Studies in Occult Chemistry and Physics

By

George E Sutcliffe



The chapters first appeared as articles in the Theosophist
ChptDateVol#PagesTitle
IApril 192243737-47 I. The Atom 1
IIMay 1922 438145-156 II. The Sphinx of Western Science: Radiation 7
IIIJune 1922 439259-271 III. The Terrestrial Sun 14
IVJuly 1922 4310369-379 IV. The Proton and Electron 21
VOct 192244143-53 V. The Terrestrial Laboratory 27
VINov 1922 442147-158 VI. The Conservation of Power 33
VIIDec 1922443261-272 VII. The Geocentric Universe 39
VIIIJan 1923444371-384 VIII.The Mundane Egg 46
IXaApril 192344746-57 IX. Einstein and Gravitation 53
IXbMay 1923448176-188 X. Einstein and Gravitation 59
XJune 1923449277-290 XI. Fohat, and the Law of Physics 65
XIFeb 1926475595-607 XII, The Electron and the Atom of Occult Chemistry 71
XIIMar 1926476687-697 XIII.The Dimensions of Matter and Space 77
XIIIJuly 19264710419-427 XIV. The Great Tone 82
XVIAug 19264711565-576 XV. The Creation of Matter 87
XVIISept 19264712684-692 XVI. The Three Elements: Air, Water, Earth 94
XVIIIFeb 1927485546-556 XVII.The Fourth Element: Fire 99
XIXMarch 1927486681-690 XVIIIThe Modern Chemical Elements 105
XXMay 1927488194-209 XIX. Hydrogen 111
XXIOct 192749141-52 XX. Oxygen 120
XXIINov 1927492179-189 XXI. The Flow of the Cosmic Waters 126
XXIIIDec 1927493311-322 XXII.Dimensions 132
XXIVJan 1928494457-468 XXIIINitrogen 138
Some Critical Remarks by DR. H. A. C. DENIER VAN DER GON on "Studies in Occult Chemistry And Physics"
References & Bibliography

Editor's Preface

Below is the correspondence between the chapters in this manuscript and the chapter numbers as they appeared in The Theosophist. It is not known why there are some gaps - however, the paragraph numbers are in sequence. The chapters that appeared in Volume 1 of Studies in Occult Chemistry and Physics are I through XI. According to Sutcliffe, Chapters XII through XXIII were supposed to be printed as Volume II; however, for some unknown reason, this was not done.

Some notes on the references. In many places in Chapters XII through XXIII, there were references to the first volume, giving either the article name and/or a reference to a specific page number or a range of page numbers. These have been changed to either the chapter number reference here, and/or to a specific paragraph or chapter. The text has been altered to reflect this. Also, the references to equations and/or paragraph numbers sometimes was inconsistent, and all references to equations now are in {}, and the paragraph number reference is now preceded by ¶. As for the outside references, they have been made consistent; for books, each reference in each chapter has the title and the author listed, and full bibliographic information may be found in Appendix A. For articles in magazines, the volume, page numbers (if known) and the year of publication are given.

Volume 1 was published in 1923 by the Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, Madras, India.

One last thing. With the publication of Chapter XXIII, no more was published in The Theosophist. Sutcliffe mentioned in an article entitled "Magnetic Astronomy and Astrophysics" (The Theosophist, 50:559-560, 1929) that there are three more series of them in manuscript form - where they are is not known at the present time.

Preface Copyright March 1999, David G. Walters



Studies in Occult Chemistry and Physics

(Volume 1)

INTRODUCTION

The present volume is the first of a series in which an attempt will be made to co-ordinate the facts and theories of western science and occult research. The writer regards himself primarily as a pupil in an eastern school of science and philosophy, and secondarily as an interested reader and student of western science. These two schools are in a sense complementary, the one supplying the concepts, and the other the substance which gives quantitative definition to those concepts. As far as possible, equal weight has been given to the teachings of both the schools; but as the book has been written specially for the scientific mystic, and it is not expected that many outside this particular type will read it, a special aim has been to demonstrate the genuineness and reliability of the teachings of the eastern school to which the writer belongs.

This introductory volume is largely concerned with the exposition of concepts which are unfamiliar to the science of the west. These concepts are described, but, for the most part, only partially demonstrated. The full demonstration being deferred to later volumes. In this introduction it may be well to point out a few important differences between conclusions derived from occult studies, and the phase of opinion at present prevailing in western scientific thought.

To illustrate one of these differences, we may take the Theory of Relativity, which at this time dominates the west.

The fundamental fact of observation, which has led to the Theory of Relativity, is thus stated by Prof. Jeans: "No matter what the velocity of the observer is, the light surface, as observed by that observer, is invariably a sphere having that observer as center"; or, as he puts it in another place, "we now have as an experimental fact that, independently of the velocities of the source and observer, the wave-surface is a sphere having the observer as center". And further commenting on this, he says: "If the observed constant velocity of light is simply the constant velocity of propagation through an etheric medium, it would seem to follow that each observer must carry a complete ether about with him".

Prof. Pickering, commenting upon the same experimental fact, says: "That is to say the light surface, or wave-front, is a contracting, not an expanding sphere. This, if confirmed, would go a long way towards making our universe a subjective rather than an objective phenomenon. Again, imagine a flash of light, such as an explosion, to occur when an observer is in a given position. It makes no difference how the observer may move while the light is approaching him, whether several miles forward or backward, the light will reach him in exactly the same time, as is shown by Michelson's experiment. Or if two observers are at the same spot when the explosion occurs, and one moves forward, and the other backward, they will both see the explosion at exactly the same instant. This sounds ridiculous, but not only is it what Jeans says, but it is the logical interpretation of Einstein's second principle".

