, cannot be achieved by the wrong practices, but by instruction from a knower of God, reflection, meditation and so on.65
Hidden treasure does not come out at (utterance of) the simple word "out", but there must be trustworthy information, digging and removal of stones; similarly, the pure truth, itself transcending the operation of \maayaa (\maayaa here meaning the force of evolution) is not obtained without the instruction of the knowers of the supreme, together with reflection, meditation, and so forth, and not by illogical inferences. (67)
So the wise should strive with all their ability for liberation from the bonds of samsara, as they would in the case of sickness and things like that.66
Therefore wise men should endeavour by (using) all efforts to free themselves from the bondage of conditioned existence just as (all efforts are made) for the cure of disease. (68)
The question you have asked today is a good one in the opinion of those learned in the scriptures, to the point and full of meaning. It needs to be understood by those seeking liberation.67
The excellent question now proposed by thee should be asked by those desirous of liberation, like a sage aphorism it is in agreement with the scriptures, it is brief and full of deep import. (69)
Listen careful to what I say, learned one. By hearing this you will be freed from the bonds of change.68
Listen attentively, O wise man, to my answer, for by listening though shalt truly be freed from the bondage of conditioned existence. (70)
The primary basis of liberation is held to be total dispassion for everything impermanent, and after that peacefulness, restraint, patience, and the complete renunciation of scriptural observances. 69
The chief cause of liberation of the mind is said to be complete detachment of the mind from transitory objects; after that (the acquirement of) \shama, dama, \titikshhaa, and a thorough renunciation of all Karma (religious and other acts pf the attainment of any personal desire). (71)
After that the practicant finds there comes listening, reflection on what one has heard, and long meditation on the truth. Then the wise man will experience the supreme nondual state and come here and now to the bliss of Nirvana.70
Then the wise student (should devote himself) daily without intermission to the study of the scriptures, to reflection and meditation on the truths therein contained; then (finally) having got rid of ignorance the wise man enjoys the bliss of \Nirvaana even while on this earth. (72)
When you have heard me fully explain what you need to know about the discrimination between self and nonself, then bear it in mind.71
The discrimination between spirit and non-spirit which it is now necessary for thee to understand is being related by me; listen carefully and realize it in thyself. (73)
The body, constituted of marrow, bone, fat, flesh, blood, ligament and skin, and composed of feet, legs, chest, arms, back and head, is the seat of the "I" and "mine" delusion, and is known as the physical body by the wise, while space, air, fire, water and earth are the subtle elements.72, 73
The wise call this the gross body which is the combination of marrow, bone, fat, flesh, blood, chyle and semen and is made up of feet, breast, arms, back, head, limbs, and organs. It is the cause giving rise to ignorance and the delusion "I" and "my". The subtle elements are \Akaasha, air, fire, water and earth (the higher principles of these elements are alluded to here. (74, 75)
When these various elements are combined, they form the physical body, while in themselves they constitute the objects of the senses, the five types of sound and so on, for the enjoyment of the individual.74
By mixture with one another they become the gross elements and causes of the gross body. Their functions are the production of the five senses and these are intended for the experience of their possessor. (76)
The ignorant who are bound to the senses by the strong, hardly breakable bonds of desire, are borne here and there, up and down, dragged about by their own karmic impulses.75
Those deluded ones who are bound to worldly objects by the bonds of strong desire, diffficult to be broken, are forcibly carried along by the messenger, their own Karma, to heaven (svarga), earth and hell (naraka). (77)
Deer, elephant, moth, fish and wasp, these five have all died from their attachment to one of the five senses, sound etc., so what about the man who is attached to all five!76
Severally bound by the qualities of the five (senses) sound and the rest, five (creatures) meet with their death, namely the deer, elephant, moth, fish and black bee; what then of man bound by all (the senses) jointly? (78)
The effect of the senses is more deadly than even that of a cobra. Their poison kills a man who only just looks at them with his eyes. 77
In point of virulence sensuous objects are more fatal than the poison of the black snake (Naja Tripudians); poison only kills one who imbibes it, but sensuous objects can kill (spiritually) even by their mere outward appearance (by the mere sight of them). (79)
Only he who is free from the terrible hankering after the senses which is so hard to overcome is fit for liberation, and no-one else, not even if he is an expert in the six branches of scripture.78
He who is free from the great bondage of desires, so difficult to avoid, is alone capable of liberation; not another, even though versed in the six systems of philosophy. (80)
The shark of longing grasps those whose desire for liberation is only superficial by the throat as they try to cross the sea of samsara and drowns them halfway.79
Those only sentimentally desirous of liberation and only apparently free from passion, seeking to cross the ocean of conditioned existence, are seized by the shark of desire, being caught by the neck, forcibly dragged into the middle and drowned. (81)
He who has killed the shark of the senses with the sword of firm dispassion can cross the sea of samsara without impediment.80
He only who slays the shark of desire with the sword of supreme dispassion, reaches without obstacles the other side of the ocean of conditioned existence. (82)
Realise that death quickly waylays the senseless man who follows the uneven way of the senses, but that man achieves his purpose who follows the guidance of a true, compassionate guru. Know this as the truth.81
The mind of him who treads the rugged path of sensuous objects becomes turbid, death awaits him at every step like a man who goes out on the first day of the month (according to the saying of the astrologers); but whoever treads the right path under the instruction of a guru or a good man who looks after his spiritual welfare, will obtain by his own intuition the accomplishment of his object; know this to be truth. (83)
If you really have a desire for liberation, avoid the senses from a great distance, as you would poison, and continually practice the nectarlike qualities of contentment, compassion, forbearance, honesty, calm and restraint.82
If the desire for liberation exists in thee, senuous objects must be left at a great distance as if they were poison, thou must constantly and fervently seek contentment as if it were ambrosia, also kindness, forgiveness, sincerety, tranquility and self-control. (84)
He who neglects that which should be undertaken at all times, the liberation from the bonds created by beginningless ignorance, and gets stuck in pandering to the alien good of this body, is committing suicide by doing so.83
Whoever attends only to the feeding of his own body, doing no good to others and constantly avoids his own duty and not seeking liberation from the bondage caused by ignorance, kills himself. (85)
He who seeks to know himself while pampering of the body is crossing a river holding onto a crocodile in mistake for a log.84
He who lives only to nourish his own body, is like who crosses a river on an alligator thinking it to be a log of wood. (86)
This confusion about the body and such things is a great death for the seeker after liberation. He who has overcome this confusion is worthy of liberation.85
For one desirous of liberation, desires pertaining to the body, etc., lead to the great death; he who is free from such desires is alone fit to gain liberation. (87)
Overcome this great death of the confusion about such things as the body, wives and children. Sages who have overcome it go to the supreme realm of God.86
Conquer the great death - desire for the (sake of) the body, wife, son, and so on. Having conquered it the ascetics (munis) enter the supreme abode of \Vishhnu (is attain union with the Logos who resides in the bosom of Parabrahman). (88)
This body is material and offensive, consisting of skin, flesh, blood, sinews, veins, fat, marrow and bones, and full of urine and excrement.87
This gross body which we condemn is made up of skin, flesh, blood, nerves, fat, marrow and bones, and is filled with filth. (89)
This material body, which arises from past action out of material elements formed by the combination of subtle elements, is the vehicle of sensation for the individual. This is the state of a waking person perceiving material objects.88
This gross body, produced out of the five gross elements themselves produced by the quintupling process, through previous Karma, is the vehicle of earthly enjoyments. In the waking state of that body gross objects are perceived. (90)
The life force creates for itself, out of itself, material object of enjoyment by means of the external senses such colourful things as flowers, perfumes, women, etc. That is why this has its fullest enjoyment in the waking state.89
The ego embodied in this through the external organs enjoys gross objects such as the various forms of chaplets of flowers, sandal-wood, woman and so forth. Therefore it is conscious of the body in its waking state. (91)
See this material body, all that the external existence of a man depends on, as just like the house of a housedweller.90
Know that this great body, on which depend all the external manifestations of the \purushha (dweller in the city, embodied one), is like the house of the householder. (92)
Birth, old age and death are inherent in the physical body, as are such conditions as stoutness and childhood, while there are different circumstances like caste and occupation, all sorts of diseases, and various different types of treatment, like respect and contempt to bear with.91
The products of the gross (body) are birth, decripitude, and death. Its stages of development are childhood and the rest. To the body, subject to diseases, belong the innumerable regulations concerning caste and condition, as do also honour, disgrace, adulation and the like. (93)
Ears, skin, eyes, nose and tongue are organs of sense, since they enable the experience of objects, while voice, hands, feet and bowels are organs of action through their inclination to activity. 92
Intellect, hearing, touch, sight, smell and taste (are called) senses by reason of their conveying perception of gross objects. Speech, hands, feet, etc., are called organs of action because through them acts are performed. (94)
The inner sense is known variously as mind, understanding, the sense of doership, or volition, depending on its particular function mind as imagining and analysing, understanding as establishing the truth of a matter, the sense of responsibility from relating everything to oneself, and volition as seeking its own good.93, 94
The manas, buddhi, \aham.krti and citta, with their functions are called the internal instruments. Manas is (so called) by reason of (its) postulating and doubting; buddhi by reason of (its) property of (arriving at a) fixed judgement about objects; \aham.krti arises from egotism, and citta, is so-called on account of its property of concentrating the mind on one's own interest. (95, 96)
The vital breath takes the form of the various breathings, exhalations, psychic currents and fields according to the various functions and characteristics, as do such things as gold and water and in the things made of them.95
Vitality (\praana), by the difference of its functions and modifications becomes like gold, water and so on, \praana, \apaana, \vyaana, \udaana and \samaana. (97)
The groups of five categories, starting respectively with speech, hearing, vital breath, ether, intelligence, ignorance desire and action, constitute what is known as the eightfold citadel of the subtle body.96
The five (faculties) beginning with speech, the five (organs) beginning with the ear, the five (vital airs) beginning with \praana, the five (elements) beginning with \Akaasha, buddhi (intellect) and the rest, \avidyaa (ignorance) whence \kaama (desire) and Karma (action) constitute a body called \suukshhma (subtle) body. (98)
Hear that this higher body, also known as the subtle body, with its desires and its tendency to follow the course of causal conditioning, is derived from the undifferentiated elements, and is a beginningless superimposition, due to its ignorance, on the true self.97
Listen! This body produced from five subtle elements is called \suukshhma as also \linga (characteristic) \shariira; it is the field of desires, it experiences the consequences of Karma (prior experience); it (with the \kaarana \shariira added) being ignorant, has no beginning, and is the \upaadhi (vehicle) of \Atman. (99)
Sleep is a distinct state of the self in which it shines by itself alone, whereas in dreaming the mind itself assumes the sense of agency due to the various desires of the waking state, while the supreme self shines on, on its own, as pure consciousness, the witness of everything from anger and such things on, without being itself affected by any of the actions performed by the mind. Since it is unattached to action, it is not affected by anything done by its superimpositions.98, 99
The characteristic condition of this body is the dreamy state; this state is distinguished from the waking state by the peculiar manner in which its senses work; in the dreamy state mind itself revives the condition created by the desires of the waking state. (100)
This body having attained the condition of the actor manifests itself. In it shines the absolute self which as its vehicle intellect and which is unaffected by any Karma as if an independent witness. Because it is free from all union, it is unaffected by the action of any \upaadhi. (101)
The subtle body is the vehicle of all operations for the self, like an axe and so on for the carpenter. The self itself is pure consciousness, and, as such, remains unattached.100
This \linga \shariira performs all actions as the instrument of \Atman just as the chisel and other tools (perform the actions) of the carpenter; for this reason the \Atman is free from all union. (102)
Blindness, shortsightedness and sharp eyesight are simply due to the healthiness or defectiveness of the eye, just as such states as deafness and dumbness are conditions of the ear etc., not of the self, the knower.101
The properties of blindness, weakness and adaptability exist on account of the good or bad condition of the eye; similarly deafness, dumbness and so on are properties of the ear and are not to be considered as belonginmg to the self. (103)
Breathing in and out, yawning, sneezing and bodily secretions are described by experts as functions depending on the Inner Energy, while hunger and thirst for truth are functions of the Inner Energy direct.102
In-breathing, out-breathing, yawning, sneezing and so forth are actions of \praana and the rest, say the wise men; the property of vitality is manifested in hunger and thirst. (104)
The mind, as a reflection of Light, resides in the body with its senses, the eyes etc., through identifying itself with them.103
The internal organ is in communication with the path of the eye and the rest, and by reason of the specialising (of the whole) the ego (\aham.kaara) is manifested. (105)
One should see the sense of responsibility as what feels itself the doer and bearer of the consequences, and in together with the three qualities of purity etc., undergoes the three states (of sleeping, dreaming and waking).104
This ego which is the subject of enjoyment and experience is to be known as \aham.kaara. It attains three conditions by association with sattva, and the rest. (106)
When the senses are favourable it is happy, and when they are not it is unhappy. So happiness and suffering are its attributes, and not those of the ever blissful self.105
By the agreeableness of objects it becomes happy and by the contrary unhappy; happiness and unhappiness are its properties and not of \Atman which is the eternal bliss. (107)
The senses are enjoyable only for the sake of oneself, not for themselves. The self is the most dear of everything, and consequently the self is ever blissful, and never experiences suffering.106
Objects become dear not in themselves but by reason of their usefulness to the self because the self is the most beloved of all. (108)
That we experience the bliss of the self free from the senses in deep sleep is verified by the scriptures, by direct experience, by tradition and by deduction.107
Therefore the \Atman is the eternal bliss, for it there is no pain. The bliss of the \Atman, dissociated from all objects which is experienced in dreamless slumber, is during waking perceived by direct cognitionm by instruction and by inference. (109)
The socalled Unmanifest, the Lords power, is Maya, the ultimate, beginningless ignorance, made up of the three qualities, knowable only through its effects, and out of which this whole world is produced.108
The supreme \maayaa out of which all this universe is born, which is \Parameshashakti (the power of the supreme Lord) called avyakta (unmanifested) and which is the beginningless \avidyaa (ignorance) having the three \gunas (qualities), is to be inferred through its effects by (our) intelligence. (110)
It cannot be said to exist or not exist, or both, to be divisible or indivisible, or both, composite or unitary, or both. It is wonderful and indescribable.109
This \maayaa is neither noumenal nor phenomenal nor is it essentially both; it is either differentiated nor undifferentiated nor is it essentially both; it is of the most wonderful and indescribable form. (111)
Maya can be overcome by the realisation of the pure nondual God, like the false idea of a snake through the recognition of the rope. It is composed of the three qualities of passion, dullness and purity, recognised by their effects.110
Its effects can be destroyed by the realization of the non-dual Brahman, as the illusion of the serpent in the rope is destroyed by the realization of the rope. The qualities of it are called rajas, tamas, and sattva and these are known by their effects. (112)
The distracting power of passion is by nature active, and from it the primeval emanation of activity has taken place. The mental states like desire and pain continually arise from it as well.111
The power of rajas is extension (\vikshhepa), which is the essence of action and from which the pre-existing tendencies to action were produced, and the modifications of the mind known, as attachment and other qualities productive of sorrow are always produced by it. (113)
Lust, anger, greed, pride, envy, and so on, selfimportance, jealousy, and so on these are the awful effects produced by passion. Consequently this quality of passion is the cause of bondage.112
Lust and anger, greed, arrogance, malice, aversion, personality, jealousy and envy are the terrible properties of rajas; therefore by this quality is produced inclination to action, for this reason rajas is the cause of bondage. (114)
The veiling effect of the dullness quality is the power that distorts the appearance of things. It is the cause of samsara in man, and what leads to the activation of the distracting power.113
The power of tamas is called is called \Avriti (enveloping) by the force of which one thing appears as another; it is this force which is the ultimate cause of the conditioned existence of the ego and the exciting cause for for the operation of the force of extension (\vikshhepa). (115)
Even a wise and learned man and an adept in the knowledge of the extremely subtle self can be overcome by dullness, and fail to realise it, even when demonstrated it in many different ways. What is presented by delusion he looks on as good, and grasps at its qualities. Such, alas, is the strength of the great veiling power of this awful dullness quality!114
Even though intelligent, learned, skilful, extremely keen-sighted in self-examination and properly instructed in various ways, one cannot exercise discrimination, if enveloped by tamas; but, on account of ignorance, one considers as real that which arises out of error, and depends upon the properties of objects produced by error. Alas! for him! great is the enveloping power of tamas and irrepressible! (116)
Lack of sense or distorted understanding, lack of judgement, and bewilderment these never leave him who is caught in this delusion, and the distracting power torments him continually.115
Absence of right perception, contradictory thinking, thinking of possibilities, taking unsubstantial things for substance, belonging to rajas. One associated with rajas is perpetually carried away by its expansive power. (117)
Ignorance, laziness, drowsiness, sleep, carelessness, stupidity and so on are the effects of the dullness quality. One stuck in these does not understand anything, but remains in a sleeplike state, like a wooden post.116
Ignorance, laziness, dullness. sleep, delusion, folly and others are the qualities of tamas. One possessed by these perceives nothing correctly but remains as if asleep or like a post. (118)
Clear purity is like water, but combined with these other qualities it leads to samsara, though in this purity the nature of the self is reflected, like the suns disk illuminating the whole world.117
Pure sattva, even though mixed with these two, in the same way as one kind of water mixes with another, becomes the means of salvation; (for)the reflection of the absolute self (supreme spirit), received by sattva, sunlike manifests the universe of objects. (119)
In purity mixed with the other qualities virtues such as humility, restraint, truthfulness, faith, devotion, desire for liberation, spiritual tendencies and freedom from entanglement occur.118
The properties of mixed sattva, are self-respect, self-regulation, self-control and the rest, reverence, regard, desire for liberation, godlike attributes and abstinence from evil. (120)
In purity itself however the qualities which occur are contentment, selfunderstanding, supreme peace, fulfilment, joy and abiding in ones supreme self, through which one experiences real bliss.119
the properties of pure sattva are purity, perception of the \Atman within us, supreme tranquility, a sense of contentment, cheerfulness, concentration of mind upon the self by which a taste of eternal bliss is obtained. (121)
This Unmanifest, described as made up of the three qualities, is the active body of the self. Deep sleep is a special condition of it, in which the activity of all functions of awareness cease.120
The unmanifested (avyaktam) indicated by these three qualities is the (cause of) \kaarana \shariira (causal body) of the ego. The state of its manifestation is dreamless slumber, in which the functions of all organs and of the buddhi are latent. (122)
Deep sleep is the cessation of all forms of awareness, and the reversion of consciousness to a latent form of the self. "I knew nothing" is the universal experience.121
Dreamless slumber is that state in which all consciousness is at rest, and intellect (buddhi) remains in a latent state; it is known as a state in which there is no knowledge. (123)
The body, its functions, vital energies, the thinking mind, the ego, etc., and all forms, objects, enjoyment, etc. the physical elements such as the ether, in fact everything up to this Unmanifest, are not ones true nature.122
The body, organs, vitality, mind (manas), ego and the rest, all differentiations, the objects of sense, enjoyment and the rest. \Akaasha and other elements composing this endless universe, including the avyaktam (unmanifested) are the not-spirit. (124)
Everything is the creation of Maya from space itself down to the individual body. Look on it all as a desert mirage, unreal and not yourself.123
\Maayaa, all the functions of \maayaa - from mahat to the body - know to be asat (\prakriti or the unreal objectivity) like the mirage of the desert by reason of their being the non-ego. (125)
Now I will instruct you in the true nature of your supreme self, by understanding which a man is freed from his bonds and achieves final fulfilment.124
Now I shall tell you the essential form (\svaruupa) of the supreme spirit (\Paramaatman), knowing which, man freed from bondage attains isolation (reality of being). (126)
There IS something your own, unchanging, the "I", the substratum, the basis, which is the triple observer, distinct from the five sheaths.125
An eternal somewhat, upon which the conviction relating to the ego rests, exists as itself, being different from the five sheaths and the witness of the three conditions. (127)
The awareness that knows everything whether waking, dreaming or in deed sleep, and whether or not there is movement in the mind, that is the "I".126
Who during waking, dreaming, and dreamless slumber knows the mind and its functions which are goodness and its absence - this is the ego. (128)
It is that which experiences everything, but which nothing else can experience, which thinks through the intelligence etc., but which nothing else can think.127
Who by himself sees (cognizes) everything, who is not seen by anyone, who vitalizes buddhi and the others and who is not vitalized by them - this is the \Atman. (129)
It is that by which all this is filled, but which nothing else can fill, and which, in shining, makes all this shines as well.128
The \Atman is that by which this universe is pervaded, which nothing pervades, which xauses all things to shine, but which all things cannot make to shine. (130)
It is that whose mere presence makes the body, senses, mind and intellect keep to their appropriate functions like servants.129
By reason of its proximity alone the body, the organs, manas and buddhi, apply themselves to their proper objects as if applied (by some one else). (131)
It is that by which everything from the ego function down to the body, the senses, pleasure etc. is known as simply as we know an earthen vessel, for its very nature is everlasting consciousness. 130
By it having the form of eternal consciousness all objects from \aham.kaara to the body and pleasure and the rest are perceived as a jar (is perceived by us). (132)
This is ones inmost nature, the eternal Person, whose very essence is unbroken awareness of happiness, who is ever unchanging and pure consciousness, and in obedience to whom speech and the vital functions continue.131
This \purushha, the essential \Atman is primeval, perpetual, unconditioned, absolute happiness, eternally having the same form and being knowledge itself - impelled by whom speech (\vaak) and the vital airs move, (133)
In one of pure nature, the morning light of the Unmanifest shines even here in the cave of the mind, illuminating all this with its glory, like the sun up there in space.132
This unmanifested spiritual consciousness begins to manifest like the dawn in the pure heart, and shining like the midday sun in the "cave of wisdom" (agnicakra) illuminating whole universe. (134)
That which knows the thinking mind and ego functions takes its form from the body with its senses and other functions, like fire does in a ball of iron, but it neither acts nor changes in any way.133
The knower of the modifications (operations) pf the manas and \aham.krti, of the actions performed by the body, organs and vitality present in them, as the fire is present in the iron, (heatedby fire) does not act nor modify (in the same sense as the above), nor follow (their actions). (135)
It is never born, never dies, grows, decays, or changes. Even when the body is destroyed it does not cease to be, like the space in an earthen vessel.134
That eternal is not born, does not die, or grow or decay or modify, is not itself dissolved by the dissolution of this body, as space (is not dissolved) by the dissolution of the jar. (136)
The true self, of the nature of pure consciousness, and separate from the productions of nature, illuminates all this, real and unreal, without itself changing. It plays in the states of waking and so on, as the foundation sense of I exist, as the awareness, which witnesses all experience.135
The supreme spirit (\Paramaatman), different from \prakriti and its modifications, having for its essential characteristic pure consciousness is unparticled, manifests this infinity of reality and unreality - the underlying essence of the notion "I", "I" - plays (manifests itself) in the conditions, waking and the rest, as the witness (or subject) of buddhi. (137)
By means of a trained mind, and thanks to your faculty of understanding, experience in practice the true self of this I exist in yourself, cross the ocean of samsaras waves of birth and death, and established in the nature of God, achieve your goal.136
O disciple, with mind under control, directly perceive this, the \Atman in thyself as - "this I am" - through the tranquility of buddhi cross the shoreless sea of changeful existence, whose billows are birth and death, and accomplish thy end, resting firmly in the form of Brahman. (138)
Seeing This is me in what is not really oneself, this is mans bondage, the result of ignorance and the cause of the descent into the pain of birth and death. It is because of this that one sees this unreal body as real, and identifying oneself with it, feeds it and cares for it with the senses, like a grub in its cocoon.137
Bondage is the conviction of the "I" as being related to the non-ego; from the ignorance (or error) arising out of this springs forth the same cause of the birth, death, and suffering of the individual so conditioned. And it is from this (error) alone that (he) nourishes, anoints and preserves this body mistaking the unreal for the real and gets enveloped in objects of sense in the same way as a cocoon maker (larva) gets enveloped in its own secretion. (139)