Now, since the observer is at the center of the sphere of contracting ether, which is collapsing into its center, it is now realized that unless we accept the theory of Relativity, there is no escape from the alternative conclusion, that the observer, or rather the molecules of the observer's body, are actually consuming a spherical volume of ether with the radial velocity of light.

Einstein and the Relativists say this experimental observation is an illusion, and have devised theories to replace this illusion by the reality. The student of occultism, on the contrary, says this experimentally observed fact is not an illusion, but the actual reality. This therefore constitutes one of the important differences between the two schools. It is a fundamental teaching in occultism that it is the drop that swallows the ocean, and not the ocean that swallows the drop. It will be shown in the course of these volumes that every atom is engaged in swallowing the universe of ether, and that in this way it acquires its properties, gravitational, chemical, electromagnetic, etc.

What we know as electric current is a function of the volume of ether swallowed, whilst what we know as mass is a function of the square of that volume. Hence electrical dimensions always entail the square root of a mass, which is meaningless to the physicist, but which is replete with meaning to the occultist.

This square of the volume function which produces mass gives rise as a special case, to the law of gravitation as at present understood. As to distance, it is usually regarded as a law of inverse square, though it is possible to give it a form varying as the inverse fifth. Let the sun be the center of a spherical volume of ether of radius d, the distance of Mercury, so that Mercury lies on the surface of the sphere of which the sun is the center. Then the attraction of the sun for Mercury is a function of this volume of ether divided by the fifth power of the distance between them. If the distance be increased to the orbit of Venus, the volume is increased as the third power of the distance, whilst the attractive force per unit volume is diminished as the inverse fifth, with the result that the combined effect is as the inverse square. Gravity in this form is a function of two variables, the volume of ether and the distance.

Its form is more cumbersome than that of Newton, but it will be shown in the course of these volumes that it more nearly represents the actual process at work.

The importance of this view of gravity will be better realized when it is demonstrated that the fifth power law applies not only to the variable volume, but also to the constant volume contained in the central attracting mass. This part of the attractive force, which is relatively small, gives an effect varying not as the inverse square, but as the inverse fifth, and, in the case of Mercury is large enough to be perceptible, as may now be shown.

As it is based on the square of the etheric volume, it is fundamentally a sixth power law, which, integrated between definite limits gives (1/5) A/D5, where A is the acceleration of gravity at the surface of the body and D is the distance measured in terms of the body's radius taken as unity. The acceleration recognized in astronomy is A/D2 , so that (1/5) A/D5 , is a supplementary force which has not been taken into account. In the case of Mercury, the distance in terms of the sun's radius is 83.02, and the recognized acceleration a = A/D2, is 3.981, whilst the unrecognized portion a' = (1/5)A/D5 , is only 0.0000013916. This it will be seen, is exceedingly small, the ratio of the fifth power force to that of the second power force being

(1) a/a' = 0.0000013916/3.981 = 1/2,861,000

The action therefore upon Mercury will be that of a diffused mass of matter, lying between the sun and Mercury, the mass of which is the (1/2,861,000)th part of the sun's mass.

In 1896, Seeliger sought for an explanation of the motion of Mercury's perihelion by assuming a mass of diffused matter surrounding the sun, and causing the Zodiacal Light. He found that the mass of matter required to completely account for the unexplained motion of Mercury's perihelion was

(2) 1/2,860,000 of the sun's mass

The agreement between (1) and (2), it will be seen, is practically perfect.

Newton's law left unexplained a motion of Mercury's perihelion amounting to 40.1". per century. Einstein's theory gives a correction of 42.9", which is about 7% too much.

Einstein's correction is generally considered satisfactory, and has gone far to convince physicists of the truth of his theory; but the fifth power law, to be expounded in a later volume would appear to correspond more accurately to the forces actually at work.

Atoms and light rays exhibit properties not only varying as the inverse square, but also as the inverse fifth power of the distance. Thus, in the kinetic theory of gases, the force between the molecules is an inverse fifth power force; whilst in the case of light the energy radiated is inversely as the fifth power of the wave-length for light waves which have the Wien's constant relation to the temperature.

In the atom, the inverse fifth power law is primary, and the inverse square law secondary, whilst between the members of the solar system the inverse square is primary, and the inverse fifth secondary.

Probably the recognition of the fifth power law will be of the greatest importance in connection with the lunar theory. In spite of the enormous labors of Hansen, Delaunay, Hill, and Brown, the lunar tables are still not satisfactory, and after a time the moon gets out of its calculated course. According to Newcombe, "the explanation of the outstanding differences may be regarded to-day as the most perplexing enigma in astronomy". It appears to the writer that this enigma may he due to the non-recognition of this fifth power law.

At the surface of a body, where the distance D is unity, the portion varying as the fifth power is (1/5)A, so that the total acceleration at the surface of the attracting body is (6/5)A.

The sun's surface acceleration is measured from the earth where the fifth power portion is infinitesimal; but the earth's acceleration is measured on the earth's surface, where it is (6/5)A, and there is no means of distinguishing the second power portion from that of the fifth. The part of the earth's gravity which operates upon the Moon according to the inverse square is not g = 981, but (5/6)g, and the part acting according to the inverse fifth power is (1/6)g. Now, since the earth's force of gravity is the unit in which all astronomical forces are measured, this correction will affect almost every part of lunar and planetary theory.

Another result is an alteration of the gravitational constant.

Let E be the earth's mass, G the gravitational constant, R the earth's radius, and g the measured acceleration of gravity at the earth's surface. Then GE = gR2 , the unit of force used in astronomy. In place of this we must now put (5/6) GE = (5/6)gR2 . If we group the earth and moon together as a unit, the earth's mass, or the gravitational constant G, must be increased in the ratio p = 1.0122, and we obtain for this new force unit (5/6)pGE = (5/6) pgR2 , or grouping in a new gravitational constant

(3) G' = (5/6) pG = 5.616 x l0-8

we may write G'E = (5/6)pgR2 , for the new astronomical unit of force. Now this new gravitational constant G' has a remarkable property, which throws light on both the nature of electricity and gravity. Take the electromagnetic charge on an atom of Hydrogen. Not 1.591 x 10-20 , which is the charge on unit atomic weight, when the atomic weight of oxygen is 16, but the above charge multiplied by the atomic weight of hydrogen 1.0077, which is the observed charge in electrolysis, e = 1.604 x 10-20 . Then we have

(4) G'e = m = 9.008 x l0-28 = the mass of the electron

(5) m/G= e = the electromagnetic charge on the electron

Now note the two properties of the new gravitational constant G'. When we multiply mass by G', we obtain the force of gravity; when we divide a mass by G', as in (5), obtain the electromagnetic charge. But multiplication and division are inverse processes, just as an expanding sphere of ether around a body is the inverse of a contracting sphere. In the course of this work it will be shown that gravity is one of the effects of an expanding sphere of ether, whilst electrical phenomena are functions of a contracting sphere.

The Relativist draws down the Veil of Isis, and says: this knowledge is for ever hidden from us. The Teachers in the Eastern Schools reverently lift the veil, and say the solution of even these most inner mysteries, by searching, thou shalt find.

References

 

Chapter I

THE ATOM

Although the results of occult investigation into the nature of the chemical elements have been before the world for more than a dozen years, the work of linking these up with those of Western science has made but little progress, and one of the objects of these studies is to effect this purpose. It will be well in the first place to note a few of the links already made.

¶1. At the meeting of the British Association in 1913, F. W. Aston announced the discovery of a new chemical element of atomic weight 22, to which he gave the name of Meta-neon, an account of which is given in Prof. Soddy's Chemistry of the Radio-Elements1 , published in 1914. On June 3rd, 1920, Prof. Rutherford announced to the Royal Society the discovery of another new element of atomic weight 3, an account of which will be found in Nature of June 17th, 19202. In the first edition of Occult Chemistry3, published in 1908, both the above elements are marked with an asterisk, as being elements which had been discovered by our occult investigators, but which were unknown to Western science. It is thus seen that Western physicists confirm these discoveries, in the one case five, and in the other twelve, years later. The above constitutes perhaps the clearest proof so far published of the reliability of occult methods of research, but we hope to show in the course of those studies that it is only one out of many proofs that are now available.

¶2. One of the obstacles in the way of merging the results of occult research with those of ordinary science is the use of different units of mass. Western science has now adopted two such units, the proton and the electron4, which carry equal but opposite charges of electricity; the charge of the proton being positive, and that of the electron negative.

But though the charges are numerically equal, the masses differ greatly; the mass of the proton is more than 1,800 times greater than that of the electron and is taken to be identical with the mass of the element hydrogen. Both these masses differ greatly from the unit of mass of Occult Chemistry, which is one eighteenth of the mass of hydrogen5.

I give below the masses of these three units, the unit of measurement employed being a gram divided by 1028, or the twenty-eighth power of ten.

Mass in grams multiplied by 1028

The Proton 16620.0

The Atom of Occult Chemistry 923.34

The Electron 9.01

The above figures are said to contain errors of less than half per cent. They are taken from the 1920 edition of Smithsonian Physical Tables6, and are based on Prof. Millikan's most recent researches7.

¶3. An inspection of the above series of masses shows no apparent connection between the unit of mass of Occult Chemistry and the units of Western science; but after a few preliminary studies we shall be able to trace out a connection. One of the ways of doing this is through the molecular energy of gases.

The mean temperature of the atmosphere at the earth's surface, averaged from equator to pole, throughout the year, is about 15°C8. If we take a depth of atmosphere of four kilometers, or a height measured from the earth's surface of 2(1/2) miles, the mean temperature throughout this volume is about 6(1/2)° Centigrade, or 44° K Fahrenheit9. Since the molecular energy of translation of all gases at equal temperature is the same, whatever the mass of the molecule10, the molecular energy of air at the above temperature, 6(1/2)° Centigrade or 279.6° K., as measured from the absolute zero is a constant peculiar to the earth's surface. Its value in ergs, the energy unit of the C. G. S. system, is

(1) 5.7543 1014 ergs

or 5.7543, divided by the fourteenth power of ten. We will take this constant of molecular energy as a basis for investigating some of the important properties of the atom of Occult Chemistry.

¶4. It is significant, though not surprising perhaps, that in these studies the links between Occult and Western science usually emerge from the more recondite portions of Western researches. We have recently shown in the columns of The Times of India that a bridge between the two schools has been constructed by the theory of relativity and that of Einstein. Similarly the link between the atom of Occultism and the physics of the West is effected through the recondite law known as "the equi-partition of energy". For a complete study of this law in connection with radiation and molecular energy, the mathematical reader may be referred to Jeans' Dynamical Theory of Gases11, Campbell's Modern Electrical Theory12, and especially to Jeans' Report to the Physical Society of London on Radiation and the Quantum Theory13, in 1914. It will suffice for our purpose to point out that it necessarily follows from the law of the equi-partition of energy that if molecules of air are composed of atoms as given in Occult Chemistry, then, when the air has arrived at a state of equilibrium at the temperature of 6.5° Centigrade, so that the air molecules, on the average, have the energy given by (1), then each of the atoms composing the molecules must also possess the same energy. For instance, there are 290 atoms in the element oxygen, or 2 x 290= 580 atoms in the molecule14; hence each of these 580 atoms must have energy equal to that of the molecule as a whole, so that the atomic energy of oxygen in a state of equilibrium must be 580 times as great as the molecular energy; and similarly for nitrogen and the other constituents of the atmosphere. Such is the law of the equi-partition of energy.