One who is confused by dullness sees something which is not there, like a man mistaking a rope for a snake through lack of understanding, and falling into a very sad state from mistakenly taking hold of it. So, my friend, hear this Grasping at what does not exist is what constitutes bondage.138
O friend listen! The notion of ego in one deluded by tamas becomes strengthened in this (asat). From such absence of discrimination springs forth the notion (\dhishhanaa) of rope in the snake. From this a mass of great suffering befalls the entertainer of such a notion. Therefore the acceptance of asat as the "I" is bondage. (140)
This obscuring power conceals the infinite glory of ones true self which radiates with its indivisible, eternal and unified power of understanding, like an eclipse obscures the suns disk, and creates darkness.139
The enveloping power of tamas completely enshrouds this \Atman, having infinite powers (vibhava), manifested by the indivisible, eternal, non-dual power of knowledge, as \raahu (the shadow of the moon) enshrouds the sun's orb. (141)
When he has lost sight of his true self, immaculate and resplendent, a man identifies himself with his body out of ignorance. Then the great socalled dispersive power of desire torments him with fetters derived from desire and hatred.140
On the disappearance from the \Atman of an individual's knowledge of identity with it - a knowledge which possesses supremely stainless radiance, - the individual in delusion imagines this body which is not-self to be the Self.. Then the great power of rajas called \vikshhepa (extension) gives great pain to this individual by the ropes of bondage (such as) lust, anger, etc. (142)
When a man has fallen to the state of being swallowed up by the great shark of ignorance, he assumes to himself the various states superimposed upon him, and in a pitiful state wanders rising and sinking in the great ocean of samsara.141
This man of perverted intellect, being deprived of the real knowledge of the \Atman through being devoured by the shark of great delusion, is subject to conditioned existence on account of this expansive energy (\vikshhepa). Hence he, contemptible in conduct, rises and falls in this ocean of conditioned existence, full of poison. (143)
Just as cloud formations, arising from the suns rays, obscure the sun and fill the sky, so the sense of selfidentity, arising from ones true nature, obscures the existence of the true self and itself fills experience.142
As clouds produced (i.e. rendered visible) by the rays of the sun manifest themselves by hiding the sun, so egotism arising through connection with the \Atman manifests itself by hiding the real character of the \Atman. (144)
Just as the thick clouds covering the sun on a bad day are buffeted by cold, howling blasts of wind, so, when ones true nature is obscured by deep ignorance, the strong dispersive power torments the confused understanding with many afflictions.143
As on the unpropitious day when thick clouds devour the sun, , sharp, cold blasts torment the clouds, so when the ego is without intermission enveloped by tamas the man with deluded buddhi is, by the intense expansive power (\vikshhepa) goaded on by many sufferings. (145)
It is from these powers that mans bondage has arisen. Confused by them, he mistakes the body for himself and wanders in error.144
By these two powers is produced the bondage of the individual; deluded by these two he thinks the body to be the \Atman. (146)
The seed of the samsara tree is ignorance, identification with the body is its shoot, desire is its first leaves, activity its water, the bodily frame its trunk, the vital forces its branches, the faculties its twigs, the senses its flowers, the manifold pains arising from various actions its fruit, and the bird on it is the individual experiencing them.145
Of the tree of conditioned life truly the seed is tamas, the sprout is the conviction that the body is the ego, attachment is the leaf, Karma truly is the sap, the body is the trunk, the vital airs are the branches of which the tops are the organs, the flowers the objects (of the organs), the fruit the variety of sufferings from manifold Karma, and \jiiva is the bird that feeds. (147)
Ignorance is the root of this bondage to what is not ones true nature, a bondage which is called beginningless and endless. It gives rise to the long course of suffering birth, death, sickness, old age, etc.146
The bondage of non-ego, rooted in ignorance, produces the torrent of all birth, death, sickness, old age and other evils of this (the \jiiva), which is in its own nature manifest without beginning or end. (148)
It cannot be destroyed by weapons, wind or fire, nor even by countless actions by nothing, in fact, except by the wonderful sword of wisdom, sharpened by Gods grace.147
This bondage is incapable of being severed by weapons of offence or defence, by wind, or by fire or by tens of millions of acts, but only by the great sword of discriminative knowledge, sharp and shining, through the favour of Yoga. (149)
He who is devoted to the authority of the scriptures achieves steadiness in his religious life, and that brings inner purity. The man of pure understanding comes to the experience of his true nature, and by this samsara is destroyed, root and all.148
For a man having his mind fixed upon the conclusions of the Vedas (there is) the application to the duties prescribed for him; from such applications comes the self-purification of the \jiiva. In the purified buddhi is the knowledge of the supreme ego and from that is the extinction of conditioned life down to its roots. (150)
Ones true nature does not shine out when covered by the five sheaths, material and otherwise, although they are the product of its own power, like the water in a pool, covered with algae.149
As the water in the tank covered by a collection of moss does not show itself, so the \Atman enveloped by the five sheaths, produced by its own power and beginning with the annamaya, does not manifest itself. (151)
On removing the algae, the clean, thirstquenching and joyinducing water is revealed to a man.150
Upon the removal of the moss is seen the pure water capable of allaying heat and thirst, and of immediately yielding great enjoyment to man. (152)
When the five sheaths have been removed, the supreme light shines forth, pure, eternally blissful, single in essence, and within.151
When the five sheaths are removed the pure \pratyagaatman (the Logos), the eternal happiness, all-pervading, the supreme self-generated light shines forth. (153)
To be free from bondage the wise man must practise discrimination between self and nonself. By that alone he will become full of joy, recognising himself as Being, Consciousness and Bliss.152
A wise man must acquire the discrimination of spirit and not-spirit; as only by realizing the self which is absolute being, consciousness and bliss, he himself becomes bliss. (154)
Just as one separates something like a blade of grass from its sheaths, so by discriminating ones true nature as internal, unattached and free from action, and abandoning all else, one is free and identified only with ones true self.153
Whoever, having discriminated the \pratyagaatman that is without attachment or action, from the category of objects, as the reed is discriminated from the tiger-grass, and having merged everything in that, finds rest by knowing that to be the true self, he is emancipated. (155)
This body is the product of food, and constitutes the material sheath. It depends on food and dies without it. It is a mass of skin, flesh, blood, bones and uncleanness. It is not fit to see as oneself, who is ever pure.154
This food-produced body, which lives through food and perishes without it, and is a mass of skin, epidermis, flesh, blood, bone, and filth, is the annamaya sheath; it cannot be regarded as the self which is eternal and pure. (156)
The body did not exist before birth, nor will it exist after death. It is born for a moment, its qualities are momentary, and it is inherently changing. It is not a single thing, but stupid, and should be viewed like an earthen pot. How could it be ones true self, which is the observer of changing phenomena?155
This (\Atman) was before birth and death and is now: how can it, the true self, the knower of \bhaava (the basis of modifications) and modification, be ephemeral, changeable, differentiated, a mere vehicle of consciousness? (157)
Made up of arms and legs and so on, the body cannot be ones true self as it can live on without various limbs, and other faculties persist without them. What is controlled cannot be the controller. 156
The body is possessed of hands, feet, and the rest; not so the true self which, though without limbs, by reason of its being the vivifying principle and the indestructibility of its various powers, is the controller and not the controlled. (158)
While the body of the observer is of a specific nature, behaviour and situation, it is clear that the nature of ones true self is devoid of characteristics.157
The true self being the witness of the body amd its properties, its actions and its conditions, it is self-evident that none of these can be a characteristic mark of the \Atman. (159)
How could the body, which is a heap of bones, covered with flesh, full of filth and highly impure, be oneself, the featureless observer?158
Full of misery, covered with flesh, full of filth, full of sin, how can it be the knower? The ego is different from this. (160)
The deluded man makes the assumption that he is the mass of skin, flesh, fat bones and filth, while the man who is strong in discrimination knows himself as devoid of characteristics, the innate supreme Reality.159
The deluded man considers the ego to be the mass of skin, flesh, fat, bones and filth. The man of discrimination knows the essential form of self, which is the supreme truth, to be without these as characteristic marks. (161)
I am the body is the opinion of the fool. I am body and soul is the view of the scholar, while for the greatsouled, discriminating man, his inner knowledge is I am God.160
"I am the body" - such is the opinion of a deluded man; of the learned the notions of I is in relation to the body, as well as to the \jiiva (monad). Of the great soul possessed of discrimination and direct perception, "I am Brahman", such is the conviction with regard to the eternal self. (162)
Get rid of the opinion of yourself as this mass of skin, flesh, fat, bones and filth, foolish one, and make yourself instead the self of everything, the God beyond all thought, and enjoy supreme peace. 161
O you of deluded judgement, abandon the opinion that the ego consists in the mass of skin, flesh, fat, bone, and filth; know that the real self is the all-pervading, changeless \Atman and so obtain peace. (163)
While the scholar does not overcome his sense of I am this in the body and its faculties, there is no liberation for him, however much he may be learned in religion and philosophy.162
As long as the wise man does not abandon the notion that the ego consists of the body, organs and the rest, the product of illusion, so long there is no prospect of his salvation, even though he be acquainted with the Vedas and their metaphysical meaning. (164)
Just as you have no self identification with your shadowbody, reflectionbody, dreambody or imaginationbody, so you should not have with the living body either.163
As one's idea of I is never based on the shadow or reflection of the body, or the body seen in dream or imagined by the mind, thus also may it be with the living body. (165)
Identification of oneself with the body is the seed of the pain of birth etc. in people attached to the unreal, so get rid of it with care. When this thought is eliminated, there is no more desire for rebirth.164
Because the false conviction that the ego is merely the body, is the seed producing pain in the form of birth and the rest, efforts must be made to abandon that idea; the attraction towards material existence will then cease to exist. (166)
The vital energy joined to the five activities forms the vitality sheath, by which the material sheath is filled, and engages in all these activities.165
Conditioned by the five organs of action this vitality becomes the \praanamaya sheath through which the embodied ego performs all the actions of the material body. (167)
The Breath, being a product of the vital energy, is not ones true nature either. Like the air, it enters and leaves the body, and knows neither its own or other peoples good or bad, dependent as it is on something else.166
The \praanamaya, being the modification of life-breath and the comer and goer, in and out, like air-currents, is also not the \Atman, because it cannot by itself discriminate between good and evil, or the real self and another, it is always dependent on another (the self). (168)
The faculty of knowledge and the mind itself constitute the mindmade sheath, the cause of such distinctions as me and mine. It is strong and has the faculty of creating distinctions of perception etc., and works itself through the vitality sheath.167
The organs of sensation together with the manas form the manomaya sheath which is the cause (hetu) of the differentiation between "I" and "mine"; it is the result of ignorance, it fills the former sheath and it manifests its great power by distinguishing objects by names, etc. (169)
The mindmade fire burns the multiplicity of experience in the fuel of numerous desires of the senses presented as oblations in the form of sense objects by the five senses like five priests.168
The fire of the manomaya sheath, fed with objects as if with streams of melted butter by the five senses like five \Hotris (fire priests), and blazing with the fuel of manifold desires, burns this body, made of five elements. (170)
There is no such thing as ignorance beyond the thinking mind. Thought is itself ignorance, the cause of the bondage of becoming. When thought is eliminated, everything else is eliminated. When thought increases everything else increases.169
There is no \avidyaa besides the manas. Manas itself is the \avidyaa, the instrument for the production of the bondage of conditioned existence. When that (\avidyaa) is destroyed, all is destroyed, and when that is manifested, all is manifested. (171)
In sleep which is devoid of actual experience, it is the mind alone which produces everything, the experiencer and everything else, by its own power, and in the waking state there is no difference. All this is the product of the mind.170
In dream, when there is no substantial reality, one enters a world of enjoyment by the power of the manas. So it is in waking life, without any difference, all this is manifestation of the manas. (172)
In deep sleep when the thinking mind has gone into abeyance there is nothing, by every ones experience, so mans samsara is a mind creation, and has no real existence.171
All know that when the manas is merged in the state of dreamless slumber nothing remains. Hence the contents of our consciousness are created by the manas and have no real existence. (173)
Cloud is gathered by the wind, and is driven away by it too. Bondage is imagined by the mind, and liberation is imagined by it too.172
Cloud collects by the atmosphere (with its moisture and currents) and is again dispersed by the same; bondage is created by the manas, and emancipation is also produced by it. (174)
By dwelling with desire on the body and other senses the mind binds a man like an animal with a rope, and the same mind liberates him from the bond by creating simple distaste for the senses as if they were poison.173
Having produced attachment to the body and all other objects, it this binds the individual as an animal is bound by a rope, afterwards having produced aversion to these as if a poison, that manas itself frees him from bondage. (175)
Thus the mind is the cause of a mans finding both bondage and liberation. When soiled with the attribute of desire it is the cause of bondage, and when clear of desire and ignorance it is the cause of liberation.174
Therefore the manas is the cause of the bondage of this individual and also of its liberation. The manas when stained by passion is the cause of bondage, and of liberation when pure, devoid of passion and ignorance. (176)
By achieving the purity of an habitual discrimination and dispassion, the mind is inclined to liberation, so the wise seeker after liberation should first develop these.175
When discrimination and dispassion predominate, the manas having attained purity becomes fit for liberation, therefore these two (attributes) of a man desirous of liberation and possessed of buddhi, must at the outset be strengthened. (177)
A great tiger known as the mind lives in the forest of the senses, so pious seekers after liberation should not go there.176
In the forest land of objects wanders the great tiger named manas; pure men desirous of liberation do not go there. (178)
The mind continually presents endless coarse or subtle sense experiences for a person all the differences of physique, caste, state and birth, and the fruits resulting from attributes and actions.177
The manas, through the gross body and the subtle body of the enjoyer, creates objects of desire and perpetuallly produces differences of body, caste, colour, and condition, all results of the action of the qualities. (179)
The mind continually confuses that which is by nature unattached, binding it with the fetters of body, senses and faculties so that it thinks in terms of me and mine in the experiences he is achieving. 178
The manas, having clouded over the absolute consciousness which is without attachment, acquires notions of "I" and "mine", and through attachment to the body, organs, and life, wanders ceaselessly in the enjoyment of the fruit of his actions. (180)
Mans samsara is due to the error of additions (to his true nature), and it is from the minds imagination that the bondage of these additions comes. This is the cause of the pain of birth and so on for the man without discrimination who is filled with desire and ignorance.179
By ascribing the qualities of the \Atman to that which is not \Atman (the series of incarnations) is created. This ascription is produced by the manas which is the primary cause of birth, suffering, etc. in a man devoid of discromonation and tainted by rajas and tamas. (181)
That is why the wise who have experienced reality call the mind ignorance, for it is by that that everything is driven, like a mass of clouds by the wind.180
Therefore learned men who have seen the truth call the manas, \avidyaa, by which the universe is made to wander as the clouds are by the wind. (182)
So the mind must be earnestly purified by the seeker after liberation. Once it is purified, the fruit of liberation comes easily to hand.181
For this reason pains should be taken by one desirous of liberation to purify the manas. It being purified, liberation is at hand. (183)
Completely rooting out desire for the senses and abandoning all activity by onepointed devotion to liberation, he who is established with true faith in study etc., purges away the passion from his understanding.182
Through the sole desire for liberation, having rooted out attachment to objects and renounced personal interest in action, with reverential purity, he who is devoted to study (\shravana) and the rest, shakes off mental passion. (184)
What is mindmade cannot be ones true nature, because it is changeable, having a beginning and an end, because it is subject to pain, and because it is itself an object. The knower cannot be seen as an object of consciousness.183
Even the manomaya (sheath) is not the supreme ego on account of its having beginning and end, its modifiable nature, its pain-giving characteristics, and by reason of its being objective. The seer (or subject) is not seen by that which is itself seen (or objective). (185)
The intellect along with its faculties, its activities and its characteristic of seeing itself as the agent, constitutes the knowledge sheath which is the cause of mans samsara.184
The buddhi with its functions and combined with the organs of sensation becomes the \vijñaanamaya sheath whose characteristic is action and which is the cause of the revolution of births and deaths. (186)
Intellectual knowledge which as a function is a distant reflection of pure consciousness, is a natural faculty. It continually creates the awareness I exist, and strongly identifies itself with the body, its faculties and so on.185
The modification of \prakriti called \vijñaanamaya sheath, follows after the individuality (sheath) which reflects the \Atman and is possessed of the faculties of cognition and action, and its function is to specialise the body, organs and the rest as the ego. (187)
This sense of self is from beginningless time. As the person it is the agent of all relative occupations. Through its proclivities from the past it performs good and bad actions, and bears their fruit.186
This (ego) having no beginning in time is the \jiiva or embodied ego, It is the guide of all actions, and goverened by previous desires, produces actions, righteous and unrighteous, and their consequences. (188)
After experiencing them it is born in all sorts of different wombs, and progresses up and down in life, the experiencer of the knowledgecreated states of waking, sleeping etc., and of pleasure and pain.187
It gathers experience by wandering through various grades of incarnation and comes below and goes above. It is to this \vijñaanamaya g=that belongs the experiences of the pleasure snd psin pertaining to waking, dreaming and the other conditions. (189)
It always sees as its own such things as the body, and its circumstances, states, duties, actions and functions. The knowledge sheath is very impressive owing to its inherent affinity to the supreme self, which, identifying itself with the superimposition, experiences samsara because of this illusion.188
Pre-eminently characterized by the closest proximity to the \Paramaatman, this \vijñaanamaya becomes its objective basis. It produces the difference between "I" and "mine" and all actions pertaining to different stages of life and condition, and through ignorance it passes with the spiritual intelligence from one existence to another. (190)
This knowledgecreated light shines among the faculties of the heart, and the true self, although itself motionless, becomes the actor and the experiencer while identified with this superimposition.189
This \vijñaanamaya, reflecting the Light of the Logos, is manifested in the vital breaths (subtle currents of the \suukshhma \sariira) and in the heart. This \Atman being encased in this \upaadhi, appears to be the actor and enjoyer. (191)
Allied to the intellect, just a part of itself, although the true self of everything, and beyond the limitations of such an existence, it identifies itself with this illusory self as if clay were to identify itself with earthen jars.190
The \Atman, being limited by mind appears different through the illusive nature (of mind, just as the water-jar and the rest from the earth.(192)
In conjunction with such additional qualities, the supreme self seems to manifest the same characteristics, just as the undifferentiated fire seems to take on the qualities of the iron it heats.191
\Paramaatman by reason of connection with an objective basis, appears to partake of the attributes (of this basis (\upaadhi)) just as the formless fire seems to partake of the form of the iron (in which it inheres). The \Atman is, by its very nature, essentially unchangeable. (193)
The disciple
Whether it is by mistake or for some other reason that the supreme self has become a living being, the identification is beginningless, and there can be no end to what has no beginning.
The Disciple said:
Whether through ignorance or any other cause, the \Atman invariably appears as \jiiva; this \upaadhi, having no beginning, its end cannot be imagined.
So the state of a living being is going to be a continual samsara, and there can be no liberation for it. Can you explain this to me? 193
Hence the connection of the \Atman with \jiiva does not seem to be terminable, and its conditioned life appears to be eternal, then tell me, O blessed Master, how there can be liberation? (195)
The guru
You have asked the right question, wise one, so now listen. The mistaken imagination of illusion is not a reality.
The blessed teacher said:
O wise man, you have asked rightly. Now, listen carefully. The illusive fancies arising from error are not conclusive.
Outside of illusion no attachment can come about for what is by nature unattached, actionless and formless, as in the case of blueness and space (the sky).195
Without error truly the \Atman, the independent and non-acting, cannot be connected with objects, just as blue colour is attributed to the sky. (197)
Existence as a living being, due to the mistaken intellect identifying itself with its own light, the inner joy of understanding, beyond qualities and beyond activity does not really exist, so when the illusion ceases, it does too, having no real existence of its own.196
The seer of the (higher) self, being without action, without attributes, all-pervading, is knowledge and bliss. Through the error (caused by) mind it appears conditioned, but this is not so. When this error is dispelled, it no longer exists, hence it is unreal by nature. (198)
So long as the illusion exists, it too has existence, created by the confusion of misunderstanding, in the same way that a rope seems to be a snake so long as the illusion persists. When the illusion comes to an end, so does the snake.197
As long as there is this error, so long this () created by false knowledge exists; just as the illusion, produced by error, that the rope is the snake, lasts only during the period of error - on the destruction of error no snake remains - it is even so. (199)
Ignorance and its effects are seen as beginningless until with the arising of insight, ignorance and its effects are destroyed along with its root, even if beginningless, like dreams on awaking from sleep. Even if beginningless this world of appearances is not eternal like something originally nonexistent.198, 199
Ignorance has no beginning, and this also applies to its effects; but upon the production of knowledge, ignorance, although without beginning, is entirely destroyed as is everything of dream life upon awakening. Even though without beginning this is not eternal, being clearly analogous to \praagabhaava (antecedent non-existence), (200, 201)
Even if beginningless, something originally nonexistent is seen to come to an end. In the same way the living organism which is thought to belong to oneself through its identification with the intellect, does not really exist. On the other hand, the true self is quite distinct from it, and the identification of oneself with the intellect is due to misunderstanding.200, 201
The connection of the \Atman with \jiiva; created through its basis, mind, though having no beginning, is thus seen to have an end. Hence this connection does not exist, and the \Atman is entirely different from the \jiiva in bature and attributes. The connection between \Atman and buddhi is established through false knowledge. (202, 203)
The cessation of that wrong identification is achieved by right understanding, and by no other means. Right understanding is held by scripture to be the recognition of the oneness of God and oneself.202
This connection can only be terminated by true knowledge - it cannot be otherwise. The knowledge that Brahman and \Atman are one and the same is true knowledge and according to the Vedas. (204)
This recognition is achieved by right discrimination between what is truly oneself and what is not, so one must develop this discrimination between the conventional self and ones true self. 203
This knowledge can only be acquired by the perfect discrimination of ego and non-ego; therefore discrimination id to be practised in relation to individual and universal spirit. (205)
Like very muddy water, which is clearly water again when the mud is removed, ones true self shines forth again when the contamination is removed.204
When the nonexistent is removed the individual is disclosed as the supreme self, so one must see to the removal of thoughts about "me" and suchlike from oneself. 205
As the most muddy water appears pure water on the removal of the mud, even so the \Atman shines clearly when it is removed from unreality. Therefore the \Atman should be separated from all that pertains to the false self. (206, 207)
The level of sense awareness cannot be ones true self since it is changeable, physical, restricted, a senseobject and intermittent. What is transient should not be mistaken what is eternal.206
Hence the supreme spirit is not that which is called the \vijñaanamaya. By reason of its changeable, detached character and limited sonsciousness, as well as on account of its objectivity and liability to error, it (the \vijñaanamaya sheath) cannot be regarded as eternal. (208)
The level of pleasure is the aspect of ignorance which is a sort of reflection the blissfulness of the true self. Its attributes are the qualities of enjoyment and so on, which are experienced when an enjoyable object is present. It presents itself spontaneously to those fortunate enough to experience the fruits of good deeds, something from which everyone experiences great pleasure without trying to.207
\Anandamaya sheath is the reflection of the absolute bliss, yet not free from ignorance. Its attributes are pleasure and the like, through it the higher affections are realised. This sheath, whose existence depends upon virtuous action, becomes manifest as \Anandamaya without effort in a virtuous man enjoying the fruits of his own merit. (209)
The pleasure level is manifest at its fullest extent in deep sleep, whereas in dreams and the waking state it is only partially manifest, stimulated by such things as the sight of enjoyable objects.208
The principal manifestation of the \Anandamaya sheath is in dreamless slumber. In the waking and dreaming states it becomes partially manifested at the sight of pleasant objects. (210)
The pleasure level cannot be the true self either, since it is changeable, a conditioned phenomenon, the result of good deeds, and involved in the other levels of consciousness as well.209
Nor is this \Anandamaya the supreme spirit, because it is subject to conditions. It is a modification of \prakriti, an effect, and the sum of all the consequences of good acts. (211)
When all these five levels have been disposed of by meditating on scripture, when everything as been eliminated there remains the witness, pure consciousness itself.210
According to the Vedas the \Atman is what remains after the subtraction of the five sheaths. Ir is the witness, it is absolute knowledge. (212)
This self, the light itself, beyond the five levels, the witness of the three states, changeless, unsullied, eternal joy this should be recognised by the wise as ones real self.211
This \Atman is self-illumined and different from the five sheaths; it is the witness of the three states (waking, dreaming and dreamless sleep); it is stainless, and unchanging, it is eternal bliss and thus it must be realized by the learned Brahmana. (213)
The disciple
After transcending these five levels as unreal, master, I find nothing but a nothingness, the absence of everything. What object remains for a wise person to identify with?
The Disciple said:
When the five sheaths are subtracted on account of their unreality, I do not see, O Master, that anything remains but universal negation. Whatm then, remains to be known by the learned Brahmana, as ego and non-ago?
The guru
You have spoken the truth, learned one. You are skilled in discrimination. That by which all other phenomena, starting with the thought of "me", are experienced, but which is itself experienced by none, know that, by the subtlest of understanding, as your true self.
213, 214
The blessed teacher said:
O wise man, thou hast spoken well, thou art skilful in discrimination, \Atman is that which is void of all changeful things, such as egotism, etc.
That by which everything is known, that which is not known by anything - through the subtle intellect, realize that knower to be the \Atman. (216)
Whatever is experienced by something else has that as its witness. When there is nothing else to experience something, one cannot talk of it being witnessed.215
Whoever knows anything is the witness thereof. With regard to an object not perceived by anyone, the characteristic of being the witness can be rightly postulated of none. (217)
This has the nature of selfawareness, since it is conscious of itself. Thus the individual self is by its selfawareness none other than the Supreme itself.216
The \Atman is itself the witnessing essence, for by itself it is perceived. Therefore this \Atman is itself the witness and not another. (218)
That which is fully manifest in the waking state, dream and deep sleep, which is perceived within in the form of the various experiences and impressions like selfconsciousness, and which is experienced as the eternal Bliss, and Consciousness of ones true self, see this within your own heart.217
The manifestation of this \Atman is identical in the states of waking, dreaming and dreamless slumber; it is the one inward manifestation of self-consciousness in all egos; and is the witness of all forms and changes, such as egotism, intellect, etc. and manifests itself as absolutr consciousnrss and bliss. This, realize as \Atman in your own heart. (219)
The ignorant see the reflection of the sun in the water of a jar and think it is the sun itself. In the same way the fool sees the reflection of consciousness in its associated qualities and mistakenly identifies himself with it.218
The fool, having seen the image of the sun in the water of the jar, thinks it is the sun. So an ignorant man seeing the reflection of the Logos in any of the \upaadhis (vehicles) takes it to be the real self. (220)
The wise man ignores jar, water and the suns reflection in it, and sees the selfilluminating sun itself which gives light to all three but is independent of them.219
As the wise man looks at the sun itself and not the jar, the water or the reflection; so also the wise man looks towards the self-illumined \Atman through which the three (\upaadhis) are manifested. (221)
When a man abandons the body and the intellect which is just a derivative of consciousness, and recognising ones true self, the experiencer, pure awareness, the source of everything existent and nonexistent, itself devoid of attributes, eternal, allpervading, omnipresent, subtle, empty of inside and outside, and itself none other than ones true self (for this is truly inborn), he becomes free from evil, sinless and immortal, free from pain, and the incarnation of joy. Master of himself he is afraid of no-one. There is no other way to the breaking of the bonds of temporal existence for the seeker after liberation than the realisation of his own true nature.220, 221, 222
Thus it is that the individual, abandoning the body, the intellect and the reflection of consciousness, becomes sinless, passionless and deathless by knowing the self-illumined \Atman, which is the seer, which is itself the eternal knowledge, different from reality as well as unreality, eternal, all pervading, supremely subtle, devoid of within and without, the only one, in the centre of wisdom. (222, 223)
The wise man who becomes Brahman by knowing it, is free from grief and filled with bliss. He fears nothing from anywhere. Without knowledge of the true self there is no other path open to those desirous of liberation for removing the bondage of conditioned life. (224)
The recognition of ones inseparable oneness with God is the means of liberation from temporal existence, by which the wise person achieves the nondual, blissful nature of God. 223
The realization of the oneness of Brahman is the cause of liberation from conditioned existence, through which the only Brahman, which is bliss, is obtained by the wise. (225)
Having attained the nature of God, the knower returns no more to the temporal state, so it is essential to recognise ones own true inseparable oneness with God224
The wise man, becoming Brahman, does not return to conditioned existence; hence the unity of the self with Brahman must be thoroughly realized. (226)
God is the truth, knowledge and eternal. He is pure, transcendent and selfsufficient the everlasting, undiluted bliss which is enthroned undivided and inseparable within.225
Brahman is truth, knowledge and eternity, the supreme, pure, self-existing, uniform, unmixed bliss, always pre-eminent. (227)
This supreme Reality is nondual in the absence of any other reality beside itself. In the state of knowledge of ultimate truth there is nothing else.226
By the absence of all existence besides itself this Brahman is truth, is supreme, the only one; when the supreme truth is fully realized nothing remains but this. (228)
This great variety of things which we experience through our failure to understand is all really God himself, once the distortion of thought is removed.227
By reason of ignorance this universe appears multiform, bur ub reality all this is Brahman, (which remains) when all defective mental states have been rejected. (229)
A pot made of clay is nothing other than clay, and its true reality is always simply clay. The pot is no more than the shape of a pot, and is just a mistake of imagination based on the name.228
The water-pot which is the effect of clay is yet not different from the clay, its essential nature always remaining clay. The form of the water-pot has no independent existence, but is only a name generated by illusion. (230)
No one can show that the reality of the pot is different from the clay, so the pot is just an imagination based on misunderstanding, and the clay is the only final reality.229
By no one can the water-pot be seen as itself and distinct from the clay. Therefore the water-pot is imagined from delusion; the clay alone is essentially real. (231)
Similarly everything which is made of God is just God and has no separate existence. Whoever says it exists is not yet free from delusion and is like someone talking in his sleep.230
All products of Brahman, which is reality, are themselves also real; and there is nothing different from it. Whoever says there is (anything different) is not free from illusion but is like a man talking in his sleep. (232)
The supreme scripture of the Arthava Veda declares that "All this is God", so all this is simply God, and anything in addition to that has no reality.231
Brahman is this universe - such is the saying of the excellent shruti of the Atharva Veda. Therefore all this universe is but Brahman, what is predicated of it as separate from Brahman has no existece. (233)
If it has any reality, that is the end of any eternal reality for oneself, the scriptures are false, and the Lord himself a liar, three things which are quite unacceptable to great souls.232
If this university is a reality, then the \Atman is finite, the Vedas have no authority \Ishvara (the Logos) has no existence. These three things cannot be accepted by great souls. (234)
The Lord, who knows the reality of things, has stated "I do not depend on them" (Bhagavad Gita 9.4) and "Things do not exist in me" (Bhagavad Gita 9.5).233
The Lord, the knower of all objects in their reality, has declared, "I am not distinct from them nor are they distinct from me." (235)
If everything really existed, it ought to exist in deep sleep too. Since nothing does, then it follows that it is unreal and an illusion like a dream.234
If this universe is a reality, it should be perceived in dreamless slumber. Since, however, nothing is perceived (in that condition) it is as unreal as dreams. (236)
So the world is not distinct from the Supreme Self, and its perception is an illusion like all attributes. What we add to That has no reality, but merely appears to exist in addition to That through misunderstanding.235
Therefore there is no real existence of the universe, distinct from the supreme \Atman; its distinct perception is as unreal as that of the serpent in the rope. What reality can there be in that which is merely manifest through ignorance? (237)
Whatever a deluded person experiences in his delusion is still always God. The silver is only motherofpearl. It is always God that is mistaken for something else, and whatever is added to God is just a name.236
Whatever is perceived thriugh error by an ignorant person is nothing but Brahman - the silver is truly but the mother of pearl. In this way Brahman is ever and again invested with forms, but they are nothing but mere names ascribed to Brahman. (238)
So there exists only the supreme God, the One Reality without a second, consisting of pure consciousness, without any blemish, peace itself and without beginning or end, actionless and having the nature of pure bliss.237
Therefore the supreme Brahman is the one reality, without a second, it is pure wisdom, the stainless one, absolute peace without beginning and without end, void of action and the essence of ceaseless bliss. (239)
Beyond all delusioncreated distinctions, this Whatever shines by its own light, eternal, fulfilled, indivisible, infinite, formless, inexpressible, nameless and indestructible.238
When all the differences created by \maayaa have been rejected, (there remains) a self-illumined something which is eternal, fixed, without stain, immeasurable, without form, unmanifested, without name, indestructible. (240)
Seers know this supreme Reality, free from the distinctions of knower, known and knowledge, infinite, complete in itself and consisting of pure Awareness.239
The wise know that as the supreme truth which is absolute consciousness, in which are united the knower, the known and the knowledge, infinite and unchangeable. (241)
What cannot be got rid of or taken hold of, beyond the sphere of mind and speech, measureless and beginningandendless is God, ones true self and supreme glory.240
Brahman is the infinite, eternal, all-pervading light, it can be neither taken hold of, nor abandoned, inconceivable by the mind and inexpressible by speech, immeasurable, wuthout beginning, without end. (242)
The words "God" and "yourself", referred to by the terms "That" and "Thou" are conscientiously purified by repetition of the scriptural phrase "Thou art That", and are clearly seen to be identical.241
Brahman and \Atman which are respectively designated by the terms "that" and "thou", are fully proved to be identical when investigated by the light of Vedic teaching. (243)
Their identity can be indicated but not described, since they have mutually exclusive meanings like a firefly and the sun, a king and a slave, a well and the ocean, or an atom and mount Meru.242
The identity of the two thus indicated and predicated, cannot be proved on account of mutually exclusive attributes, (that is, when the \Atman is connected with \upaadhi), any more than that of the fire-fly and the sun, of the king and the slave, of the well and the ocean, of the atom and the mountain (Meru). (244)
The distinction between them is due to the imagined additional associations, but in reality there are no such additions. The primary mental activity is due to the Lords Maya, and in the case of the individual it is the result of the five sheaths.243
The distinction is created by conditions (\upaadhis); in reality, there is no conditioning basis for the \Atman. Listen, the \maayaa of the Logos (\Ishvara) is the first cause of mahat and the five sheaths are the effect of \jiiva. (245)
These are additions to the Lord and the individual, and when they are removed, there is neither Supreme nor individual. A ruler is known by his kingdom, and a warrior by his arms. Take these away, and there is neither warrior nor king.244
When these two \upaadhis - those of the \Atman and the \jiiva - are completely rejected, there is neither \Atman nor \jiiva. The king has his kingdom, the warrior his arms; on the removal of these there is neither king nor warrior. (246)
Scripture itself, with the words "Here is the teaching" (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 2.3.6), denies the imagined duality in God. One must get rid of these additions by means of understanding backed up by the authority of the scriptures.245
Hence the shruti (Veda) says that the duality created (by illusion) in Brahman is eliminated through knowledge, then \Atman and \jiiva disappear. (247)
"Not this, not this" (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 2.3.6) means that nothing one can think of is real, like a rope mistaken for a snake, or like a dream. Carefully getting rid of the apparent in this way, one should then come to understand the oneness of the Lord and the individual.246
Through logical inferences having rejected as usual every conception of what is visible, created by mind like the notion of the serpent in the rope, or like (things seen in) dream, the identity of \Atman with Brahman is realized. (248)
So the meaning of these two expressions, Lord and individual, must be carefully considered until their essential oneness is understood. It is not enough just to reject or accept either of them. One must come to the recognition of the identity of the meaning of them both. 247
Therefore, having ascertained these attributes, their identity is established just as that of a figure of speech which loses its original meaning and takes an additional sense. But in order to realize this identity, neither the literal nor the figurativee signification is to be lost sight of, both must be united in order to realize the identity of the Logos and Parabrahman. (249)
In the phrase "this person is Devadatta" the identity is indicated by removing the distinction, and in the same way, in the expression "Thou art That" the wise must get rid of the apparent contradiction and recognise the complete identity of God and self by carefully identifying the shared attribute of pure consciousness. Hundreds of scriptural sayings declare the identity of oneself and God in this way.248, 249
"That Devadatta is myself" - here the identity is indicated by the rejection of the contrary attributes of the terms. Similarly in the saying, "That thou art", rejecting the contrary attributes in both terms, identity is established. (250)
The wise know the perfect identity of the \Atman with Parabrahman by attaining the standpoint of the Logos. In hundreds of great aphorisms is declared the identity of Brahman and the \Atman. (251)
In accordance with "It is nothing material" (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 3.8.8) eliminate the unreal and find that which like the sky is pure and solitary, and is beyond thought. Eliminate too this purely illusory body which you have hitherto identified with yourself. Then recognising, "I am God" with purified understanding, see your true self as undifferentiated consciousness.250
Renounce the false conception you have formed and understand through thy purified intellect that thou art that subtle, self-existence, Brahman which is perfect knowledge. (252)
Everything made of clay, such as pot, is always to be seen as purely clay. In the same way, everything deriving from this supreme Self must be simply recognised as pure Reality. Since there is no reality beyond that, it is truly ones very self, and you are that still, unblemished, nondual, supreme Reality of God.251
Just as the pot made from clay is to be considered clay, so what is evolved out of \Atman is always \Atman, and every thing is \Atman, and there is nothing existing apart from it; therefore thou art "That" - absolute peace, without stain, great - Brahman without a second. (253)
Just as the things like places, time, objects and observer imagined in a dream are unreal, so the world experienced in the waking state too is created by ones own ignorance. Since the bodycreating forces, selfidentification, and so on, are also unreal, you are that still, unblemished, nondual, supreme Reality of God.252
Just as in dreams the place, time, objects and ideas are all unreal, so also this world, created by ignorance, is unreal, and so are also this body, senses, vital airs, egoism, etc. Therefore understand thou art "That" - absolute peace, without stain, great - Brahman without a second. (254)
That which is mistakenly imagined to exist is recognised by wisdom to be That alone, and is thus undifferentiated. The colourful world of a dream disappears. What remains other than oneself on waking? 253
[? -- this verse omitted from the Mohini M Chatterji translation, whether by accident or design][---]
Beyond birth, creed, family and tribe, free from the distortion of attributes of name and appearance, transcending locality, time and objects, you are That, God himself. Meditate on the fact within yourself.254
Realize that thou art "That" - Brahman which is far beyond caste, worldly wisdom, family and clan, devoid of name, form, qualities and defects, beyond time, space and objects of consciousness. (255)
That supreme Reality beyond the realm of anything that can be said, but the resort of the pure eye of understanding, the pure reality of ConsciousnessAwarenessMind, etc. you are That, God himself. Meditate on the fact within yourself.255
Realize that thou art "That" - Brahman which is supreme, beyond the range of all speech, but which may be known through the eye of pure wisdom. It is pure, absolute consciousness, the eternal substance. (256)
That which is unaffected by the six afflictions (of aging, death, hunger, thirst, desire and ignorance), which is meditated on in the heart of the devotee, unrecognised by the senses, unknown by the intellect you are That, God himself. Meditate on the fact within yourself.256
Realize that thou art "That" - Brahman which is ubtiuched by the six human infirmities (hunger, thirst, greed, delusion, decay, death); it is realized in the heart of Yogis, it cannot be perceived by the senses, it is imperceptible by intellect or mind. (257)
That basis on which the mistakenly imagined world exists, itself dependent on nothing else, devoid of true and false, without parts, and without mental image you are That, God himself. Meditate on the fact within yourself.257
Realize that thou art "That" - Brahman on which rests the world, created through ignorance, it (Brahman) is self-sustained, it is different from (relative) truth, and from untruth, indivisible, beyond mental representation. (258)
That which is indestructible, free from birth, growth, development, decay, illness and death; which is the cause of the creation, maintenance and destruction of everything you are That, God himself. Meditate on the fact within yourself.258
Realize that thou art "That" - Brahman which is devoid of birth, growth, change, loss of substance, disease and death, indestructible, the cause of the evolution of the universe, its preservation and destruction. (259)
Free of parts, of an unchanging quality, undisturbed like a waveless sea, declared to be of an eternally indivisible nature you are That, God himself. Meditate on the fact within yourself.259
Realize that thou art "That" - Brahman which is the cessation of all differentiation, which never changes its nature and is as unmoved as a waveless ocean, eternally unconditioned and undivided. (260)
Itself One but the cause of the many, the supreme Cause which does away with all other causes, itself devoid of distinctions of "cause" and "effect" you are That, God himself. Meditate on the fact within yourself.260
Realize that thou art "That" - Brahman which is the one only reality, the cause of multiplicity, the cause that eliminates all other causes, different from the law of cause and effect. (261)
Without modification, great and unending, the supreme Reality beyond destruction and indestructibility, the eternal unfading, unblemished, fulfilment you are That, God himself. Meditate on the fact within yourself.261
Realize that thou art "That" - Brahman which is without modification, very great, indestructible, the supreme, different from all destructible elements and the indestructible Logos, eternal, immutable bliss, and free from stain. (262)
That Reality which manifests itself as the many through the illusions of names, shapes, attributes and changes, but which, like gold is always itself unchanged (in different objects) you are That, God himself. Meditate on the fact within yourself.262
Realize that thou art "That" - Brahman, that reality which manifests as many through the illusions of name, form, qualities, change, but is yet ever unchanged like gold (in jewelry). (263)
That, beyond which there is nothing, but which shines beyond everything else, the inner, uniform selfnature of beingconsciousnessjoy, infinite and eternal you are That, God himself. Meditate on the fact within yourself.263
Realize that thou art "That" - Brahman which alone shines, which is beyond the Logos, all-pervading, uniform, truth, consciousness, bliss, having no end, indestructible. (264)
One should meditate within oneself with the mind well controlled on the truth declared here. Then the truth will be disclosed free from doubt, like water in the palm of ones hand.264
By known logical inferences and by intuition realize thyself as \Atman, just as the meaning of a word is understood; the certainty of this truth will be established without doubt just as water (held) in the palm of the hand. (265)
Realising ones true nature as pure consciousness, one should remain always established in oneself, like a king surrounded by his army, and should redirect all that is back into God. 265
Having realized oneself as pure knowledge, the supremely pure truth, and being supported by it, remaining ever constant in the \Atman as a king in battle depends on his army, merge this objective universe in Brahman. (266)
In the cave of the mind, free from attributes of being and notbeing, there exists God, the Truth, supreme and without a second. He who by himself dwells in that cave returns no more to a mothers womb. 266
Brahman, the truth, the supreme, the only one, and different from both (relative) truth and untruth, is in the cavity (between the eyebrows) of wisdom; whoever dwells in that cavity has no rebirth. (267).
Even when one knows the truth, there still remains the strong, beginningless tendency to think "I am the doer and the reaper of the consequences" which is the cause of samsara. It must be carefully removed by living in the state of observing the truth within oneself. The wise call that removal of this tendency liberation. 267
Even if the substance (or truth) is intellectually grasped, the desire which has no beginning (expressed in the words) "I am the actor and also the enjoyer" is strong and firm, and is the cause of conditioned existence. That desire may be got rid of with great effort by realizing that \Atman is Brahman. The sages on earth call the thinning away of that desire emancipation. (268)
The tendency to see "me" and "mine" in the body and the senses, which are not oneself must be done way with by the wise by remaining identified with ones true self.268
The erroneous conception that attributes one thing to another, such as that \Atman is the egoism, body, senses, etc. must be rejected by the wise through devotion to \Atman. (269)
Recognising ones true inner self, the witness of the mind and its operations, and reflecting on the truth of "I am That", get rid of this wrong opinion about oneself.269
Knowing that \Atman as the witness of mind and its operation, and having realized through pure conduct that \Atman is the self; abandon the perception of Non-spirit as Spirit. (270)
Abandoning the concerns of the world, abandoning concern about the body, and abandoning even concern about scriptures, see to the removal wrong assumptions about yourself.270
Having given up following the way of the world, the body, or the scriptures, remove the erroneous conception that \Atman is non-\atman. (271)
It is owing to peoples worldly desires, their desires for scriptures, and their desires concerning their bodies that they do not achieve realisation.271
Owing to a person's \vaasanaa (latent desire) for the things of the world, the scriptures and the body, true knowledge cannot be produced. (272)
Those who know about these things call these three desires the iron fetter that binds the feet of those who are seeking escape from the prisonhouse of samsara. He who is free from them reaches liberation.272
This cruel trinity of desire is called by those who know, the iron chain that binds the feet of one aspiring for liberation from the prison-house of conditioned-existence; he who is free from this attains liberation. (273)
The beautiful smell of aloe wood which is masked by a bad smell through contamination by water and such things becomes evident again when it is rubbed clean.273
As by mixture with water and by friction, sandal-wood emits an excellent odour, removing all bad smells; so divine aspiration becomes manifest when external desire is washed away. (274)
Desire for ones true self which is veiled by endless internal other desires becomes pure and evident again like the smell of sandalwood through application with wisdom.274
Aspiration towards the supreme \Atman is covered by the dust of fatal desires lurking within, but becomes pure and emits a fine odour by the friction of wisdom just as the sandal-wood. (275)
When the mass of desires for things other than oneself obscuring the contrary desire for ones real self are eliminated by constant selfremembrance, then it discloses itself of its own accord.275
The aspiration towards \Atman is stifled by the net of unspiritual desires, for by constant devotion to \Atman they are destroyed, and divine aspiration becomes manifest. (276)
As the mind becomes more and more inwardturned, it becomes gradually freed from external desires, and when all such desires are fully eliminated selfrealisation is completely freed from obstruction. 276
In proportion as the mind becomes firm by devotion to \Atman, it renounces all desires for external things; when all desires are completely exhausted, the realization of \Atman is unobstructed. (277)
When he is always poised in selfawareness the yogis thinking mind stops, and the cessation of desires takes place as a result, so see to the removal of all ideas of additions to your true self.277
By constant rest in the \Atman the (individualized) mind of the Yogis disappears and desires are exhausted; therefore remove the erroneous conception that Non-spirit is Spirit. (278)
Dullness (tamas) is removed by passion (rajas) and purity (sattva), desire is removed by purity, and purity when itself purified, so establishing yourself in purity, see to the removal of all ideas of additions to your true self.278
The quality of tamas is eliminated by the other two qualities - rajas and sattva - rajas by sattva and sattva by purified sattva; therefore, by having recourse to sattva, remove the erroneous conception that Non-spirit is Spirit. (279)
Recognising that the effects of past conditioning will sustain the body, remain undisturbed and work away hard at seeing to the removal of all ideas of additions to your true self.279
Having ascertained that the body cherishes past Karma, become firm and calm and with great efforts remove the erroneous conception that Non-spirit is Spirit. (280)
"I am not the individual life. I am God." Getting rid of all previous misidentifications like this, see to the removal of all ideas of additions to your true self created by the power of desires.280
By realizing "I am not \jiiva but Parabrahman", remove the erroneous conception that Non-spirit is Spirit, which is produced by the force of desire. (282)
Recognising yourself as the self of everything by the authority of scripture, by reasoning and by personal experience, see to the removal of all ideas of additions to your true self whenever they manifest themselves.281
Having understood from the scripture, from logical reasoning and from experience, the all pervading nature of your \Atman, remove the erroneous conception that Non-spirit is Spirit, which might arise through the reflection of that something somewhere. (282)
The wise man has no business concerning himself with the acquisition or disposal of things, so by adherence to the one reality, see to the removal of all ideas of additions to your true self.282