¶5. The energy of a body is its mass multiplied by half the square of its velocity and since we know the mass of our atom, and also its energy, as given by (1), we obtain for its velocity by a simple calculation the value

(2) 1,111,400 centimeters per second

or 11.164 kilometers = 6.94 miles. This velocity, at first sight, may not appear to be very remarkable; but to the astronomer or the physicist, its significance will be at once apparent, for it is identical with what is technically termed the earth's parabolic velocity, and half the square of this velocity is what is termed the earth's gravitational potential. This potential is equal to the earth's radius, 637,000,000 centimeters, multiplied by the acceleration of gravity at the earth's surface, 982, and is a well known terrestrial constant15.

We took as our basis the mean molecular energy of a surface stratum of the earth's atmosphere, 2(1/2) miles in height, and we have now found that this important energy-constant is the product of the mass of the atom of Occult Chemistry and the earth's gravitational potential; or, what amounts to the same thing, it is the product of the mass of the atom, the earth's radius and the earth's surface gravity. Thus the atom of Occultism indissolubly binds together the earth's surface temperature and the force of gravitation - two phenomena which physicists regard as independent.

¶6. When a body is let fall on the earth's surface from different heights, it reaches the earth with different velocities; and, in general, the greater the height, the greater the velocity. But as the height is increased, the velocity tends towards a maximum, beyond which it cannot increase, however great the height from which it falls. This maximum velocity is known as the velocity from infinity, or the parabolic velocity at the earth's surface. Each heavenly body has a parabolic velocity peculiar to itself, which is the square root of the product of its diameter and the acceleration of gravity at its surface.

For the Sun this velocity is 383 miles per second, for Mercury it is 2.9 miles, for Venus 6.36, for Mars 3.34 and for Jupiter 40.1 miles. This velocity from infinity is therefore an invariable constant of the body, and in a sense defines its most essential physical characteristic. When, therefore, we find that the atoms which compose the molecules of the atmosphere near the earth's surface all move on the average with this characteristic velocity, we have linked our occult atom with the most fundamental property of our terrestrial planet.

¶7. We have illustrated the principal feature of this unique velocity by the falling of bodies from different heights, and may study it also with advantage from the opposite point of view. If a body is projected vertically from the earth's surface with different velocities, it ascends to different heights, and again falls from these heights so as to reach the earth with the original velocity of projection. In general, the greater the velocity of projection, the greater the height. If the velocity is not too great, the attractive force of the earth will always bring the body back; but, should the velocity be as great as 6.94 miles per second, or the parabolic velocity of the earth, the body would ascend to an infinite height and so would never return.

One property, therefore, of the atoms, that follows from their possessing the parabolic velocity, will be that they are free to move out into space, beyond the range of the earth's attraction.

Hence, if space contains matter in the atomic form, or in the state of the highest sub-plane of the physical, as described in Occult Chemistry16, this matter will be attracted to the earth, and will arrive at its surface with the parabolic velocity, which will enable it to leave the earth again and wander away into space.

¶8. If we magnify the air molecules to the size of a ten-inch football, their average distance apart will be about three yards; whilst, on the same scale, the size of the occult atom will be that of a grain of sand, one fiftieth of an inch in diameter. We may therefore picture our atmosphere as a vast collection of footballs, poised in space at an average distance of three yards, and the atoms as clouds of fine sand blowing through and amongst the footballs. From the relative sizes, it will be evident that the sand can easily penetrate the interspaces between the footballs, or the molecules of the atmosphere. But although the molecules are so much greater than the atoms, the law of the equi-partition of energy ensures that the average energy of the atoms shall be equal to the average energy of the molecules, so that what the atom lacks in mass it makes up in velocity. The mean velocity of the molecules is about three-tenths of a mile per second, whilst the atomic velocity, as shown by (2), is about seven miles per second. In each case the mass multiplied by half the square of the velocity is equal to the mean molecular energy as given by (1).

¶9. Thus the atom as a unit and the molecule as a unit both possess the same energy. But we have to consider the molecule, not only as a unit, but as a group of several hundreds of atoms. The molecule of nitrogen contains 522 atoms, and the molecule of oxygen 580 atoms. These atoms constituting the molecules must not be confused with the clouds of atoms blowing through the widely spaced molecules. The atoms in the molecule revolve round different centers in groups of two to seven or more, as shown in Occult Chemistry17, but the law of equi-partition ensures that the groups, as well as the individual atoms, shall, as units, possess the same energy. In other words, a group of three atoms in the molecule will have a group-energy equal to the energy of the molecule, whilst the three atoms composing it, regarded as separate units, will each have this same energy.

¶10. By means of this important law of the equi-partition of energy, and the unit of molecular energy given by (1), we are able to link together, in a relation of equality, five different elements of our atmosphere: (a) the atomic energy of the clouds of atoms from outer space, moving between the molecules with the parabolic velocity; (b) the energy of the molecules regarded as units; (c) the energy of the separate groups of atoms within the molecule; (d) the energy of the individual atoms within the groups; and (e) the mean temperature of the atmosphere. If, therefore, there is any combination of factors which determines any one of the above five elements, it will determine the whole five. But we have seen that the energy of the cloud of atoms, blowing through the molecules, is determined by the mass of the atom and the parabolic velocity of the earth, both of which are invariable constants of the earth. These two constants, therefore, determine the whole of the five elements.

¶11. It should be observed that it is only the mean or average value of the atmospheric temperature that is constant. As we know, the temperature of the atmosphere varies in different places and times, owing to the seasons, the days and nights, etc.; such variations being in general due to the sun.