For the muni (ascetic) there is no activity concerning giving or taking, therefore by devotion to the one, diligently remove the erroneous conception that Non-spirit is Spirit. (283)
Realising the identity of yourself and God by the help of sayings like "You are That", see to the removal of all ideas of additions to your true self so as to strengthen the adherence of yourself in God. 283
In order to strengthen the conviction of self-identity with Brahman, remove the erroneous conception that Non-spirit is Spirit, through the knowledge of identity of self and Brahman which arises from such sentences as "thou art That". (284)
Eliminate completely your selfidentification with this body, and with determination see that your mind is devoted to the removal of all ideas of additions to your true self.284
So long as the notion "I am this body" is not completely abandoned, control yourself with great concentration, and with great effort remove the erroneous conception that Non-spirit is Spirit. (285)
So long as even a dreamlike awareness of yourself as an individual in the world remains, as a wise person persistently see to the removal of all ideas of additions to your true self.285
O wise man! So long as the notion remains that there is \jiiva and the world, even but as a dream, without interruption remove the conception that Non-spirit is Spirit. (286)
Without giving way to the least descent into forgetfulness through sleep, worldly affairs or the various senses, meditate on yourself within.286
Without allowing any interval of forgetfulness through sleep, news of worldly affairs, or the objects of sense, meditate on the Self in the self. (287)
Shunning the body which is derived from the impurities of your mother and father and itself made up of impurities and flesh as you would an outcaste from a good distance, become Godlike and achieve the goal of life.287
Having quitted this body which is composed of flesh and impurities and produced from the impurities of father and mother, as (one quits) an outcaste; become Brahman and attain the end. (288)
Restoring the self in you to the supreme Self like the space in a jar back to Space itself by meditation on their indivisibility, always remain silent, wise one.288
Having merged the \Atman in \Paramaatman even as the space occupied by the water-jar is merged in free space; renain for ever silent in that state. (289)
Taking up through your true self the condition of your real glory, reject thoughts of a divine universe as much as of yourself as a reality, as you would a dish of filth.289
Having become the self-illumined, basal Brahman through the Logos, the macrocosm is to be abandoned as well as the microcosm, like a pot containing foul matter. (290)
Transferring your present selfidentification with the body to yourself as consciousness, being and bliss, abandon the body and be complete forever.290
Having transferred the concept of "I", as inhering in the \Atman which is consciousness, truth and bliss, and having abandoned all attributes, become for ever one. (291)
When you know "I am that very God" in which the reflection of the world appears, like a city in a mirror, then you will be one who has achieved the goal of life.291
Realizing as the "I" that Brahman in which this universe is reflected as a city in the mirror, thou shalt obtain the final object. (292)
Attaining that Reality which is selfexistent and primal, nondual consciousness, and bliss, formless and actionless, one should abandon the unreal body taken on by oneself, like an actor doffing his costume.292
Having attained that primeval consciousness, absolute bliss, of which the nature is truth, which is without form and action, abandon this illusive body that has been assumed by the \Atman just as an actor (abandons) a costume. (293)
All this experienced by oneself is false, and so is the sense of Ihood in view of its ephemeral nature. How can "I know everything" be true of something which is itself ephemeral.293
The objective universe is false from (the standpoint of) the Logos, and this (objective universe) is not "I" (Logos) because only transitory. How then can the concept "I know all" be established wuth regard to transitory objects, egoism and the rest? (294)
That which warrants the term "I" on the other hand is that which is the observer of the thought "I" etc. in view of its permanent existence even in the state of deep sleep. Scripture itself declares that it is "unborn and eternal" (Katha Upanishad 1.2.18). That true inner self is distinct from both being and notbeing.294
The substance "I" is the witness of the egoism and the rest, as its being, is always perceived - even in dreamless sleep; and the scripture itself calls (it) unborn and eternal; therefore the \Atman is different from (relative) truth and untruth. (295)
The knower of all the changes in changing things must itself be permanent and unchanging. The unreality in the extremes of being and notbeing is repeatedly seen in the experience of thought, dreaming and deep sleep.295
The eternal unchangeable \Atman alone can be the knower of all differentiations of those which are differentiated. The character of these two (differentiable and differentiation) is unreal because repeatedly and clearly perceived in the objective desires of the mind, in dream and in dreamless sleep. (296)
So give up identification with this mass of flesh as well as with what thinks it a mass. Both are intellectual imaginations. Recognise your true self as undifferentiated awareness, unaffected by time, past, present or future, and enter Peace.296
Therefore abandon the notion of "I" in connection with a mass of flesh, as also this notion itself which is a product of buddhi. But having lnown the \Atman which is affected by neither past, present, nor future, attain peace. (297)
Give up identification with family, tribe, name, shape and status which depend on the putrid body. Give up physical properties too such as the sense of being the doer and be the very nature of undifferentiated joy.297
Abandon the notion of "I" in family, clan, name, form and state of life, which all depend on this physical body and also having abandoned the properties of the \linga \shariira, such as the feeling of being the actor and the rest, become the essential form which is absolute bliss. (298)
There are other obstacles seen to be the cause of samsara for men. Of these the root and first manifestation is the sense of doership. 298
There are other obstacles which are perceived to be the cause of a man's embodied existence. Of these the first is the modification called \aham.kaara (egoism). (299)
So long as one has any association with this awful sense of being the doer there cannot be the least achievement of liberation which is something very different.299
So long as one is connected with the vile \aham.kaara (egoism), there is not the least indication of mukti (final emancipation) which is a strange (notion to that which is egoistic.) (300)
Free from the grasp of feeling oneself the doer, one achieves ones true nature which is, like the moon, pure, consummate, selfilluminating being and bliss.300
He who becomes free from the spark pf \aham.kaara attains the essential form which is self-illumined, stainless as the moon, all-pervading, eternal bliss. (301)
Even he who, with a mind under the influence of strong dullness, has thought of himself as the body, will attain to full identification with God when that delusion is completely removed.301
He who through bewildering ignorance is deprived of the firm conviction that I (the Logos) am He (Parabrahman), realizes the identity of Brahman with \Atman on the complete destruction (of ignorance). (302)
The treasure of the bliss of God is coiled round by the very powerful, terrible snake of doership which guards it with its three fierce heads consisting of the three qualities (dullness, passion and purity) but the wise man can enjoy this blissimparting treasure by cutting off the snakes three heads with the great sword of understanding of the scriptures.302
The hidden treasure of supreme bliss is guarded by the very powerful and terrible snake \aham.kaara, which envelopes the self with itd three heads, the \gunas. The wise man is able to enjoy this hidden treasure of bliss after cutting off these three heads and destroying this serpent with the great sword of spiritual knowledge. (303)
How can one be free from pain so long as there is there is any trace of poison in the body? The same applies to the pain of selfconsciousness in an aspirants liberation.303
So long as there is the least indication of the effects of poison in the body, there cannot be freedom from disease. In like manner the ascetic (Yogi) will not gain mukti so long as there is egoism. (304)
In the total cessation of selfidentification and the ending of the multifarious mental misrepresentations it causes, the truth of "This is what I am" is achieved through inner discernment.304
By the complete cessation of egoism and the (consequent) extinction of all its deceitful manifestations, this essential truth - "This I am" - is realized through discrimination of the real self. (305)
Get rid forthwith of doership, your selfidentification, that is, with the agent, a distorted vision of yourself which stops you from resting in your true nature, and by identification with which you, who are really pure consciousness and a manifestation of joy itself, experience samsara with all its birth, decay, death and suffering. 305
Abandon at once the notion of "I" in the \aham.kaara which is the cause of change, which experiences the consequences of Karma, and which is the destroyer of rest in one's own real self. To this erroneous conception that attributes one thing to another (that \aham.kaara is the real self) is due embodied existence - birth, death, old age, sorrow in you, the (reflection of the) Logos who is consciousness and is bliss. (306)
You are really unchanging, the eternally unvarying Lord, consciousness, bliss and indestructible glory. If it were not for the wrong identification with a false self you would not be subject to samsara.306
There is no other (cause) of this changeful existence of you (the reflection of) the \chidaatman (Logos) who is unchangeable bliss itself, and whose only form is the reality of stainless glory, than this erroneous conception (that \aham.kaara is the real self). (307)
So cut down your enemy, this sense of being the doer, with the great sword of knowledge, caught like a splinter in the throat of someone having a meal, and enjoy to your hearts content the joy of the possession of your true nature.307
Therefore having, with the great sword of real knowledge, cut down this \aham.kaara, the enemy of the true self and perceived (to be) like the thorn in the eater's throat, enjoy to heart's content the clearly manifest bliss of the empire of self. (308)
Stop the activity of the false selfidentification and so on, get rid of desire by the attainment of the supreme Reality, and practice silence in the experience of the joy of your true self, free from fantasies, with your true nature fulfilled in God.308
Therefore having put an end ro the functions of the \aham.kaara and the rest, and being free from attachment by the attainment of the supreme object, be happy in the enjoyment of spiritual bliss, and remain silent in Brahman by reaching the all-pervading Logos and losing all sense of separateness. (309)
Even when thoroughly eradicated, a great sense of doership can revive again and create a hundred different distractions, if it is once dwelt on again for a moment in the mind, like monsoon rainclouds driven on by the wind.309
The great \aham.kaara, even though (apparently) cut down to the very roots, will, if excited only for a moment by the mind, come to life again and cause a hundred distractions, just as during the rains clouds (are scattered about) by the storm. (310)
Overcoming the enemy of the false self, one should give it no opportunity by dwelling on the senses again, because that is the way it comes back to life, like water for a withered citrous tree.310
Having subjugated the enemy \aham.kaara, no respite is to be given to it by reflection about objects; such respite is the cause of its revival, just as water is in the case of the extremely weakened lime tree. (311)
He who is attached to the idea of himself as the body is desirous of physical pleasure, but how could someone devoid of such an idea seek physical pleasure? Hence separation from ones true good is the cause of bondage to samsara since one is stuck in seeing things as separate from oneself.311
How can the desirer who exists through the notion of the body being the ego, be the causer of the desire, who is (thus) different? Therefore submission to the pursuit of object is the cause of bondage, through attachment to differentiations. (312)
A seed is seen to grow with the development of the necessary conditions, while the failure of the conditions leads to the failure of the seed. So one must remove these conditions.312
It is observed that the growth of motive is the growth of the seed (of changing existence), the destruction of the former is the destruction of the latter; therefore the former is to be annihilated. (313)
The increase of desires leads to activity, and from the increase of activity there is more desire. Thus a man changes in every way, and samsara never comes to an end.313
By the strength of \vaasanaa (past impressions), \kaarya (action) is accumulated, and by the accumulation of \kaarya, \vaasanaa increases, (thus) in every way the changeful life of the ego continues. (314)
To break the bonds of samsara, the ascetic should burn away both of these (desire and activity), since thinking about these and external activity lead to the increase of desires.314
An ascetic must burn out these two, (\vaasanaa and \kaarya) in order to sever the bond of changing existence. The growth of \vaasanaa is due to these two, thought and external action. (315)
The increase of these two is the cause of ones samsara, and the means to the destruction of these three is to see everything as simply God everywhere, always and in all circumstances. By the increase of desire for becoming the Truth, these three come to an end.315, 316
\vaasanaa, nourished by these two, produces the changing life of the ego. Means for the destruction of this triad always, under all circumstances (should be sought). (316)
By everywhere, in every way, looking upon everything as Brahman, and by strengthing the perception of the (one) reality this triad will disappear. (317)
Through the stopping of activity there comes the stopping of thinking, and then the cessation of desires. The cessation of desires is liberation, and is what is known as hereandnow liberation.317
By the extinction of action, comes the extinction of anxious thought, from this the extinction of \vaasanaa. The final extinction of \vaasanaa is liberation - that is also called \jiivanmukti. (318)
When the force of the desire for the Truth blossoms, selfish desires wither away, just like darkness vanishes before the radiance of the light of dawn.318
Aspiration towards the real, being fully manifested, \vaasanaa as directed to \aham.kaara and the rest disappears, as darkness does in the light of the supremely brilliant sun. (319)
Darkness and the mass of evils produced by darkness no longer exist when the sun has risen. Similarly, when one has tasted undifferentiated bliss, no bondage or trace of suffering remains. 319
As on the rising of the sun darkness and the effects of darkness - that net of evils - are not seen, so on the realization of absolute bliss, there is neither bondage nor any trace of pain. (320)
Transcending everything to do with the senses, cultivating the blissful and only Truth, and at peace within and without this is how one should pass ones time so long as any bonds of karma remain.320
Transcending all perceptible objects, realizing the only truth which is full of bliss, controlling the external and internal (organs, faculties), so you should pass the time while the bondage of Karma remains. (321)
One should never permit carelessness in ones adherence to God. "Carelessness is death" (Mahabharata 5.42.43) says the Master (Sanatkumara) who was of Brahmas son.321
In devotion to Brahman there must be no negligence. \Brahmaa's son has said that negligence is death. (322)
There is no greater evil than carelessness about his own true nature for a wise man. From this comes delusion, from this comes misconceptions about oneself, from this comes bondage, from this comes suffering.322
For the wise there is no other danger than negligence in regard to the real form of self. From that springs delusion, from delusion \aham.kaara, deom \aham.kaara bondage, and from bondage pain. (323)
Forgetfulness afflicts even a wise man with harmful mental states when it finds him welldisposed to the senses, like a woman does her infatuated lover.323
Forgetfulness (of his true self) casts (into the ocean of births and deaths) even a learned man attracted by sense objects, his mind being perverted, as a woman (casts off) her lover. (324)
Just as the algae cleared off water does not stay off even for a moment, so illusion obscures the sight of even a wise man whose mind is outwarddirected.324
As moss (covering a sheet of water) does not remain (when pushed back) (fixed) even for a moment, so illusion (\maayaa) veils even the learned who turn back (forgetting the real self). (325)
When the mind loses its direction towards its goal and becomes outwardturned it runs from one thing to another, like a playball carelessly dropped on the steps of some stairs.325
If the thinking ego loses its aim and becomes even slightly diverted, then it falls away from the right direction like a playing-ball carelessly dropped on a flight of steps. (326)
A mind directed towards the senses dwells with imagination on their qualities. From imagining finally comes desire, and from desire comes the way a man directs his activity.326
The mind directed towards objects of sense determines their qualities; from this determination arises desire, and from desire human action. (327)
As a result, there is no death like carelessness in meditation to the wise knower of God. The meditator achieves perfect fulfilment, so carefully practice peace of mind.327
From that comes separation from the real self; one thus separated retrogrades. There is not seen the re-ascent but the destruction of the fallen one. Therefore abandon thoughts, the cause of all evils. (328) (poor translation ?)
From carelessness one turns aside from ones true nature, and he who turns aside from it slips downwards. He who has thus fallen invariably comes to disaster, but is not seen to rise again.328
Therefore for one possessed of discrimination, knowing Brahman in \samaadhi, there is no death other than from negligence. He who is absorbed in (the real) self, achieves the fullest success; hence be heedful and self-controlled. (329)
So one should abandon the imagination which is the cause of all ills. He has reached fulfilment who is completely dead while still alive. The Yajur Veda (Taittiriya Upanishad 2.7) declares there is still something to fear for anyone who still sees distinctions in things.329
He who has achieved perfection while still alive, is perfect when free from the body too. The Yajur Veda declares that he who sees duality experiences fear. [329.x]
He who while living realizes unity, does so also when devoid of the body. For him who is conscious of even the slughtest differentiation there is fear - so says the Yajur-veda (Katha Upanishad).(330)
Whenever a wise man sees the least distinction in the infinite God, whatever he has carelessly perceived as a distinction then becomes a source of fear for him.330
When at any time the learned man perceives even an atom of differentiation in the infinite Brahman, then what is perceived as difference through negligence is to him a (cause of) fear. (331)
When, in spite of hundreds of testimonies to the contrary in the Vedas and other scriptures, one identifies oneself with anything to do with the senses, one experiences countless sorrows, doing something prohibited like a thief.331
He who regards what is perceived as the ego, in spite of hundreds of injunctions to the contrary in shruti) (Vedas), \smrti (law books), and \nyaaya (logic), falls into a multitude of sorrows on sorrows; (such a man) the doer of what is forbidden, is like a malimluc (a demon). (332)
He who is devoted to meditating on the Truth attains the eternal glory of his true nature, while he who delights in dwelling on the unreal perishes. This can be seen even in the case of whether someone is a thief or not.332
The liberated man devoted to the pursuit of truth, always attains the glory of (the real) self, while he who is devoted to the pursuit of falsehood perishes; this is seen even in the case of a thief and an honest man. (333)
An ascetic should abandon dwelling on the unreal which is the cause of bondage, and should fix his attention on himself in his knowledge that "This is what I am". Establishment in God through selfawareness leads to joy and finally removes the suffering caused by ignorance.333
The ascetic abandoning the pursuit of unreality, the cause of bondage, rests in the spiritual perception, "I am the Logos". Devotion to Brahman gives bliss through realization of (the real) self and takes away the great pain experienced as the effect of \avidyaa. (334)
Dwelling on externals increases the fruit of superfluous evil desires for all sorts of things, so wisely recognising this fact, one should abandon externals and cultivate attention to ones true nature within.334
Pursuit of external objects results in increasing evil \vaasanaa more and more; therefore realizing the true character of such objects through discriminative knowledge, and abandoning them, be constantly engaged in the pursuit of the real self. (335)
When externals are abandoned there comes peace of mind. When the mind is at peace there comes awareness of ones supreme self. When that is fully experienced there comes the destruction of the bonds of samsara, so abandonment of externals is the road to liberation. 335
The (pursuit of) external objects being checked, tranquility of the mind (manas) is produced; from the tranquility of manas arises the vision of \Paramaatman (the Logos); from the clear perception of \Paramaatman (results) the destruction of the bondage of conditioned existence. Restraint of the external is the way to liberation. (336)
What man, being learned, and aware of the distinction between real and unreal, relying on the scriptures and seeking the supreme goal of life, would knowingly, like a child, hanker after resting in the unreal, the cause of his own downfall.336
What learned man, capable of discrimination between the real and the unreal, understanding the supreme object according to the conclusions of the shruti, and aspiring for liberation, would, like a child, rest in the unreal, the cause of his own fall? (337)
There is no liberation for him who is deliberately attached to the body and such things, while there is no selfidentification with such things as the body for a liberated man. There is no being awake for someone asleep, nor sleep for someone awake, for these two states are by their very nature distinct.337
There is no \mokshha for him who is attached to body and the rest; in the liberated there is no notion of the body and the rest being the ego. The sleeping man is not awake, and the man awake is not asleep - different attributes inhering in each. (338)
He who knows himself within and without, and recognises himself as the underlying support in all things moving and unmoving, remaining indivisible, fulfilled in himself by abandoning all that is not himself he is liberated.338
He is liberated, who, having (by spiritual intelligence) perceived the Logos within and without, in moveable and immoveable (things), realizing it as the basis of the ego and abandoning all \upaadhis, remains as the all-pervading, indestructible Logos. (339)
The means of liberation from bondage is through the one self in everything, and there is nothing higher than this one self in everything. When one does not cling to anything to do with the senses, one achieves these things, and being the one self in everything depends on resting in ones true self.339
There is no other means for the removal of bondage than the realization of the nature of the Logos. When objects of sense are not pursued, the state of being of the Logos is attained through unremitting devotion to it. (340)
How is not clinging to the senses possible when ones basis is selfidentification with the body, and ones mind is attached to enjoying external pleasures, and on doing whatever is necessary to do so? But it can be achieved within themselves by those who have abandoned all objects of rules and observances, who are always resting in selfawareness, who know the Truth and energetically seek the bliss of Reality.340
How can the non-pursuit of objects of sense which can only with effort be accomplished by the wise, who know the truth, ceaselessly devoted to the Logos, aspiring for eternal bliss, and who have renounced all objects of dharma (customary observances ?) and Karma (religious rites and ceremonies ?), be possible to one who regards the body as the self, whose mind is engaged in the pursuit of external objects, and who performs all actions connected with them? (341)
Scripture prescribes meditation for realisation of the self in everything to the ascetic who has fulfilled the requirement of listening to scripture, saying "At peace and selfcontrolled" and so on (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.4.23).341
For the attainment (of the state of) the Logos by the \bhikshhu (mendicant novice), engaged in the study of philosophy, \samaadhi is enjoined by the shruti-text: "Possessed of control over external organs and mind", and so forth. (342)
Even wise men cannot get rid of the sense of doership all of a sudden when it has grown strong, but those who are unwavering in socalled imageless samadhi can, whose desire for this has been developed over countless lives.342
Even the wise are not able at once to cause the destruction of egoism which has become strong by growth. Except in those who are fixed in \nirvikalpa-samaadhi, \vaasanaa (creates) many births. (343)
The outwardturning power of the mind binds a man to the sense of doership by its veiling effect, and confuses him by the attributes of that power.343
\vikshhepa-shakti, binding a man to the delusive idea of self through the power of \Avarana-shakti, carries him (into embodied existence) by its qualities. (344)
To overcome the outwardturning power of the mind is hard to accomplish without completely eliminating the veiling effect, but the covering over ones inner self can be removed by discriminating between seer and objects, like between milk and water. Absence of an barrier is finally unquestionable when there is no longer any distraction caused by illusory objects.344
Perfect discrimination, born of direct experience establishing the truth of the distinction between seer and objects, severs the bonds of delusion produced by Maya (the creative power, which makes things appear to exist), and as a result the liberated person is no longer subject to samsara.345
Until the \Avarana-shakti ceases completely, the conquest of the \vikshhepa-shakti is impossible. From its inherent nature the former is destroyed in the self when subject and object are distinguished, as milk and water. (345)
When there is a complete cessation of the (activity of) the \vikshhepa-shakti in regard to the unreal, then without doubt or impediment arises perfect discrimination, born of clear perception, dividing the real and unreal principles, cutting asunder the bond of delusion produced by \maayaa, for one emancipated from that there is no more changeful existence. (346)
The fire of the knowledge of the oneness of above and below burns up completely the tangled forest of ignorance. What seed of samsara could there still be for such a person who has achieved nonduality? 346
The fire of the knowledge of the oneness without limitation, burns down completely the forest of \avidyaa; where then is the seed of changeful existence of him who has completely attained the state of oneness? (347)
The veiling effect only disappears with full experience of Reality, and the elimination of false knowledge leads to the end of the suffering caused by that distraction.347
By the thorough realization of the (essential) substance \Avarana-shakti ceases. The destruction of false knowledge is the cessation of the pain (arising from) the \vikshhepa-shakti. (348)
These three (the removal of veiling effect, false knowledge and suffering) are clearly apparent in the case of recognising the true nature of the rope, so a wise man should get to know the truth about the underlying reality if he wants to be liberated from his bonds. 348
By the perception of the true character of the rope these three are seen. Therefore by the wise the essential substance is to be known for the sake of liberation from bondage. (349)
Like fire in conjunction with iron, the mind manifests itself as knower and objects by dependence on something real, but as the duality that causes is seen to be unreal in the case of delusions, dreams and fantasies, so the products of natural causation, from the idea of doership down to the body itself and all its senses, are also unreal in view of the way they are changing every moment, while ones true nature itself never changes.349, 350
Buddhi in conjuncyion with consciousness - similar to the union of the iron and fire - manifests itself as the faculties of sensation. The effects of this (manifestation) are the three; wherefore what is perceived in error, in dream, and in desire, is false. (350)
Therefore all these objects beginning with \aham.kaara and ending in the body, are the modifications of \prakriti. These are unreal, because every moment they appear different, whereas the \Atman is at no time otherwise. (351)
The supreme self is the internal reality of Truth and Bliss, eternally indivisible and pure consciousness, the witness of the intellect and the other faculties, distinct from being or notbeing, the reality implied by the word "I".351
ParamAtman is the eternal, unmixed bliss, the eternal, non-dual, indestructible consciousness, ever the same form, the witness of buddhi and the rest, different from both ego and non-ego; its true significance is indicated by the mwaning of the word "I" (\aham.), the real self. (352)
Distinguishing the real from the unreal in this way by means of his inborn capacity of understanding, and liberated from these bonds, a wise man attains peace by recognising his own true nature as undifferentiated awareness.352
The wise man, having thus discriminated between ego and non-ego, having ascertained the one reality by innate (spiritual) perception, having realized his own \Atman as indestructible knowledge, rests in the real self, being free from the two (ego and non-ego). (353)
The knot of ignorance in the heart is finally removed when one comes to see ones own true nondual nature by means of imageless samadhi. 353
When by avikalpa \samaadhi the non-dual \Atman is realized, thwn is ignorance - the knot of the heart - completely destroyed. (354)
Assumptions of "you", "me", "it" occur in the nondual, undifferentiated supreme self because of a failure in the understanding, but all a mans false assumptions disappear in samadhi and are completely destroyed by the realisation of the truth of the underlying reality.354
\Paramaatman, being non-dual and without difference, such conceptions as "I", "thou", and "this", are produced through the defects of buddhi. But when \samaadhi is manifest, all differentiation connected with him becomes destroyed through the realization of the real substance. (355)
An ascetic who is peaceful, disciplined, fully withdrawn, longsuffering and meditative always cultivates the presence of the self of everything in himself. Eradicating in this way the false assumptions created by the distorting vision of ignorance, he lives happily in God free from action and free from imaginations.355
The ascetic possessed of \shama, dama, supreme uparati, and \kshhaanti (endurance), and devoted to \samaadhi, perceives the state of the Logos and through that completely burns down all vikalpa (error) produced by \avidyaa and dwells in bliss in Brahman free from vikalpa and action. (356)
Only those who have achieved samadhi and who have withdrawn the external senses, the mind and their sense of doership into their true nature as consciousness are free from being trapped in the snare of samsara, not those who just repeat the statements of others.356
Those alone are freed from the bondage of conditioned being who, having transcended all externals, such as hearing, mind, self and egotism in the \chidaatman, are absorbed in it, not those who simply speak about the mystery. (357)
Because of the diversity of the things he identifies himself with, a man tends to see himself as complex, but with the removal of the identification, he is himself again and perfect as he is. For this reason a wise man should get rid of selfidentifications and always cultivate imageless samadhi.357
Through the differences of \upaadhi, the true self seems to be divided, on the removal of \upaadhi the one true self remains. Therefore let the wise man remain always devoted to \samaadhi until the final dissolution of \upaadhi. (358)
Adhering to the Real a man comes to share in the nature of that Reality by his onepointed concentration on it, in the same way that a grub is able to become a wasp by concentration on a wasp.358
The man, devoted to sat (the real), becomes sat through exclusive devotion to that one. As the insect thinking constantly of the humble-bee becomes itself the bee. (359)
A grub achieves wasphood by abandoning attachment to other activities and concentrating on the nature of being a wasp. In the same way an ascetic meditates on the reality of the supreme self and achieves it through his onepointed concentration on it.359
The insect, abandoning attachment to all other action, neditating on that humble-bee, attains the state of the humble-bee. Similarly, the yogi meditating on the \Paramaatman, becomes it through devotion to that one. (360)
The reality of the supreme self is extremely subtle and is not capable of being experienced by those of coarse vision, but it can be known by those worthy of it by reason of their very pure understanding by means of a mind made extremely subtle by meditation.360
The excessively subtile \Paramaatman cannot be perceived through the gross vision. (It is) to be known by worthy men, with very pure buddhi through the \samaadhi and supremely subtile (spiritual) faculties. (361)
As gold purified in a furnace loses its impurities and achieves its own true nature, the mind gets rid of the impurities of the attributes of delusion, passion and purity through meditation and attains Reality.361
As gold, properly purified by fire, attains its essential quality, abandoning all dross; so the manas, abandoning the impurities sattva, rajas, and tamas, through meditation attains the Supreme Reality. (362)
When by the effect of constant meditation the purified mind becomes one with God, then samadhi, now freed from images, experiences in itself the state of nondual bliss.362
When the manas, matured by ceaseless discipline of this kind, becomes merged in Brahman, then \samaadhi, devoid of all vikalpa, becomes of itself the producer of the realization of non-dual bliss. (363)
The destruction of the bonds of all desires through this samadhi is the destruction of all karma, and there follows the manifestation of ones true nature without effort, inside, outside, everywhere and always.363
By this \samaadhi there is destruction of the entire knot of \vaasanaa, and extinction of all karma. So there is always, and in every way, within and without, a spontaneous manifestation of \svaruupa. (364)
Thought should be considered a hundred times better than hearing, and meditation is thousands of times better than thought, while imageless samadhi is infinite in its effect.364
Know meditation to be a hundred times (superior) to listening, assimilation to be a hundred thousand times (superior) to meditation, and \nirvikalpa-samaadhi to be infinitely (superior) to assimilation. (365)
The experience of the reality of God becomes permanent though imageless samadhi, but not otherwise as it is mixed with other things by the restlessness of the mind.365
Verily by \nirvikalpa-samaadhi the essential reality called Brahman is clearly realized; not by any other means. (As the non-dual reality) becomes mixed with other conceptions through the inconstancy of the activities of the manas. (poor translation ?) (366)
So, established in meditation, with the senses controlled, the mind calmed and continually turned inwards, destroy the darkness of beginningless ignorance by recognising the oneness of Reality.366
Therefore with the organs of sense restrained, and in uninterrupted tranquility of mind, be engaged in meditation on the Logos; and by perception of the one reality, destroy the darkness caused by beginningless \avidyaa. (367)
The primary door to union with God is cutting off talking, not accepting possessions, freedom from expectation, dispassion and a secluded manner of life.367
The first gate of Yoga is the control of speech, then non-acceptance, absence of expectation, absence of desire and uninterrupted devotion to the one. (368)
Living in seclusion is the cause of control of the senses, restraint of the mind leads to inner stillness and tranquillity leads to mastery of selfcentred desire. From that comes the ascetics continual experience of the unbroken bliss of God. So the wise man should always strive for the cessation of thought.368
Uninterrupted devotion to the one the cause of the cessation of sense-enjoyment, dama is the cause of tranquility of the thinking self, and on account of \shama egotism is dissolved. Thence proceeds the Yogi's perpetual enjoyment of the bliss of Brahman, Therefore the cessation of the activity of the thinking self is to be attained with effort by the ascetic. (369)
Restrain speech within. Restrain the mind in the understanding and restrain the understanding in the consciousness that observes the understanding. Restrain that in the perfect and imageless self, and enjoy supreme peace.369
Control speech by (thy) self, and that by buddhi (intellect); and buddhi by the witness of buddhi, merge that in \nirvikalpa-puurnaatman and obtain supreme rest. (370)
Body, functions, senses, mind, understanding and so on whichever of these adjuncts the minds activity is connected with, that becomes the ascetics identity for the time.370
The Yogi attains the state of those \upaadhis, namely body, life principle, senses, mind, intellect, etc. with whose functions he is engaged. (371)
When this process is stopped, the wise man knows the perfect joy of the letting go of everything, and experiences the attainment of the overwhelming bliss of Reality.371
It is observed that on the cessation of activity (of those \upaadhis) there comes for the muni that perfect happiness which is caused by abstinence from the pleasures of the senses and the realization of eternal bliss. (372)
Internal renunciation and external renunciation it is the dispassionate man who is capable of these. The dispassionate man abandons fetters internal and external because of his yearning for liberation.372
Renunciation, external and internal, is fit only for him who is dispassionate. Therefore the dispassionate man on account of the aspiration for liberation forsakes all attachment, whether internal or external. (373)
The dispassionate man, established in God, is indeed capable of abandoning the external bond of the senses and the internal one of selfishness and so on.373
External attachment is to objects of sense, internal is to egoism and the rest. It is only the dispassionate man, devoted to Brahman, who is able to renounce them. (374)
As a discriminating person realise that dispassion and understanding are like a birds wings for a man. Without them both he cannot reach the nectar of liberation growing on top of a creeper.374
O thou, discriminating man! Know renunciation and spiritual knowledge to be the two wings of the embodied ego. By nothing other than these two can ascent to the top of the creeper of nectar called Liberation be accomplished. (375)
The extremely dispassionate man achieves samadhi. A person in samadhi experiences steady enlightenment. He who is enlightened to the Truth achieves liberation from bondage, and he who is truly liberated experiences eternal joy.375
For him who is possessed of excessive dispassion there is \samaadhi, for him in \samaadhi there is unwavering spiritual perception. For him who has perceived the essential reality there is liberation, and for the liberated \Atman there is realization of eternal bliss. (376)
I know of no higher source of happiness for a selfcontrolled man than dispassion, and when allied to thoroughly pure selfknowledge it leads to the sovereign state of selfmastery. Since this is the gate to the unfading maiden of liberation, always and with all eagerness develop this supreme wisdom within yourself in happiness.376
For one whose self is controlled, I see no better generator of happiness than dispassion. If that, again, is accomplished by ckear spiritual perception, he becomes the enjoyer of the empire of self-domination; this is the permanent gate of the maiden Liberation. Therefore thou who art different from this, being void of attachment to everything, ever gain knowledge for (thy) self for the sake of liberation. (377)
Cut off desire for the poisonlike senses, for these are deathdealing. Get rid of pride in birth, family and state of life, and throw achievements far away. Drop such unreal things as the body into the sacrificial bowl of your true self, and develop wisdom within. You are the Witness. You are beyond the thinking mind. You are truly God, nondual and supreme.377
Cut off desire of objects of sense which are like poison; these are the causes of death. Having forsaken selfish attachment to caste, family and religious order, renounce all acts proceeding from attachment. Abandon the notion of self in regard to unreality - body and the rest - and gain knowledge of self. In reality thou art the seer, stainless, and the supreme non-dual Brahman. (378)
Direct the mind resolutely towards God, restraining the senses in their various seats, and looking on the state of the body as a matter of indifference. Realise your oneness with God, remaining continually intent on identifying with its nature, and joyfully drink the bliss of God within, for what use is there in other, empty things?378
Having firmly applied the manas to the goal, Brahman, having confined the external organs to their own places, with the body motionless, regardless of its state or condition, and having realized the unity of the \Atman and Brahman by absorption, and abiding in the indestructible, always and abundantly drink in the essence of Brahmanic bliss in thyself. What is the use of all else which is void of happiness? (379)
Stop thinking about anything which is not your true self, for that is degrading and productive of pain, and instead think about your true nature, which is bliss itself and productive of liberation. 379
Abandoning all-thought of non-spirit, which stains the mind and is the cause of suffering, think of \Atman, which is bliss and which is the cause of liberation. (380)
This treasure of consciousness shines unfading with its own light as the witness of everything. Meditate continually on it, making this your aim, distinct as it is from the unreal.380
(This \Atman) is self illuminating, the witness of all and is ever manifest in the \vijñaanamaya-kosha. Making this, which is different from asat (unreal), the aim, realize it as the indestructible self by abiding in it. (381)
This one should be aware of with unbroken application, continually turning to it with a mind empty of everything else, knowing it to be ones own true nature.381
Uttering its name, realize it clearly as the essential form of self, the indivisible being, not dependent upon another. (382)
This one should identify with firmly, abandoning the sense of doership and so on, remaining indifferent to them, as one is to things like a cracked jar.382
Thoroughly realizing it as the self, and giving up the idea of self as being egotism and the rest, and yet remaining in them, (regard them) as broken earthen-pots through want of interest in them. (383)
Turning ones purified awareness within on the witness as pure consciousness, one should gradually bring it to stillness and then become aware of the perfection of ones true nature.383
Having applied the purified \antah-karana to the real self, which is the witness. the absolute knowledge, leading it by slow degrees to steadiness, realize the \puurnaatman. (384)
One should become aware of oneself, indivisible and perfect like Space itself, when free from identification with such things as ones body, senses, functions, mind and sense of doership, which are all the products of ones own ignorance.384
Regard the indestructible and all-pervading \Atman freed from all the \upaadhis - body, senses, vitality, mind, egotism and the rest - produced by ignorance as \mahaakaasha (great space). (385)
Space when freed from the hundreds of additional objects like pots and pans, receptacles and needles is one, and in the same way the supreme Reality becomes no longer multiple but one and pure when freed from the sense of doership and so on.385
As space, freed from a hundred \upaadhis (the small and large earthen pots, containing rice and other grain), is one and not many, similarly the pure Supreme, freed from egotism and the rest, is but one. (386)
All additional objects from Brahma to the last clump of grass are simply unreal, so one should be aware of ones own perfect true nature abiding alone and by itself.386
From \Brahmaa down to the post, all \upaadhis are merely illusive. Therefore realize the all-pervading \Atman as one and the same. (387)
When rightly seen, what had been mistaken in error for something else is only what it always was and not something different. When the mistaken perception is removed the reality of the rope is seen for what it is, and the same is true for the way everything is really oneself.387
Whatever is imagined through error as different (from the real), is not so on right perception, but it is merely that (thing itself). On the cessation of error what was seen before as a snake appears as the rope, similarly the universe is in reality the \Atman. (388)
One is oneself Brahma, one is Vishnu, one is Indra, one is Shiva, and one is oneself all this. Nothing else exists except oneself. 388
The \Atman is \Brahmaa, the \Atman is \Vishhnu, the \Atman is Indra, the \Atman is \Shiva, the \Atman is the whole of this universe; besides \Atman there is nothing. (389)
Oneself is what is within, oneself is without, oneself is in front and oneself is behind. Oneself is to the south, oneself is to the north, and oneself is also above and below.389
The \Atman is within, the \Atman is without, the \Atman is before, the \Atman is behind, the \Atman is in the south, the \Atman is in the north, the \Atman is also above and below. (390)
Just as waves, foam, whirlpool and bubbles are all in reality just water, so consciousness is all this from the body to the sense of doership. Everything is just the one pure consciousness.390
As wave, foam, whirlpool and bubble - are all essentially but water, so all, beginning with the body and ending with egotism, are but consciousness, which is pure and absolute happiness. (391)
This whole world known to speech and mind is really the supreme Reality. Nothing else exists but the Reality situated beyond the limits of the natural world. Are pots, jars, tubs and so on different from clay? It is the man confused by the wine of Maya that talks of "you" and "me".391
Verily all this universe, known through mind and speech, is the spirit; verily nothing is except the spirit which lies on the other side of \prakriti. Are the various kinds of earthen vessels different from the earth? The embodied ego, deluded by the wine of \maayaa, speaks of "I" and "you". (392)
The scripture talks of the absence of duality in the expression "where there is nothing else" (Chandogya Upanishad 7.24.1) with several verbs to remove any idea of false attribution.392
By the cessation of action there remains no other than this. The shruti declares the absence of duality, for the purpose of removing the erroneous conception that attributes one thing to another. (393)
What else is there to know but ones true supreme nature, God himself, like space pure, imageless, unmoving, unchanging, free of within or without, without a second and nondual.393
The real self is the Supreme Brahman, pure as space, void of vikalpa, of boundary, of motion, of modification, of within and without, the secondless, having no other, (so) what else is there to know? (394)
What more is to be said here? The individual is himself God. Scripture declares that this whole extended world is the indivisible God. Those who have been illuminated by the thought "I am God", themselves live steadfastly as God, abandoning external objects, as the eternal consciousness and bliss.394
What more is there to say? \Jiiva, svayam (the real self), from the atom to the universe, all is the non-dual Brahman - in different forms; the shruti says: I am Parabrahman. Those whose minds are thus illuminated, having abandoned all externals, abide in the eternal \chidanandaatman and thus reach Brahman. This is quite certain. (395)
Destroy the desires arising from opinions about yourself in this impure body, and even more so those of the subtle mental level, and remain as yourself, the God within, the eternal body of bliss, celebrated by the scriptures.395
Kill out desires raised through egoism in the physical body full of filth, then those raised in the astral body. Know the (real) self, whose glory is celebrated in the Vedas, to be eternal, the very bliss, and remain in Brahman. (396)
So long as a man is concerned about the corpselike body, he is impure and suffers from his enemies in the shape of birth, death and sickness. When however he thinks of himself as pure godlike and immovable, then he is freed from those enemies, as the scriptures proclaim.396
So long as a man is attached to the corpse-form, he is impure thrrough enemies, there is suffering associated with burth, death and disease. When he perceives the pure \Atman which is bliss and is immovable, then only (he) becomes free from these - so the Vedas declare. (397)
Getting rid of all apparent realities within oneself, one is oneself the supreme God, perfect, nondual and actionless.397
On the removal of all phenomenal attributes imposed upon the self, the true self is (found to be) the supreme, non-dual, and actionless Brahman. (398)
When the mind waves are put to rest in ones true nature, the imageless God, then this false assumption exists no longer, but is recognised as just empty talk.398
When the functions of the thinking self are at rest in \Paramaatman, which is Parabrahman void of vikalpa, then this vikalpa is perceived no longer and mere wild talk remains. (399)
What we call "All this" is a false idea and mistaken assumption of in the one Reality. How can there be distinctions in something which is changeless, formless and without characteristics?399
In the one substance, undifferentiable, formless and devoid of \visheshha, where is the difference? Gence the distinction that this is the universe, is a false conception. (400)
Seer, seeing and seen and so on have no existence in the one Reality. How can there be distinctions in something which is changeless, formless and without characteristics?400
In the one substance, devoid of the conditions, such as knower, knowledge and known and undifferentiable, formless and devoid of \visheshha, where is the difference? (401)
In the one Reality which is completely perfect like the primal ocean, how can there be distinctions in something which is changeless, formless and without characteristics?401
In the one substance, full as the Ocean of Kalpa, and undifferentiable, formless and devoid of \visheshha, where is the difference? (402)
When the cause of error has been annihilated like darkness in light, how can there be distinctions in something which is changeless, formless and without characteristics?402
In the supreme reality, srcondless and devoid of \visheshha, in whixh ignorance, the cause of illusion, is destroyed as darkness is in light, where is the difference? (403)
How can there be distinctions in a supreme reality which is by nature one? Who has noticed any distinctions in the pure joy of deep sleep?403
In the one supreme reality, how can there by any indication of difference? By whom has any difference been perceived in \sushhupti, which is merely a state of happiness? (404)
After realisation of the supreme Truth, all this no longer exists in ones true nature of the imageless God. The snake is not to be found in time past, present or future, and not a drop of water is to be found in a mirage.404
On the realization of the supreme Truth, in none of the three divisions of time is there the universe in \sadaatman, the consciousness which is Brahman void of vikalpa. There is no snake in the rope nor a drop of water in the mirage. (405)
Scripture declares that this dualism is Mayacreated and actually nondual in the final analysis. It is experienced for oneself in deep sleep.405
This duality exists only through \maayaa; in absolute reality there is no duality; this the Vedas say clearly and it is perceived in \sushhupti. (406)
The identity of a projection with its underlying reality is recognised by the wise in the case of the rope and the snake, etc. The false assumption arises from a mistake.406
The identity of that which is attributed to the substance with the substance itself has been perceived by the wise in the case of the rope and the serpent. The distinction is kept alive by error. (407)
This falsely imagined reality depends on thought, and in the absence of thought it no longer exists, so put thought to rest in samadhi in the inner reality of ones higher nature.407
This distinction has its root in the thinking principle; without the thinking principle it does not exist. Therefore bring the thinking principle to rest in \Paramaatman which is the Logos. (408)
The wise man experiences the perfection of God in his heart in samadhi as something which is eternal consciousness, complete bliss, incomparable, transcendent, ever free, free from effort, and like infinite space indivisible and unimaginable.408
The wise man in \samaadhi perceives in his heart that something which is eternal knowledge, pure bliss, incomparable, eternally free, actionlessm as limitless as space, stainless, without distinction of subject and object, and is the all-pervading Brahman. (409)
The wise man experiences the perfection of God in his heart in samadhi as something which is free from natural causation, a reality beyond thought, uniform, unequalled, far from the associations of pride, vouched for by the pronouncements of scripture, eternal, and familiar to us as ourselves.409
The wise man in \samaadhi perceives in his heart (that) which is devoid of \prakriti and its modifications, whose state or being is beyond conception, and which is uniform, unequalled, beyond the knot of manas, established by the declarations of the Vedas, and known as the eternal Logos, and is the all-pervading Brahman. (410)
The wise man experiences the perfection of God in his heart in samadhi as something which is unaging, undying, the abiding reality among changing objects, formless, like a calm sea free from questions and answers, where the effects of natural attributes are at rest, eternal, peaceful and one.410
The wise man in \samaadhi perceives in his heart the undecaying, immortal substance, not indicated by mere negation, without name, in whom the activity of the \gunas is at an end, eternal, peaceful and one. (411)
With the mind pacified by samadhi within, recognise the infinite glory of yourself, sever the sweetsmelling bonds of samsara, and energetically become one who has achieved the goal of human existence.411
Having brought the \antah-karana to rest, in the true self, you should perceive it, whose glory is indestructible; with assiduous efforts sever the bondage tainted by the smell of conditioned existence, and render fruitful your manhood. (412)
Free from all false selfidentification, meditate on yourself as the nondual beingconsciousnessbliss within yourself, and you will no longer be subject to samsara.412
Realize the \Atman existing in yourself, freed from all \upaadhis, the non-dual being, consciousness and bliss, and you will no longer be subject to evolution. (413)
Seeing it as no more than a mans shadow, a mere reflection brought about by causality, the sage looks on his body as from a distance like a corpse, with no intention of taking it up again.413
The \mahaatmaa having abandones the visible body as if it was a corpse - the body which, through experiencing the effects of Karma, is regarded as a reflected shadow of the man - does not again fix his thughts upon it. (414)
Come to the eternally pure reality of consciousness and bliss and reject afar identification with this dull and unclean body. Dont remember it any more, like something once vomited is fit only for contempt.414
Having approached the Logos which is eternal, pure knowledge and bliss, abandon this \upaadhi which is impure. Then it is not to be thought of again, the recollection of what is vomitted is only calculated to disgust. (415)
Burning this down along with its roots in the fire of his true nature, the imageless God, the wise man remains alone in his nature as eternally pure consciousness and bliss.415
The great wise man having burnt all this down to the roots in the fire of the eternal self, which is the non-dual Brahman in essence, remains in the Logos, which is eternal, pure knowledge and bliss. (416)
Let the body, spun on the thread of previous causation, fall or stay put, like a cows garland. The knower of the Truth takes no more notice of it, as his mental functions are merged in his true nature of God.416
The knower of truth, whose being is being absorbed into the Logos which is bliss and Brahman, does not again look at the body, strung on the thread of \praarabdha Karma and (unholy) as cow's blood, whether the body remains or disappears. (417)
To satisfy what desire, or for what purpose should the knower of the Truth care for his body, when he knows himself in his own true nature of indivisible bliss.417
Having perceived the Logos which is indestructible and bliss, as the real self, for what purpose and for whose sake can the knower of truth nourish the body? (418)
The fruit gained by the successful man, liberated here and now, is the enjoyment in himself of the experience of being and bliss within and without.418
The gain of the Yogi who has attained perfection is the enjoyment of perpetual bliss in the \Atman. (419)
The fruit of dispassion is understanding, the fruit of understanding is imperturbability, and the fruit of the experience of bliss within is peace. This is the fruit of imperturbability.419
The result of dispassion is right perception; of right perception abstention from the pleasures of sense and ceremonial acts. The peace that comes from the realization of the true is the fruit of abstention from ceremonial acts, from the pleasures of sense. (420)
If the successive stages do not occur it means that the previous ones were ineffective. Tranquillity is the supreme satisfaction, leading to incomparable bliss.420
The absence of what follows renders fruitless the one that precedes it. Perfect satisfaction proceeding from the unparalleled bliss that comes from self is liberation. (421)
The fruit of insight referred to is feeling no disquiet at the experience of suffering. How could a man who has done various disgusting actions in a time of aberration do the same again when he is in his right mind?421
The fruit of wisdom is declared to be freedom from anxiety at the sight of trouble. How can a man of right discrimination do afterwards the blameworthy acts done when deluded? (422)