When the temperature is higher than the mean temperature 44° F., the molecular energy is greater than given by (1), and the law of the equi-partition of energy causes the excess to pass to the streams of atoms which convey this excess away into space. When the temperature is below the average, the defect is supplied to the molecules from the atomic streams which arrive at the earth's surface with the parabolic velocity and constant energy above explained. Thus these atomic streams act the part of a temperature adjuster, removing the excess and supplying the defect. These atomic streams are thus a missing link in the problems of cosmic physics.

¶12. The facts on which the above results are based are derived almost entirely from Western science, with the exception of the atom of Occult Chemistry and the existence of these atomic streams. If there are 18 atoms in hydrogen, then the mass of this atom is as given above (¶2), and its energy, when reaching the earth from outer space, will be the mean molecular energy as given in (1). But the atomic streams play such an important part in the solution of modern physical problems, that it is desirable here to collect the evidence for their existence.

¶13 The atom of Occult Chemistry18 is what is called the atomic sub-plane of the physical plane, and it is the first or highest of these sub-planes. But the highest sub-plane of the terrestrial physical plane is the lowest sub-plane of the cosmic physical plane, which exists for the most part in the cosmic space between the stars of solar systems19.

This proposition will he found supported by the following quotations from The Secret Doctrine:

"The Initial Existence, in the Twilight of the Mâhamanvantara, is a C ONSCIOUS S PIRITUAL Q UALITY. In the manifested... Solar Systems, it is... like the film from a Divine Breath, to the gaze of the entranced seer. It spreads as it issues from Laya throughout Infinity as a colorless spiritual fluid. It is on the seventh plane, and in its seventh state, in our Planetary World.
It exists everywhere and forms the first... Foundation on which our... Solar System is built. Outside the latter, it is to be found in its pristine purity only between the... Stars of the Universe... There is not a finger's breadth of void space in the whole boundless Universe...
It is the guiding force in the cosmic and terrestrial elements... It whirls in the breeze, blows with the hurricane, and sets the air in motion, which element participates in one of its principles also20.
The waves and undulations of science are all produced by atoms propelling their molecules into activity from within.
Atoms fill the immensity of space, and by their continuous vibration arc that motion which keeps the wheels of life perpetually going. It is that inner work which produces the natural phenomena called the correlation of forces...
As described by Seers - those who can see the motion of the interstellar shoals, and follow them clairvoyantly in their evolution - they are dazzling, like specks of virgin snow in radiant sunlight... Standing on an open plain, on a mountain summit especially, and gazing into the vast vault above and the special infinities around, the whole atmosphere seems ablaze with them, the air soaked through with these dazzling coruscations21".

¶14. The above facts, attested by Western science and Occult investigation conjointly, may be taken as the scaffolding upon which may be built a more advanced system of chemistry and physics. The phenomena with which these sciences deal are to a great extent due to the interaction of the seven planes of our planetary system with what is termed the cosmic physical plane. Each of our seven planes is divided into seven sub-planes, the highest sub-plane in each case consisting of individual atoms, free and uncombined. These free and uncombined atoms blow through and interpenetrate the molecular combinations of all the planes, and extend outwards into the cosmic space between the stars and solar systems; and as such they constitute the seven sub-planes of the cosmic physical plane. By means of the well established law of the equi-partition of energy, this cosmic physical plane governs the energy-content of space, and the mean temperature or molecular energy of planetary systems.

CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY

¶15. It has been shown that the mean molecular energy of the atmosphere is the product of the mass of the atom of Occult Chemistry and the gravitational potential of the earth.

The intermolecular spaces are occupied by shoals of atoms forming the highest sub-plane of the physical, which, possessing the parabolic velocity, are able to circulate freely between the earth and cosmic space. They constitute in their totality, when extended throughout the cosmos, the lowest sub-plane of the cosmic physical plane; whilst, viewed locally as a terrestrial phenomenon, they are the highest sub-plane of the physical.

The mean atomic energy of these shoals is a constant determined by the earth's gravity. It fixes the energy-content of space near the earth's surface, and, by the law of the equi-partition of energy, governs the mean surface temperature of our planet.

References

 

Chapter II

THE SPHINX OF WESTERN SCIENCE: RADIATION


¶16. During the last decade Western physicists have been placed on the horns of a dilemma. This was due to the fact that the observed phenomena of radiation could not be made to fit in with the law of the equi-partition of energy, as described in the preceding article.

In the case of radiation, this equi-partition is between matter and the medium of space, or the hypothetical ether of science.

If the ether of space has the properties attributed to it by Western science, then the results that would follow from equi-partition do not agree with observation. In the words of Prof. Jeans1,

"So far as the radiation problem is concerned, we may summarize the conclusions obtained in the statement that, for equilibrium to exist between matter and ether, the law of partition of radiant energy in the ether, in terms of wave-length, must be that given by... the formula first given by Lord Rayleigh in 1900.

It follows, as we have seen, that the temperature of matter must be zero: there can be no equilibrium between matter and ether until the matter has lost all it energy to the ether.

This is the conclusion arrived at from a study of the radiation problem based on the classical system of dynamics; the state of things predicted is, however, so utterly different from that observed in nature that we are compelled to contemplate an abandonment, or at least a modification, of the classical mechanics".

¶17. The classical mechanics it is proposed to abandon are the mechanics of Sir Isaac Newton, upon which the laws established up to the end of the nineteenth century have largely been based.

These laws of mechanics had been hitherto regarded as safe foundation-stones upon which to build, and the law of the equi-partition of energy is a mathematical deduction from them.