The fruit of knowledge should be the turning away from the unreal, while turning towards the unreal is seen to be the fruit of ignorance. This can be seen in the case of someone who recognises or does not recognise things like a mirage. Otherwise what fruit would there be for seers?422
It is perceived that the fruit of wisdom is liberation from asat (\prakriti), that of ignorance is attachment to it. If this (difference) is not perceived between the ignorant and the wise, as in the mirage, etc. where can we see any gain for the wise? (423)
When the knot of the heart, ignorance, has been thoroughly removed, how could the senses be the cause of the mind being directed outwards for someone who does not want them?423
If the knot of the heart, ignorance, is entirely destroyed, then how can objects by themselves be the cause of attachment in respect of one who is without desires? (424)
When there is no upsurge of desire for goods, that is the summit of dispassion. When there is no longer any occurrence of the selfidentification with the doer, that is the summit of understanding, and when there is no more arising of latent mental activity, that is the summit of equanimity.424
The non-appearance of even conscious inclination towards objects of enjoyment is the extreme limit of dispassion; the non-evolution of egotism is the supreme limit of right discrimination; the non-evolution of self-conscious being by absorption in the Logos is the extreme limit of uparati (peace, tranquility). (425)
He is the enjoyer of the fruit of infinite past good deeds, blessed and to be revered on earth, who free from external things by always been established in his awareness of God, regards objects which others look on as desirable like someone half asleep, or like a child, and who looks at the world like a world seen in a dream, or like some mere chance encounter.425
He on this earth is happy and worthy of honour who, by always resting in peace in the form of Brahman is freed from external consciousness, regarding the objects of enjoyment experienced by others as a sleeping child, looking upon the universe as the world perceived in dream, at times recovers consciousness and enjoys the fruit of an infinity of meritorious deeds. (426)
That ascetic is of established wisdom who enjoys the experience of being and bliss with his mind merged in God, beyond change and beyond action.426
This ascetic, firm in wisdom, free from changes of condition, actionless, enjoys perpetual bliss, his \Atman being absorbed in Brahman. (427)
That function of the mind which is imageless pure awareness, and which is immersed in the essential oneness of oneself and God is known as wisdom, and he in whom this state is well established is called one of established wisdom.427
\prajñaa or wisdom is said to be that state of ideation which recognizes no such distinction as that of ego and non-ego, and wehich is absorbed in the manifested unity of Brahman and \Atman. (428)
He whose wisdom is well established, whose bliss is uninterrupted, and whose awareness of multiplicity is virtually forgotten, he is regarded as liberated here and now.428
He who is perfectly at rest (in this wisdom) is said to be firm in wisdom. He who is firm in wisdom, whose bliss is uninterrupted and by whom the objective universe is well nigh forgotten, is regarded as \jiivanmukta. (429)
When a mans mind is at rest in God even when he is awake he does not share the usual condition of being awake. He whose awareness is free of desires is regarded as liberated here and now.429
He is regarded as \jiivanmukta who, though having his consciousness absorbed, is awake and yet devoid of all characteristics of waking, whose consciousness is free from even unconscious traces of desire. (430)
He whose worries in samsara have been put to rest, who though made up of parts does not identify himself with them, and whose mind is free from thoughts, he is regarded as liberated here and now.430
He is regarded as \jiivanmukta in whom all tendency to evolution is at rest, who though possessed of \kalss (Logoic ray ?), is yet devoid of it, whose thinking principle is devoid of thinking. (431)
The sign of a man liberated here and now is the absence of thoughts of "me" and "mine" in the body while it still exists, going along with him like his shadow.431
Though existing in this body which is like a shadow, to be yet devoid of egotism and the consciousness of my-ness, is the characteristic of a \jiivanmukta. (432)
The sign of a man liberated here and now is not running back to the past, not dwelling on the future, and being unconcerned about the present.432
Want of inquiry into the past, absence of speculation about the future, and indifference (as to the present), are the characteristics of a \jiivanmukta. (433)
The sign of a man liberated here and now is to look with an equal eye on everything in this manifold existence with all its natural faults, knowing that in itself it is without characteristics.433
By nature to regard all as equal everywhere in this world of opposites, full as of good aand bad qualities, is the characteristic of a \jiivanmukta. (434)
The sign of a man liberated here and now is to remain unmoved in either direction, looking on things with an equal eye within, whether encountering the pleasant or the painful.434
On meeting with objects, agreeable and disagreeable, to regard them all as equal in oneself and to feel no perturbation in either case, is characteristic of a \jiivanmukta. (435)
The sign of a man liberated here and now is to be unaware of internal or external, since the ascetics mind is occupied with enjoying the experience of the bliss of God.435
The absence of external and internal perception in the ascetic by reason of his by reason of his consciousness being centred in the enjoyment of Brahmanic bliss, is characteristic of a \jiivanmukta. (436)
The sign of a man liberated here and now is that he remains unconcerned and free from the sense of "me" and "mine" in the things needing to be done by the body and the senses and so on.436
He who is free from egotism and my-ness in what is done by body, senses, etc. and who remains indifferent, is possessed of the characteristic of a \jiivanmukta. (437)
The sign of a man liberated here and now is that he is free from the bonds of samsara, knowing his own identity with God with the help of the scriptures.437
He who has realized the identity of \Atman with Brahman by the power of Vedic wisdom and is freed from the bondage of conditioned existence, is possessed of the characteristic of a \jiivanmukta. (438)
He is regarded as liberated here and now who has no sense of "this is me" in the body and senses, nor of "it exists" in anything else. 438
He in whom the consciousness of "I" in regard to the body and organs, and of "this" in regard to other subjects, never arises, is considered a \jiivanmukta. (439)
The sign of a man liberated here and now is that he knows by wisdom that there is never any distinction between God and what proceeds from God.439
He who, by reason of wisdom, knows there is no difference between \pratyagaatman and Brahman, as also between Brahman and the universe, is possessed of the characteristic of a \jiivanmukta. (440)
The sign of a man liberated here and now is that he remains the same whether he is revered by the good or tortured by the bad.440
He who is the same, whether worshipped by the good or harassed by the wicked, is possessed of the characteristic of a \jiivanmukta. (441)
That ascetic is liberated into whom, because of his being pure reality, the sense object can flow and merge without leaving any alteration, like the water of a rivers flow.441
The ascetic, into whom enter and become merged objects called into existence by \paraa (Logoic light ?), as the rivers flow into the ocean, by reason of his being nothing but sat, and do not produce any change, is liberated. (442)
There is no more samsara for him who knows the Truth of God as there was before. If there is, then it is not the knowledge of God, since it is still outward turned.442
For him who has gained the true knowledge of Brahman there is no more evolution as before: if there be these the Brahmanic state is not known. (443)
If it is suggested that he still experiences samsara because of the strength of his previous desires, the answer is, No, desires become powerless through the knowledge of ones oneness with Reality.443
If it is said "he evolves through the force of previous \vaasanaa", it is not so; \vaasanaa becomes powerless by the realization of identity with the Reality.(444)
The impulses of even an extremely passionate man are arrested in face of his mother, and in the same way those of the wise cease in face of the perfect bliss of the knowledge of God.444
As the tendency of the most lustful man ceases before his mother, so (the \vaasanaa) of the wise ceases on knowing Brahman the perfect bliss. (445)
Someone practising meditation is seen to have external functions still. Scripture declares that this is the effect of the fruits of previous conditioning.445
Dependence of (external) objects is seen in one engaged in deep meditation on account of the results of Karma already in operation - so say the Vedas. (446)
So long as pleasure and the like occur, one acknowledges the effect of previous conditioning. A result occurs because of a previous cause. Nothing happens without a cause.446
So long as there is perception of pain and pleasure, so long \praarabdha exists; these results are preceded by Karma; for one devoid of Karma they cannot be anywhere, (447)
With the realisation that "I am God", all the actions accumulated over ages are wiped out, like actions in a dream on waking up.447
By the knowledge that I am Brahman, the Karma acquired in a thousand millions of kalpas is extinguished, as is the Karma of dream-life on awaking. (448)
How could the good or even dreadfully bad deeds done in the dreaming state lead a man to heaven or hell when he arises from sleep?448
Whatever is done, whether manifestly good or bad in dreams - how is it (efficacious) for the going to heaven or hell of the dreamer awakened? (449)
Recognising himself as unattached and impartial space, he never hold on to anything with the thought of actions yet to be done.449
Having realized his real self as space, without attachment and indifferent, he never clings to anything whatsoever by future Karma. (450)
Space is not affected with the smell of wine by contact with the jar, and in the same way ones true nature is not affected by their qualities through contact with the things one identified oneself with.450
Just as the space within the pot is unaffected by the pot or the odour of spirituous liquors, so also the \Atman remains unaffected by connection with \upaadhi and its functions. (451)
The karma created before the arising of knowledge does not come to an end with knowledge without producing its effect, like an arrow shot at a target after being loosed.451
The Karma incurred before the attainment of knowledge is not destroyed by knowledge without producing its effect, like a well-aimed arrow discharged at a target. (452)
An arrow released in the understanding that it was at a tiger does not stop when it is seen to be a cow, but pierces the target with the full force of its speed.452
An arrow discharged at what seems to be a tiger does not stop when it is seen that the object is a cow, but quickly and forcibly pierces the object aimed at. (453)
The effects of previous conditioning are too strong for even a wise man, and it is eliminated only by enduring it, but the effects of present and future conditioning are all destroyed by the fire of true understanding. Those who are always established in the knowledge of their oneness with God, as a result of that are not affected by these three aspects of conditioning since they share the unconditioned nature of God.453
\praarabdha (Karma already incurred in a previous incarnation) is indeed very powerful. In the wise it is exhausted with cheerful endurance. \samchita (Karma incurred during the present incarnation) and \Agaami (future Karma), are destroyed by the fire of perfect knowledge. Those, who having realized the identity of \Atman with Brahman always abide in that union, are never (affected) by the three kinds of Karma, for they become Brahman without attributes. (454)
The question of the existence of past conditioning does not apply for the ascetic who, by getting rid of selfidentification with anything else, is established within in the knowledge of the perfection of God as his true nature, just as questions concerned with things in a dream have no meaning when one has woken up.454
To the ascetic who is devoid of (the influence of ?) \upaadhi and its functions, and who abides in the \Atman alone, realizing its identity with Brahman, \praarabdha does not exist even in name, but is like dream-objects to one awake. (455)
He who has woken up makes no distinctions about his dream body and the multiplicity of things connected with it as being "me", "mine" or anything else, but simply remains himself by staying awake.455
The wise man does not make such distinctions as "I", "mine", "this", with respect to this illusory body and the world to which it belongs, but remains wakeful (conscious as the higher self). (456)
He has no desire to assert the reality of those illusions, and he has no need to hold on to the things he has woken up from. If he still chases these false realities he is certainly considered not awake yet.456
In him there is no desire strengthening illusory objects, nor does he perceive any advantage in this world. If he pursues illusory objects he certainly cannot be regarded as having awakened from the sleep of ignorance. (457)
In the same way he who lives in God remains in his own nature and seeks nothing else. Like the memory of things seen in a dream is the way the seer experiences eating, going to the toilet and so on. 457
Similarly he who ever abides in the \Atman and thus in Parabrahman, sees nothing else. Eating, sleeping, etc, are to a wise man but as the recollection of objects seen in dream. (458)
The body has been formed by causation so past causality appropriately applies to it, but it does not apply to the beginningless self, since ones true nature has not been causally formed.458
The body is created by Karma. Regard \praarabdha as belonging to it. It (\praarabdha) cannot be attributed to the \Atman which is without beginning. The \Atman is not created by Karma. (459)
Scriptures which do not err affirm that ones true nature is "Unborn, eternal and abiding" (Katha Upanishad 1.2.18), so how could causality apply to someone established in such a self?459
The unerring text of the shruti says: (the \Atman) is not born, is indestructible and eternal". How can \praarabdha exist in one abiding in \Atman? (460)
Causality applies only so long as one identifies oneself with the body, so he who does not consider himself the body has abolished causality for himself.460
Even the opinion that causality applies to the body is a mistake. How can a false assumption be true, and how can something which does not exist have a beginning? How can something with no beginning have an end, and how can causality apply to something that does not exist?461
So long as the notion continues that body is the self, \praarabdha exists. When that notion is not cherished (any longer), \praarabdha is abandoned. Even the notion that \praarabdha belongs to body is a delusive one. (461)
Whence is the reality of what is supposed and whence is the origin of unreality? Whence is then destruction of what is not born? Whence is there \praarabdha of what is unreal? (462)
The ignorant have the problem that if ignorance has been completely eliminated by knowledge, how does the body persist? To settle this doubt scripture talks about causality in accordance with conventional views, but not to teach the reality of the body and such things to the wise.462, 463
If the effects of ignorance are completely destroyed by knowledge, how can this body exist? To clear up this doubt of ignorant people, the \Shruti speaks of \praarabdha from an eternal point of view, but not in order to teach the reality of the body to the wise. (463, 464)
Complete in himself, without beginning or end, infinite and unchanging, God is one and without a second. There is nothing other than He.464
Brahman is all-pervading, without beginning and without end, immeasurable, unchangeable, the only one, non-dual, and no differentiation whatever exists therein. (465)
The essence of Truth, the essence of Consciousness, the eternal essence of Bliss and unchanging, God is one and without a second. There is nothing other than He.465
Brahman is absolute existence, absolute consciousness, eternal, absikute bliss, actionless, the only one, non-dual; and no differentiation whatever exists therein. (466)
The one reality within everything, complete, infinite, and limitless, God is one and without a second. There is nothing other than He.466
Brahman is uniform, unalloyed bliss, all-pervading, endless, boundless, the only one, non-dual; and no differentiation whatever exists therein. (467)
He cannot be removed or grasped; he cannot be received from someone else, or held onto. God is one and without a second. There is nothing other than He.467
Brahman can neither be abandoned, taken hold of nor received, and is independent, the only one, non-dual; and no differentiation whatever exists therein. (468)
Without attributes, indivisible, subtle, inconceivable, and without blemish, God is one and without a second. There is nothing other than He.468
Brahman is without attributes, indivisible, subtle, unconditioned, stainless, the only one, non-dual; and no differentiation whatever exists therein. (469)
His appearance is formless, beyond the realm of mind and speech. God is one and without a second. There is nothing other than He. 469
Brahman, whose form is indestructible, who is incomprehensible to speech and mind, is the only one, non-dual; and no differentiation whatever exists therein. (470)
Exuberant Reality, selfreliant, complete, pure, conscious and unique, God is one and without a second. There is nothing other than He.470
Brahman is perfect truth, wisdom self-existing, pure, imcp,parable, the only one, non-dual; and no differentiation whatever exists therein. (471)
Great ascetics who have abandoned desires and given up possessions, calm and disciplined, come to know this supreme Truth, and in the end attain the supreme peace by their selfrealisation.471
The great ascetics, who have abandoned desires and discarded enjoyments, who have subdued their minds and senses, knowing the supreme truth, attain at last \paranirvaana through union with the \Atman. (472)
You too should recognise this supreme Truth about yourself, your true nature and the essence of bliss, and shaking off the illusion created by your own imagination, become liberated, fulfilled and enlightened.472
Having investigated this supreme truth and the nature of the \Atman who is full of bliss, having shaken off the delusion created by your own mind, become wise and free, and thus attain the end. (473)
See the Truth of yourself with the clear eye of understanding, after the mind has been made thoroughly unwavering by meditation. If the words of scripture you have heard are really received without doubting, you will experience no more mistaken perception.473
With a pure, steady mind, know the nature of the \Atman by clear spiritual perception in \samaadhi. If the (one real) substance be perceived without error and understood, it will be no more subject to doubt. (474)
When one has freed oneself from association with the bonds of ignorance by the realisation of the reality of Truth, Wisdom and Bliss, then scripture, traditional practices and the sayings of the wise remain proofs, but the inner experience of truth is proof too. 474
On realizing the \Atman who is truth, wisdom and bliss, through freedom from connection (with \upaadhi) created by the bond of ignorance, neither s'Astras, argument, nor the teachings of the guru, but only self-acquired experiences are of any authority. (475)
Bondage, freedom, contentment, worry, health, hunger and so on are matters of personal experience, and other peoples knowledge of them can only be by inference.475
Freedom from bondage, contentment, anxiety, health, hunger, must be experienced by oneself. Knowledge from others is inferential. (476)
Impartial gurus teach, as do the scriptures, that the wise man crosses over by means of wisdom alone through the grace of God.476
Equal-minded gurus teach, as the Vedas do, that the learned will be saved only by wisdom derived from \Ishvara. (477)
Knowing his true indivisible nature by his own realisation the perfected man should remain in full possession of himself free from imaginations within.477
Having known the indestructible \Atman through one's own experience, being perfected, one should abide in the \Atman happily and with steady mind. (478)
The conclusion of all the scriptures and of experience is that God is the individual and the whole world too, and that liberation is to remain in the one indivisible Reality. The scriptures are also the authority for the nonduality of God.478
The \Vedaanta doctrine sets forth that the whole universe and \jiivas are but Brahman, that \mokshha is abiding in the indestructible essence and the shrutis are the authority for the non-duality of Brahman. (479)
Having thus attained the supreme reality by self discipline through the words of his guru and the testimony of the scriptures, his faculties at peace and his mind at peace, he becomes something selfpoised and immovable.479
Thus comprehending - through the guru's teaching, through the authority of the shrutis, and through his own reasoning - the supreme truth, he with organs of sense controlled, with composed mind and motionless body, remained intent on the \Atman. (480)
Having established his mind for some time in the supreme God, he arose from supreme bliss and uttered these words.480
Having fixed his mind for a time on Parabrahman, he then got up and said, with much ecstasy, these words: (481)
My intellect has vanished and my mental activities have been swallowed up in the realisation of the oneness of myself and God. I no longer know this from that, nor what or how great this unsurpassed joy is.481
Through the realization of the \Atman with Beahman understanding is utterly lost and mental activity has vanished. I know neither this nor that, nor what this bliss is, its extent, nor its limit. (482)
Words cannot express nor the mind conceive the greatness of the ocean of the supreme God, full of the nectar of bliss. Like the state of a hailstone fallen into the ocean, my mind has now melted away in the tiniest fraction of it, fulfilled by its essential nature of Bliss.482
The greatness of Parabrahman, like an ocean completely filled with the nectar of realised bliss, can neither be described by speech nor conceived by mind, but can be enjoyed. Just as a hailstone falling into the sea becomes dissolved therein, so my mind becomes merged in the least part of this. Now am I happy with spiritual bliss. (483)
Where has the world gone? Who has removed it, or where has it disappeared to? I saw it only just now, and now it is not there. This a great wonder.483
Where is this world gone? By whom was it carried away? When did it dissapear? A great wonder! That which wqas perceived but now exists no longer. (484)
In the great ocean filled with the nectar of the indivisible bliss of God, what is to be got rid of, what is to be held onto, what is there apart from oneself and what has any characteristics of its own?484
In the great ocean of Brahman, filled with the ambrosia of perfect bliss, what is then to be abandoned or accepted? No other thing exists therein, nor is there any distinguishing quality. (485)
I can neither see, hear or experience anything else there, as it is I who exist there by myself with the characteristics of Being and Bliss.485
Here I neither see, nor hear, nor know anything. I am different from every other thing - the \Atman who is true bliss. (486)
Salutation upon salutation to you, great guru, free from attachment, the embodiment of absolute Truth, with the nature of ever nondual bliss, the sea of eternal compassion on earth.486
I bow before thee, O guru, who art good, great, free from attachment, the embodiment of eternal, non-dual bliss, lord of the earth, the boundless reservoir of compassion. (487)
Your very glance has soothed like gentle moonlight the weariness produced by the great heat of samsara, and I have immediately attained my own true everlasting home, the abode of imperishable glory and bliss.487
The weariness produced by the burning heat of changing existence being removed by drinking the sweet moonlight of thy glance, I attained, in a moment, the imperishable abode of \Atman whose glory and bliss are indestructible. (488)
Through your grace I am blessed, I have achieved the goal, I am freed from the bonds of samsara, I am eternal bliss by nature, and fulfilled.488
By the grace I am happy and have attained my object, I am freed from the shark of changing existence, and have gained the state of eternal bliss and am perfect. (489)
I am free, I am bodiless, I am without sex and indestructible. I am at peace, I am infinite, without blemish and eternal.489
I am without attachment and without limbs. I am sexless and indestructible.I am calm and endless. I am without stain and ancient. (490)
I am not the doer and I am not the reaper of the consequences. I am unchanging and without activity. I am pure awareness by nature, I am perfect and forever blessed.490
I am not the doer, nor am I the enjoyer, I am without change and without action. I am pure intelligence, one, and eternal bliss. (491)
I am distinct from the seer, hearer, speaker, doer and experiencer. I am eternal, undivided, actionless, limitless, unattached perfect awareness by nature.491
I am other than the seer, hearer, speaker, doer and enjoyer, but I am eternal, constant, actionless, without attachment and limitless, all-pervading wisdom. (492)
I am neither this nor that, but the pure supreme reality which illuminates them both. I am God, the indivisible, devoid of inside and outside, complete.492
I am neither this nor that; but I shine forth in both of them and am pure and supreme. I am neither within nor without, but I am all-pervading and non-dual Brahman. (493)
I am uncomparable, beginningless Reality. I am far from such thoughts as "you", "me", and "this". I am eternal bliss, the Truth, the nondual God himself.493
I am the non-dual Brahman which is incomparable, beginningless truth; devoid of such notions as "you", "I", "this" and "that", and eternal bliss and reality. (494)
I am Narayana, I am the slayer of Naraka and of Pura. I am the supreme Person and the Lord. I am indivisible awareness, the witness of everything. I have no master and I am without any sense of "me" and "mine".494
I am \Naaraayana, I am the destroyer of the giant Naraka, and the slayer of Pura, I am Purusa and Lord, I am indestructible wisdom and the witness of all. I am without \Ishvara nor am I aham (egoism) and I am free from mama (selfishness). (495)
I abide in all creatures, being the very knowledge which is their inner and outer support. I myself am the enjoyer and all enjoyment, in fact whatever I experienced before now.495
Being the support within and without, I alone abide in all beings as the wisdom self (\jñaanaatman). Whatever was perceived before as different, such as the enjoyer and the thing enjoyed, this am I alone. (496)
In me who am the ocean of infinite joy the manifold waves of the universe arise and come to an end, impelled by the winds of Maya. 496
In me, the ocean of indestructible bliss, are pruduced and dissolved, like waves, many worlds through the swirling motion of the gale (of) \maayaa. (497)
Ideas like "material" are mistakenly imagined about me by people under the influence of their presuppositions, as are divisions of time like kalpas, years, halfyears and seasons, dividing the indivisible and inconceivable..497
Such states as grossness and the like are imagined (to exist) in me and attributed to me by people through error and want of clear comprehension; just as the divisions of time, such as Kalpa, year, half-year, \Ritu, are made in indivisible and changeless time. (498)
The presuppositions of the severely deluded can never affect the underlying reality, just as the great torrent of a mirage flood cannot wet a desert land.498
That which is attributed (to me) by the ignorant, polluted by many sins, can never pollute me, even as the great flood of mirage water cannot wet the barren land. (499)
Like space, I am beyond contamination. Like the sun, I am distinct from the things illuminated. Like a mountain, I am always immovable. Like the ocean, I am boundless.499
Like space I go further than thought. Like the sun I am different from what is made visible. Like a mountain I am eternally immovable. Like the ocean I am boundless. (500)
I am no more bound to the body than the sky is to a cloud, so how can I be affected by its states of waking, dreaming and deep sleep? 500
I have no more connection with the body than the sky with a cloud. Whence, then, can I be subject to states such as waking, dreaming and dreamless slumber? (501)
Imagined attributes added to ones true nature come and go. They create karma and experience its effects. They grow old and die, but I always remain immovable like mount Kudrali.501
\Upaadhi comes and goes; it engenders Karma and enjoys (the effects). It alone grows old and dies. But I alone remain ever immovable like \Kulaadri. (502)
There is no outward turning nor turning back for me, who am always the same and indivisible. How can that perform actions which is single, of one nature, without parts and complete, like space?502
To me who am uniform and without parts, there is neither going forth nor going back. How is it possible for him to perform actions, who is the only self, firm, constant, and, like space, all-pervading? (503)
How can there be good and bad deeds for me who am organless, mindless, changeless and formless, and experience only indivisible joy? The scriptures themselves declare "he is not affected" (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.3.22).503
Where are the merits and demerits of me who have no sense, no mind, no changes, no form, and who enjoy indestructible happiness? Even the \Shruti asserts that they do not follow. (504)
Heat or cold, the pleasant or the unpleasant coming into contact with a mans shadow in no way affect the man himself who is quite distinct from his shadow.504
Heat or cold, good or evil touching a shadow, cannot affect the person, who is different from it. (505)
The qualities of things seen do not touch the seer, who is quite distinct from them, changeless and unaffected, just as household objects do not touch the lamp there.505
Just as household duties do not affect one who, like a burning lamp, is unconcerned and steady, so also the functions of the perceived do not affect the perceiver, who is different from them. (506)
Like the suns mere witnessing of actions, like fires noninvolvement with the things it is burning, and like the relationship of a rope to the idea superimposed on it, so is the unchanging consciousness within me.506
Just as the condition of witnessing actions belongs to the sun, and the property of melting iron belongs to fire, and the idea attributed to "rope" is associated with it, so \kuutastha (\muulaprakr.ti) is (related) to me who am \chidaatman. (507)
I neither do nor make things happen. I neither experience nor cause to experience. I neither see nor make others see. I am that supreme light without attributes.507
I am neither the doer nor the instigator; I am neither the enjoyer nor the promoter of enjoyment, I neither see nor cause others to see; but I am that \Atman who is self-illumined and unlike (anything else). (508)
When intervening factors (the water) move, the ignorant ascribe the movement of the reflection to the object itself, like the sun which is actually immovable. They think "I am the doer", "I am the reaper of the consequences", and "Alas, I am being killed."508
When the \upaadhi is in motion, the ignorant attribute the tremor of the reflections of the \upaadhi, such as "I do", "I enjoy", "I am killed", to the real self which is actionless like the sun. (509)
Whether my physical body falls into water or onto dry land, I am not dirtied by their qualities, just as space is not affected by the qualities of a jar it is in.509
The ignorant move about on land or, in water; but I am not affected by such tendencies, as space is not affected by form. (510)
Such states as thinking oneself the doer or the reaper of the consequences, being wicked, drunk, stupid, bound or free are false assumptions of the understanding, and do not apply in reality to ones true self, the supreme, perfect and nondual God.510
Action, enjoyment, wickedness, goodness, ignorance, bondage, liberation, etc. are the creations of mind, but in reality they do not exist in Parabrahman which is one and non-dual. (511)
Let there be tens of changes on the natural level, hundreds of changes, thousands of changes. What is that to me, who am unattached consciousness? The clouds never touch the sky.511
Let there be ten, a hundred, or a thousand modifications of \prakriti, then, just as a mass of clouds cannot affect the sky, so these do not affect me whose mind is without attachment. (512)
I am that nondual God, who like space is subtle and without beginning or end, and in whom all this from the unmanifest down to the material is displayed as no more than an appearance.512
I am that Brahman which is like space, subtle, non-dual, without beginning and without end, and in which the whole universe, from the unmanifested down to gross matter, is known to be a mere phantom. (513)
I am that nondual God who is eternal, pure, unmoving and imageless, the support of everything, the illuminator of all objects, manifest in all forms and allpervading, and yet empty of everything.513
I am that non-dual Brahman which supports and illumes all, which is of all forms, all-pervading, empty of all else, eterbal, pure, immovable and not subject to change. (514)
I am that nondual God who is infinite Truth, Knowledge and Bliss, who transcends the endless modifications of Maya, who is ones own reality and to be experienced within.514
I am that non-dual Brahman which is truth, knowledge and bliss, which is uniform and can be attained through knowledge, and in which all phenomenal differences are at an end. (515)
I am actionless, changeless, partless, formless, imageless, endless and supportless one without a second.515
I am actionless, immutable, indivisible, formless; I am subject to no change, eternal; not depending on another and non-dual. (516)
I am the reality in everything. I am everything and I am the nondual beyond everything. I am perfect indivisible awareness and I am infinite bliss.516
I am all-pervading; I am everything and transcend everything; I am non-dual, indestructible knowledge and eternal bliss. (517)
I have received this glory of the sovereignty over myself and over the world by the compassion of your grace, noble and greatsouled guru. Salutation upon salutation to you, and again salutation.517
O guru, this supremacy over earth and heaven is attained by me through thy compassion and greatly esteemed favour. To thee, great souled-one (\mahaatmaa), I bow down again and again. (518)
You, my teacher, have my supreme saviour, waking me up from sleep through your infinite compassion, lost in a vast dream as I was and afflicted every day by countless troubles in the Mayacreated forest of birth, old age and death, and tormented by the tiger of this feeling myself the doer.518
O guru, having in thy great compassion awakened me from the sound sleep, thou hast saved me, roaming about in the dream-like forest of birth, old age and death, created by \maayaa, daily tormented by manifold afflictions, and terrified by the tiger of egoism. (519)
Salutation to you, King of gurus, who remain always the same in your greatness. Salutation to you who are manifest as all this that we see.519
O guru, I bow down before thee who art truth alone, who has the splendour of wisdom and who shinest in the form of the universe. (520)
Seeing his noble disciple, who had achieved the joy of his true nature in samadhi, who had awaken to the Truth, and experienced deep inner contentment, kneeling thus before him, the best of teachers and supreme great soul spoke again and said these words.520
Observing the disciple, best of his class, who had acquired the truth and attained spiritual happiness in \samaadhi, the \mahaatmaa, lord of gurus, greatly pleased, again spoke these noble words: (521)
The world is a sequence of experiences of God, so it is God that is everything, and one should see this in all circumstances with inner insight and a peaceful mind. What has ever been seen by sighted people but forms, and in the same way what other resort is there for a man of understanding but to know God?521
The universe is an expansion of its idea in Brahman, hence Brahman alone is real. Perceive Brahman everywhere and in all states through spiritual sight and with quiet mind. What but form can be everywhere perceived by those who have eyes? In like manner what other thing than reality can recreate the mind of one who knows Brahman. (522)
What man of wisdom would abandon the experience of supreme bliss to take pleasure in things with no substance? When the beautiful moon itself is shining, who would want to look at just a painted moon? 522
What wise man, renouncing the enjoyment of supreme bliss, will take delight in unreal things? Who will desire to look at the moon on a picture while the delightful moon itself is shining brightly? (523)
There is no satisfaction or elimination of suffering through the experience of unreal things, so experience that nondual bliss and remain happily content established in to your own true nature.523
By the enjoyment of unreal things there is neither contentment nor destruction of sorrow. Therefore remain contented with the enjoyment of non-dual bliss, and happy in devotion to the \Atman. (524)
Pass your time, noble one, in being aware of your true nature everywhere, thinking of yourself as nondual, and enjoying the bliss inherent in yourself.524
O thou high-minded one, pass thy time in the perception of the (real) self everywhere, reflecting on thy non-dual self, and realizing the true self. (525)
Imagining things about the unimaginable and indivisible nature of awareness is building castles in the sky, so transcending this, experience the supreme peace of silence through your true nature composed of that nondual bliss.525
To attribute changefulness to the \Atman who is indestructible wisdom and changeless, is like building a castle in the air. Therefore, always attain the great peace through the \Atman who is full of non-dual bliss' and keep silence. (526)
The ultimate tranquillity is the return to silence of the intellect, since the intellect is the cause of false assumptions, and in this peace the great souled man who knows God and who has become God experiences the infinite joy of nondual bliss.526
The quiet state of the mind, which is the source of modifications and false conceptions, is (called) the great peace. In that state the \mahaatmaa who knows Brahman wnjoys ever-lastingly non-dual bliss through the \Atman who is Parabrahman. (527)
For the man who has recognised his own nature and who is enjoying the experience of inner bliss, there is nothing that gives him greater satisfaction than the peace that comes from having no desires.527
To one who knows the nature of the \Atman and who enjoys self-bliss, there is nothing but silence, void of desire, causing the greatest happiness. (528)
A wise and silent ascetic lives as he pleases finding his joy in himself at all times whether walking, standing, sitting, lying down or whatever.528
The wise man who delights in the \Atman and who alwats remains silent (muni), s[ends his time either moving, standing still, sitting or lying down or otherwise, at will. (529)
The great soul who has come to know the Truth and whose mental functions are not constrained has no concerns about such things as his aims in matters of locality, time, posture, direction and discipline etc. There can be no dependence on things like discipline when one knows oneself.529
To a \mahaatmaa who has fully attained the truth there is neither space, time, sitting in a particular posture, direction, self-control, etc. nor any need of an object to be aimed at, for (causing) the cessation of (mental) activity. When one knows the self, of what use are conditions such as self-restraint? (530)
What discipline is required to recognise that "This is a jar"? All that is necessary is for the means of perception to be in good condition, and if they are, one recognises the object.530
Does one need self-restraint to know that this is a pot? An object cannot be known without sound proofs. (531)
In the same way this true nature of ours is obvious if the means of perception are present. It does not require a special place or time or purification.531
That this \Atman is ever perfect necomes clear through proofs., Neither space, nor time, nor purity is needed. (532)
There are no qualifications necessary to know ones own name, and the same is true for the knower of Gods knowledge that "I am God.532
To know that I am Devadatta does not need anything else. In like manner for one who knows Brahman, nothing else is needed to know that he is Brahman. (533)
How can something else, without substance, unreal and trivial, illuminate that by whose great radiance the whole world is illuminated?533
How indeed can that which is not \Atman, unreal and insignificant, illuminate him by whose radianmce, like that of the sun, this whole universe shines? (534)
What can illuminate that Knower by whom the Vedas, and other scriptures as well as all creatures themselves are given meaning? 534
What indeed can illumine the knower by whom the Vedas, \Shaastras, \Puraanas and all beings are rendered significant? (535)
This light is within us, infinite in power, our true nature, immeasurable and the comon experience of all. When a man free from bonds comes to know it, this knower of God stands out supreme among the supreme.535
Knowing this \Atman alone, who is self-refulgence, infinite power, all knowledge and immeasurable, one becomes liberated from the bond. This knower of Brahman excels as the best of the best. (536)
He is neither upset nor pleased by the senses, nor is he attached to or averse to them, but his sport is always within and his enjoyment is in himself, satisfied with the enjoyment of infinite bliss.536
He is neither afflicted by, nor delights in, the objects of sense, nor does he become either attached to them or estranged from them. Being always contented with the enjoyment of bliss, he knows and delights in himself. (537)
A child plays with a toy ignoring hunger and physical discomfort, and in the same way a man of realisation is happy and contented free from "me" and "mine".537
Just as a child, ignoring hunger and bodily pain, plays with a toy, so the wise man, renouncing egoism and selfishness, being happy, delights in himself. (538)
Men of realisation live free from preoccupation, eating food begged without humiliation, drinking the water of streams, living freely and without constraint, sleeping in cemetery or forest, their clothing space itself, which needs no care such as washing and drying, the earth as their bed, following the paths of the scriptures, and their sport in the supreme nature of God.538
The wise are free from anxiety, they eat food obtained by begging but without cringing. They drink water from a stream, they live independent and free. Without fear they sleep either in a cemetery or in a jungle, their clothes are the regions of space which need neither washing nor drying. Their bed is earth, their way lies along the roads of the Vedas and their recreation is in Parabrahman. (539)
He who knows himself, wears no distinguishing mark and is unattached to the senses, and treats his body as a vehicle, experiencing the various objects as they present themselves like a child dependent on the wishes of others.539
The knower of the \Atman who is not attached to externals and whose characteristics are not perceptible, resting in the body as in a chariot, enjoys, at the desire of others, all surrounding, like a child. (540)
He who is clothed in knowledge roams the earth freely, whether dressed in space itself, properly dressed, or perhaps dressed in skins, and whether in appearance a madman, a child or a ghost.540
Hw who is closed with wisdom, whether he wears clothes or is clad with the regions of space, or wears a skin, roams the earth either as an insane person, or as a child, or as a ghost. (541)
The wise man lives as the embodiment of dispassion even amid passions, he travels alone even in company, he is always satisfied with his own true nature and established in himself as the self of all.541
The ascetic, free from the idea of desires, always self-satisfied, himself abiding in the all-pervading \Atman lives and wanders alone. (542)
The wise man who is always enjoying supreme bliss lives like this sometimes appearing a fool, sometimes a clever man, sometimes regal, sometimes mad, sometimes gentle, sometimes venomous, sometimes respected, sometimes despised, and sometimes simply unnoticed.542
The wise man behaves sometimes as an ignorant man and at others as a learned one; he is sometimes as dignified as a great king, at others he is like a lunatic; at times he is gentle, and at times his behavious looks like that of a serpent, Here he is respected, there disrespected, and is not known anywhere, thus he lives happily in supreme eternal bliss. (543)
Even when poor always contented, even without assistance always strong, always satisfied even without eating, without equal, but looking on everything with an equal eye.543
Though poor he is always contented; though helpless, he is very powerful; though not eating, he is ever satisfied; though without an equal, he regards all equally. (544)
This man is not acting even when acting, experiences the fruits of past actions but is not the reaper of the consequences, with a body and yet without a body, prescribed and yet present everywhere.544
Though doing, he is not the doer; though enjoying the effects, he is not the enjoyer; though embodied, he is bodiless; though confined, he is all-pervading. (545)
Thoughts of pleasant and unpleasant as well as thoughts of good and bad do not touch this knower of God who has no body and who is always at peace.545
Likes and dislikes, good and evil, do not in the least affect the knower of Brahman, who is bodiless and always existing. (546)
Pleasure and pain and good and bad exist for him who identifies himself with ideas of a physical body and so on. How can there be good or bad consequences for the wise man who has broken his bonds and is one with Reality?546
Happiness and misery, good and evil, belong to him who is attached to gross (objects), and who refers them to himself. Where are good or evil or their effects to the muni who has cast asunder his bonds and has become the real \Atman? (547)
The sun appears to be swallowed up by the darkness in an eclipse and is mistakenly called swallowed up by people through misunderstanding of the nature of things.547
In the same way the ignorant, see even the greatest knower of God, though free from the bonds of the body and so on, as having a body since they can still see what they recognise as a body. 548
The sun appears to be swallowed up by darkness, though this is not so. But the people who, through delusion, do not understand the nature of the thing, say it is. So also the ignorant, seeing the phantom-like body of one who knows Brahman and who is freed from the bonds of body, regard him as embodied. (548, 549)
Such a man remains free of the body, and moves here and there as impelled by the winds of energy, like a snake that has cast its skin.549
Like the slough of a serpent, moving hither and thither at the least breath, the knower of Brahman remains released from the body. (550)
Just as a piece of wood is carried high and low by a stream, so the body is carried along by causality as the appropriate fruits of past actions present themselves.550
Just as a piece of wood is carried along to different places by a torrent, even so the body is led in time by daiva (Karma) into enjoyments. (551)
The man free from identification with the body lives experiencing the causal effects of previously entertained desires, just like the man subject to samsara, but, being realised, he remains silently within himself as the witness there, empty of further mental imaginations like the axle of a wheel.551
He who is liberated rom the body and is himself perfect, abides in enjoyment like a worldly man full of desires created by past Karma. But he lives quietly as a spectator, free from desires and changes, like the centre of a wheel. (552)
He whose mind is intoxicated with the drink of the pure bliss of selfknowledge does not turn the senses towards their objects, nor does he turn them away from them, but remains as a simple spectator, and regards the results of actions without the least concern.552
He neither applies his senses to objects nor removes them therefrom, but remains a mere spectator. He whose mind is intoxicated with excessive draughts of bliss does not pay even the slightest attention to Karmic effect. (553)
He who has given up choosing one goal from another, and who remains perfect in himself as the spectator of his own good fortune he is the supreme knower of God.553
He knows Brahman, renouncing the pursuit of either the visible or the invisible, abides in the \Atman alone and is evidently himself. (554)
Liberated forever here and now, having achieved his purpose, the perfect knower of God, being God himself by the destruction of all false identifications, goes to the nondual God.554
The Knower of Brahman who has attained the end, is ever free, though living (in the world). By the destruction of \upaadhi, he, being Brahman alone, reaches the non-dual Brahman. (555)
Just as an actor, whatever his costume may or may not be, is still a man, so the best of men, the knower of God, is always God and nothing else.555
Hust as a male being is a male, whether he acts (otherwise) or not, so also he who knows Brahman and is perfect is always Brahman alone and not another. (556)
Wherever the body may wither and fall like a tree leaf, that of the ascetic who has become God has already been cremated by the fire of the knowledge of Reality.556
What is it to an ascetic who has become Brahman, if his body, already burnt up by the fire of wisdom, falls anywhere like the withered leaf of a tree? (557)
There are no considerations of place and time laid down with regard to relinquishing this mass of skin, flesh and filth for the wise man who is already forever established in God within himself as the perfect nondual bliss of his own nature.557
The muni who ever abides in the all-pervading \Atman, who is full of non-dual bliss and is Parabrahman, does not wait for the proper place, time, etc. to throw off this lump of skin, flesh and filth. (558)
Liberation is not just getting rid of the body, nor of ones staff or bowl. Liberation is getting rid of all the knots of ignorance in the heart.558
Neither the relinquishment of of the body, nor of the staff, nor of the water-pot is \mokshha; but \mokshha is the happiness untying the knot of ignorance in the heart. (559)
Whether a leaf falls into a gutter or a river, into a shrine or onto a crossroad, in what way is that good or bad for the tree?559
What good or evil is there to a tree if its leaf falls into a canal or a river, in a sacred place, or in a place where four ways meet? (560)
The destruction of body, organs, vitality and intellect is like the destruction of a leaf, a flower or a fruit. It is not the destruction of oneself, but of something which is not the cause of happiness for ones true self. That remains like the tree.560
The destruction of body, senses, vitality, is like that of leaf, flower and fruit; but there is no destruction to one's \Atman whose essence is truth and who is the enmbodiment is bliss. This remains like a tree. (561)
The scriptures that teach the truth declare that the property of ones true nature is "a mass of intelligence" (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.5.13), and they talk of the destruction of secondary additional attributes only.561
The true characteristic of the \Atman is that he is full of wisdom. It is repeatedly said that \upaadhi alone is destroyed. (562)
The scripture declares of the true self that "This Self is truly imperishable" (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.5.14), the indestructible reality in the midst of changing things subject to destruction.562
The shruti thus asserts the indestructibility of the \Atman when the modifications are destroyed: "Ho! \Atman is indestructible!" (563)
In the same way that burnt stones, trees, grass, rice, straw, cloth and so on turn to earth, so what we see here in the form of body, organs, vitality, mind and so on when burned by the fire of knowledge take on the nature of God.563
Just as, when burnt, a stone, a tree, grass, grain, a corpse, a cloth, etc. become earth only, so also the whole whole of the visible universe such as body, senses, vitality, mind, etc. when burnt up by the fire of wisdom, attain the condition of \Paramaatman. (564)
Just as darkness, though distinct from it, disappears in the light of the sun, so all that we can see disappears in God.564
Just as darkness, different from (light ?), becomes merged in the light of the sun, so also the whole visible universe becomes merged in Brahman. (565)
Just as when a jar is broken the space in it becomes manifest as space again, so the knower of God becomes the God in himself with the elimination of false identifications.565
Just as space (limited by form) becomes evident as such on the destruction of form, so also the knower of Brahman becomes Brahman alone on the destruction of the \upaadhi. (566)
Like milk poured into milk, oil into oil and water into water, so the ascetic who knows himself becomes united with the One in himself.566
Just as, when mixed, milk becomes one with milk, oil with oil, and water with water, so an ascetic who knows the \Atman becomes one with him. (567)
The ascetic who has thus achieved the nature of God, perfectly free of the body and with the indivisible nature of Reality, does not come back again.567
Thus the ascetic, renouncing the body, attains mukti which is mere existence, indestructible, the state of which is Brahman and he does not return again. (568)
How could the brahmin come back again after becoming God when his external features of ignorance and so on have been burned by the recognition of his oneness with the Truth?568
Where is birth to one who has become Beahman, and whose body, etc. beginning with ignorance are burnt up by wisdom through union with the \Atman who is existence? (569)
The Mayaproduced alternatives of bondage and liberation do not really exist in ones true nature, just as the alternatives of there being a snake or not do not exist in the rope which is not affected by them.569
Bondage and liberation created by \maayaa do not exist in reality in the \Atman just as serpent and the opposite do not exist in a rope on knowing it. (570)
Bondage and liberation can be referred to only in connection with the existence or absence of something covering what is really there, but there can be no covering of God as there is nothing else and no covering, since this would destroy the nonduality of God, and the scriptures do not admit duality.570
Bondage and liberation are said to be through the existence and non-existence of \Avriti (encompassing energy). There is no encompassing energy in Brahman. It is not encompassed, because nothing else exists therein. If there exits (other) then non-duality is destroyed. But the shruti does not allow duality. (571)
Bondage and liberation are unreal. They are an effect of the intellect which the stupid identify with reality just like the covering of the sight caused by a cloud is applied to the sun. For this imperishable Reality is nondual, unattached and consciousness. 571
Bondage and liberation are indeed false. Just as hiding from sight, caused by the ckouds, is predicated of the sun, so also the ignorant impose the attributes of mind on the real substance, ehereas this is indestructible, non-dual, without attachment, and is wisdom. (572)
The opinion that this covering exists or does not exist in the underlying reality is an attribute of the intellect and not of the eternal reality underneath.572
Belief in the existence of the real substance and non-belief in its existence, are only the attributes of mind and not of the eternal substance. (573)
So these alternatives of bondage and liberation are produced by Maya and not in ones true nature. How can there be the idea of them in the nondual supreme Truth which is without parts, actionless, peaceful, indestructible, and without blemish, like space?573
Hence those two, bondage and liberation, are created by \maayaa and they do not exist in the \Atman. How can (anything) be attributed to supreme truth which, like space, is indivisible, actionless, calm, blameless, stainless and without a second? 574)
There is neither end nor beginning, no one in bondage and no aspirant, no one seeking liberation and no one free. (Amritabindu Upanishad 10). This is the supreme truth.574
There is neither restraint, nor birth, nor an adept, mor one desirous of liberation, nor one liberated - this is the highest truth. (575)
I have shown you today repeatedly, as my own son, this ultimate secret, the supreme crest of the scriptures and of the complete Vedanta, considering you one seeking liberation, free from the stains of this dark time, and with a mind free from sensuality.575
The supreme and most mysterious doctrine contained in the Vedas is now revealed to thee. Expound it to one whose mind is free from desire, whose vicious tendencies have vanished, and who aspires after liberation, and cause him to reflect on the same. (576)
On hearing these words of his guru the disciple prostrated himself before him and with his permission went away free from bondage.576
Having thus listened to the teachings of the guru, the disciple saluted him respectfully, then, liberated from bondage, ith the permission of the guru, he went away. (577)
The guru too with his mind immersed in the ocean of Truth and Bliss, and with his mind free of discriminations went on his way purifying the whole world.577
Rge guru, whose mind is plunged in the ocean of real bliss, ever roams about purifying the whole world. (578)
In this way, in the form of a dialogue between teacher and pupil, the nature of ones true self has been taught for easy attainment of the joy of Realisation by those seeking liberation.578
Thus, in the form of a dialogue between a guru and a disciple, is revealed the nature of the \Atman, so that those who aspire after liberation may gain knowledge easily. (579)
May those ascetics who have removed all defilements of mind by the designated methods, whose minds are at peace and free from the pleasures of the world, and who delight in the scriptures, reverence this teaching.579
May those ascetics who aspire after liberation and delight in the shrutis, who have renounced the pleasures of the world, and who have expunged all vices from their hearts, as enjoined, and whose minds are subdued, respect these wholesome teachings! (580)
For those who are suffering in samsara from the heat of the threefold forms of pain, and wandering in delusion in a desert thirsting for water, may these words of Shankara which secure nirvana and excel all others, procure for them the ocean of nectar close by in the form of the nondual God.580
These words of \Sham.kara, which secure \nirvaana, excell all others and point out an ocean of nectar close at hand, of non-dual Brahman which gives happiness to those who, suffering from fatigue and thirst caused by the rays of the sun of misery on the road of changing existence, wander in an arid region, desiring water. (581)