The proof of this, in its finished form, was first given by Poincaré2, and the validity of his mathematical reasoning has never been challenged. ln his Dernières Pensées3 Poincaré says, referring to this scientific impasse:

"We see now how this question stands. The old theories, which seemed until recently able to account for all known phenomena, have suddenly met with an unexpected check. Some modification has been seen to be necessary. A hypothesis has been suggested by M. Planck, but so strange a hypothesis that every possible means was sought for escaping from it. The search has revealed no escape so far, although the new theory bristles with difficulties, many of which are real, and not simple illusions caused by the inertia of our minds which resent change... It is impossible to predict the final issue".

¶18. Prof. Jeans, in his Report on Radiation and the Quantum Theory4 to the Physical Society of London, illustrates the difficulty as follows:

"To make the question as definite and as simple as possible, let us fix our attention on an enclosure with perfectly reflecting walls, in which there is a mass of, say, iron at 0° C., and let us suppose that there is a state of equilibrium inside the enclosure. The iron is continually radiating energy out from its surface into the surrounding ether inside the enclosure, and is also absorbing energy from the ether. From the condition of equilibrium, the rates of exchange must just balance. If we assume, for additional simplicity, that the iron is coated with a perfectly absorbing paint, then, in point of fact, each square centimeter of surface emits 300,000 ergs of radiation per second into the ether, and also absorbs 300,000 ergs per second of radiation falling on it from the ether. The energy in the ether is of density 0.00004 ergs per cubic centimeter; the heat energy in the iron is of the order of 8,000,000,000 ergs per cubic centimeter".

¶19. The above illustration shows that the volume of space occupied by the iron has an energy-content two hundred millions of millions of times as great as an equal volume of the ether; although the two spaces are in temperature-equilibrium, which is quite contrary to the law of the equi-partition of energy on any theory of the ether entertained in the West. Prof. Jeans continues:

"A very little consideration will show that this state of things is different from what might be expected by analogy from other systems which are known to obey the ordinary dynamical laws. Consider, for instance, a tank of water (to represent the ether) in which is floated a system of corks (to represent atoms of matter) connected by light springs or elastics, so that they can oscillate relatively to one another. Suppose that initially the surface of the water is at rest. Let the system of corks be set in violent oscillation and placed on the surface of the water. The motion of the corks will set up waves in the water, and these waves will spread all over the surface of the water, undergoing reflection when they meet the walls of the tank. We know that ultimately the corks will be reduced to rest; the energy of their motion will be transformed, first into the energy of waves and ripples on the surface of the water, and then owing to the viscosity of the water, into heat-energy in the water. A final state, in which the corks continue to oscillate with extreme vigor, whilst the water, has almost no energy, is unthinkable; we expect a final state in which practically all the energy has found its way into the water".

Such is Prof. Jeans' illustration of the problem which is confronting Western science. The immense energy concentrated in the iron, as compared with the surrounding ether, is the same as if the floating corks continued in violent agitation whilst the water remained still and motionless, which, as Prof. Jeans says, is unthinkable.

¶20. Summarizing our results so far, we may say that the law of the equi-partition of energy follows irrevocably from the principles of Newtonian mechanics, and that, when this law is applied to the case of radiation, it leads to conclusions that are quite contrary to the facts of observation. It would be unprofitable to search for some flaw in the mathematical reasoning, but it is possible that this reasoning may be based on an assumption which may repay scrutiny.

The assumption underlying Poincaré's mathematics is thus stated by Prof. Jeans5:

"The phenomenon which is believed to provide the crucial test as to the universal validity of the Newtonian mechanics is the following: the total radiant energy per unit of volume of ether in temperature-equilibrium with matter is finite, and not infinite.
It is a matter merely of mathematical demonstration that this fact is incompatible with Newtonian mechanics".

It will be seen that the part in italics quoted above, is given as a fact, and not as an assumption. But if it is a fact, it is certainly not an observed fact. It is in reality stated as a truism which no Western scientist is likely to question. But Western theories of the ether of space are so chaotic and contradictory that many leading physicists dispense with ether altogether, and disbelieve in its existence. Hence the whole of Poincaré's reasoning is based on an assumption which we now propose to examine.

¶21. When the statement is made that the total radiant energy per unit volume of ether is finite, and not infinite, what is really meant is that, if a volume of ether gives out radiant energy, its store of energy will diminish, and will fall to zero if the process is continued long enough. When put in this form we see that it may hide a fallacy. For instance, a bank may continually pay away money across the counter without its funds diminishing, if the money paid into the bank be equal in amount or greater. Similarly the Lake of Geneva can give out water at one end to the rivers of France, without the water in the lake getting less, provided that the water entering the lake is of equal amount. Under these conditions the funds of the bank, and the water of the lake, are infinite. If, therefore, the ether of space is so constituted that, as energy is drained away from one portion, fresh energy flows into it from outer space, we may regard this energy as inexhaustible in the sense that the water in a lake is inexhaustible by the draining of the water from its outlet.

¶22. Now in the previous article we showed that the intermolecular spaces near the earth's surface are occupied by shoals of atoms from the lowest sub-plane of the cosmic physical plane, and that the mean atomic energy of these shoals is a constant determined by the earth's gravity. These shoals fix the mean energy-content of space, and are able to circulate freely between the earth and cosmic space.

The above amounts to a proof that the volume-energy of space is for all practicable purposes inexhaustible, and therefore, for the purpose of Poincaré's mathematics, we may say that the total radiant energy per unit volume of ether in temperature equilibrium with matter is infinite, and not finite - which is a condition diametrically opposite to the assumption on which Poincaré's mathematical demonstration depends.

It follows from this that the observed facts of radiation are not necessarily in contradiction to the established law of the equi-partition of energy, and that the principle of Newtonian mechanics may remain valid in the interchange of energy between ether and matter, as between matter and matter.

¶23. We have thus unearthed a fundamental difference in the teachings of Eastern and Western science, which was pointed out by the writer in The Times of India of October 11th, 1921, as the following extract shows:

"It may be as well here to set forth once for all the two main differences of the Eastern and Western schools of science. They are both contained in the problem of radiation, which is the problem on which Western science has wrecked its barque. It is the modern riddle of the sphinx, which the West has failed to answer correctly. The whole matter will be found in a nutshell in two Reports to the Physical Society of London, one by Prof. Jeans on the Quantum Theory (1914), and the other by Prof. Eddington on the Relativity Theory of Gravitation (1918). Prof. Jeans says6: 'The total radiant energy per unit volume of ether in temperature-equilibrium with matter is finite and not infinite'. In the Eastern school, as I have been taught, we say as against the above: 'The total radiant energy per unit volume of ether in temperature-equilibrium with matter is infinite and not finite'. So that there is point-blank opposite teaching in the two schools. The reply of the West to the sphinxian riddle destroys the laws of Newton; the Eastern reply keeps them intact".

¶24. The above serves to illustrate two different principles, or the two distinct viewpoints, from which Western scientists and students of Occultism visualize the phenomena of Nature. It is the difference between an equality and an identity, and it has an important bearing on the laws of conservation, the conservation of matter and the conservation of energy. If we take a unit mass of matter, the law of the conservation of matter requires that this will always remain a unit mass, whatever operations are applied to it, and here both schools of thought are in agreement.

But the Western scientist would further state, or would subconsciously assume, that the constituents of this mass, in their simplest form, will remain identically the same from one instant to the next, whilst the occultist would say that the constituents may vanish and be replaced by others in successive instants of time, so that the total constituents remain equal though not identical. Now this is an important difference, for it permits of the creation and destruction of matter, at an equal and constant rate, whilst leaving the observed law of conservation intact.

The element hydrogen may always consist of 18 atoms, but if one of these atoms vanishes and is replaced by another, the mass of hydrogen is not altered. We have seen in the previous article that atoms interpenetrate the molecules from the cosmic sub-planes; and, as they possess the same mass and energy as the atoms in the molecules, they can change places with them without changing either the mass or the energy of the system, and thus without interfering with the laws of conservation of matter and energy.

¶25. The atomic or highest sub-plane of the physical is the lowest sub-plane of the cosmic physical; hence the illustration given is an interchange of matter and energy between different portions of the physical plane. But there can be interchanges also between the planes, without violating the laws of constancy, provided these interchanges are equal and opposite.

The processes taking place in the ultimate physical atoms, as described in Occult Chemistry7, are in reality interchanges of energy between the physical and astral planes.

Energy entering an atom from the astral plane makes it positive or male, whilst energy leaving an atom and passing to the astral makes it negative or female. This is a continuous process, but the conservation of energy on the physical and astral planes is not affected thereby, for the quantity of energy remains equal though not identical. It is like the equal inflow and outflow of a lake, where the quantity of water in the lake does not change.

¶26. In addition to the methods of circulation of matter and energy already noted, there is a third, in which the atoms of one plane are transferred to another. This last is described in Occult Chemistry8, and is also treated in The Theosophist9:

"It must be noted that a physical atom cannot be directly broken up into astral atoms. If the unit of force which whirls those millions of dots into the complicated shape of a physical atom be pressed back by an effort of will over the threshold of the astral plane, the atom disappears instantly, for the dots are released. But the unit of force, working now upon a higher level, expresses itself, not through one astral atom, but through a group of 49. If the process of pressing back the unit of force is repeated, so that it energizes upon the mental plane, we find the group there enlarged to the number of 49 x 49 = 2,401 of those higher atoms".

Thus, from plane to plane, the matter can be transferred in either direction. The means of doing this appear to be living forces; but in Occultism all forces are living. This process is the equivalent of the creation and destruction of matter on the respective planes; and, as stated in The Theosophist10, it is apparently the work of the Creative Hierarchies which preside over the forces of the cosmic plane.

¶27. Referring to two consecutive planes of matter, we are told in The Secret Doctrine11

"that between these two planes of matter an incessant circulation takes place; and if we follow the atoms and molecules of, say, the lower in their transformation upwards, they will come to a point where they pass altogether beyond the range of the faculties we are using on the lower plane. In fact,... the matter of the lower plane... passes on to the higher plane".

We are further told12 that

"Occult Science teaches that there is a perpetual exchange taking place, in space, of molecules, or rather atoms".

¶28. The above forms of interchange of the matter and energy of the planes will make it clear that matter in the atomic form, and the accompanying energy, cannot be insulated by enclosures within material walls. For instance, physical atoms, enclosed in a hermetically sealed vessel, could be transformed into astral atoms, and vice versa; and this, when viewed clairvoyantly, would give the appearance of entering and leaving the vessel without passing through the walls, which is one of the properties of four-dimensional space. This point is of interest, since Western science, in order to solve outstanding physical problems, has recently been obliged to resort to the mathematics of four-dimensional space13.

It is possible to insulate the molecules of solids, liquids, and gases in enclosed vessels; and, if the walls of the vessel are non-conducting, the heat or molecular energy can also be insulated, although this insulation is never quite perfect. But neither the energy of the atoms, nor the atoms themselves, can be thus insulated, since, as was shown in the previous article, the atoms can pass between the molecules; and, even if the molecules are closely packed, as in the solid state, the atoms can interpenetrate the molecules, for these molecules consist of atoms widely apart, as shown in the diagrams of Occult Chemistry, and we are there told14 that

"the diagrams are not drawn to scale as such drawings would be impossible; the dot representing the atom is enormously too large compared with the enclosures, which are absurdly too small; a scale drawing would mean an almost invisible dot on a sheet of many yards square".