The End

Thus ends the Crest-Jewel of Wisdom by Shrii Shamkaraachaarya

AUM tatsat.h

Here the reader will find a biographical sketch.

While Buddha's grand successor, Sri Sankaracharya, the greatest of the Esoteric masters of India, the greatest Initiate living in the historical ages, wrote many Bhashyas (Commentaries) on the Upanishads, many of his original treatises are unknown to the West, though they are preserved in some Indian maths (monasteries, mathams). The Bhashyas on the esoteric doctrine of the Brahmins, by their greatest expounder, will remain for ages yet a dead letter to most of the Hindus, except the Smartava Brahmins. This sect, founded by Sankaracharya, still exists in Southern India. Some sublime teachings on the subject of Soul and Spirit, by Sankaracharya, notably the Viveka Chudamani, are available.

The esoteric philosophies of Aryasanga (the Yogacharya School) and Mahayana, and the Advaita Vedanta philosophy will be found to be essentially the same if carefully analysed and compared, as Gautama Buddha and Sankaracharya are most closely connected, according to tradition and certain esoteric teachings. Every difference between the two will be found one of form rather than of substance.

Sankara (or Sankaracharya, perhaps the greatest philosopher that India has produced, was philosopher, devotee, mystic, poet and a religious reformer.

During his brief life, Sankara established firmly the Advaita Vedanta philosophy as the essential unifying basis of the Hindu religion. He brought about religious harmony, spiritual coherence and moral regeneration throughout India.

Sankaracharya was born towards the end of the eighth century AD, at Kaladi, a village in Central Kerala, India. He was an infant prodigy, exhibited ascetic tendencies and completed his initial studies by the age of eight. He then decided to become a wandering monk and left his village. After seven years of further study and instruction, he began to write commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita, the Brahma Sutras, and selected Upanishads.

By the age of sixteen, Sankara had established himself as a philosopher in the city of Varanasi. He traveled, establishing Maths in four places; in Sringeri, Badri, Dwaraka and Jagannath Puri, and gently debated with scholars..

This "best of peripatetic teachers" (Paramahamsa Parivrajakacharya) had spent 16 years in his purifying travels. During his last visit to Nepal, he had a vision. He proceeded to Kedarnath at which place, at the age of thirty two, he is said to have disappeared.

His contribution to Indian philosophy is so great and lasting that later philosophers have done little more than footnote his works. It may not be inappropriate to regard him as India's "Plato".

(Sam karoti iti Sankara -- "He who blesses is Sankara").

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Historical Appendix

The second Sanskrit was converted from CSX according to the following table:

CSX to ITRANS  conversion table
c    ch      481
ch   chh      63
ą    aa     4041
ć    ii      371
å    uu      328
ē    R^      367
ļ    N^       55
ń    T       196
ó    D        96
õ    N       460
÷    sh      674
ł    shh     744
ü    M      1215
ž    H       943