When, therefore, the molecules of matter are insulated in an enclosed space, the molecular energy, which in modern theory constitutes heat, may be isolated from surrounding space, whilst the atomic energy and the atoms themselves can communicate freely with outside space.

¶29. Now it so happens that the experiments which have caused physicists to doubt the validity of Newtonian mechanics, and the equi-partition of energy, are based on the insulation of heat or molecular energy in an enclosure; and they have tacitly assumed that, when the molecular energy is insulated, the atomic energy is insulated likewise15. But this is inconsistent with the results of Occult researches, as explained above. Moreover, a somewhat similar conclusion has been arrived at by Western physicists, for Prof. Jeans says16 that

"the quantum theory makes it possible for the internal energy of the atom (element) to be entirely independent of the energy of the gas to which the atom (element) belongs. Any such independence, it need hardly be remarked, would be entirely at variance with the principles of the classical system of mechanics".

This last conclusion of Jeans is based on the conception that, if the molecular and atomic energy are independent, the partition of energy between the atom and the molecule does not take place. But this does not necessarily follow, for the partition of energy between the atoms in the molecule and those of outer space may be rapid, and that between atoms and molecules may be slow. In other words, the cosmic sub-plane may exchange energy more rapidly with the inside of the molecule than with the outside, and it is the outside energy of the molecule that constitutes heat. This would give an appearance of quasi-independence to the enclosed atomic energy, for any energy taken from the atoms to the molecules would be rapidly supplied from outside, or the cosmic plane, and any energy supplied to the atoms from the molecules would be rapidly drained away. Thus the atomic energy would be practically constant, whilst the molecular energy might vary greatly. This agrees with observation, but does not invalidate the law of the equi-partition of energy. For this law merely states that equi-partition will take place if sufficient time is given; and, whether the time is one millionth of a second or a million years, this does not affect the validity of the law. Prof. Jeans has himself laid stress on this particular feature of the law of equi-partition17.

CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY

¶30. Atomic matter and atomic energy cannot be insulated by material partitions from the atomic matter and energy of outer space, either of its own plane or of other planes, because the atomic matter can move through and between the molecules of bodies, as well as migrate from one plane to another. If, therefore, atomic energy be extracted from an enclosed space, an equal quantity of energy will be supplied from outside space from one or more of the planes, so that the supply of atomic energy in the enclosure is practically infinite.

On the other hand, molecules of matter, and molecular energy in the form, of heat, may be more or less perfectly insulated from outer space by material partitions.

In an enclosure containing molecules of matter, if the partitions are impervious to heat or radiation, three kinds of partition of energy will be in operation: (a) partition of energy between atoms inside and outside the enclosure; (b) partition of energy between molecules and molecules, inside the enclosure; and (c) partition of energy between atoms and molecules, both inside the enclosure.

The rate of energy-transfer between atom and atom, and molecule and molecule, may be relatively rapid, and that between atom and molecule relatively slow, so that equilibrium will establish itself quickly for (a) and (b), but slowly for (c).

The molecules within the enclosure would, under such conditions, rapidly attain to a state of temperature-equilibrium, and the atoms in the enclosure would likewise rapidly attain equilibrium with the atomic energy of outer space. But a state of energy-equilibrium between the atoms and molecules in the enclosure might be long deferred, owing to the slow interchange of energy between atom and molecule. The result of this would be that the atomic energy would be practically constant, and equal to that of outside space. The energies of the enclosed molecules would be equal to each other, whilst the energies. of the atoms and molecules might be widely different.

The different intensities of the atomic and molecular energies, whilst the molecules were in a state of temperature-equilibrium, would thus be quite consistent with the law of the equi-partition of energy, and the validity of Newtonian mechanics.

A fundamental distinction between the Teaching of Western science and that of Occultism is that, according to Western science, "the total radiant energy per unit volume of ether in temperature-equilibrium with matter is F INITE, and not infinite"; whilst, according to Occult teaching, the total radiant energy per unit volume of ether in temperature-equilibrium, or otherwise, with matter is INFINITE and not finite.

The awkward dilemma in which Western science is placed by the problem of radiation is largely the result of its unwillingness to recognize the established facts of Occult research on the nature of the atom and the ether of space.

References

 

Chapter III

THE TERRESTRIAL SUN


¶31. We have seen in previous studies that there is a rapid circulation of atomic matter and energy between the earth and space, or between the cosmic planes and the terrestrial planes; and one of the purposes of this article will be to trace out some further consequences of this interchange. Speaking generally, the partition of energy between bodies implies the corresponding partition of some form of matter and physicists are now led to think that matter and energy are of the same nature1. The energy contained in light and radioactivity can be weighed, just as matter can be weighed2. This identity in nature of matter and energy, if eventually established, combined with the free interchange between the terrestrial and cosmic planes, opens up the possibility of a free interchange of matter and energy between the earth and the heavenly bodies; and we shall now advance some evidence that such is the case.

¶32. The President of the British Association, Sir Edward Thorpe, on September 7th, 1921, told his audience3 that

"the bearing of the electronic theory of matter, too, on Prout's discarded hypothesis that the atoms of all elements were themselves built up of a primordial atom - his protyle, which he regarded as probably identical with hydrogen is too obvious to need pointing out. In a sense Prout's hypothesis may be said to be now re-established, but with this essential modification - the primordial atoms he imagined are complex and are of two kinds - atoms of positive and negative electricity, respectively known as protons and electrons. These, in Dr. Aston's words, are the standard bricks that Nature employs in her operations of element building".

As stated in the first article of this series, the mass of a proton is the same as that of hydrogen, and is more than 1,800 times as great as the mass of the electron. Since the number of electrons in a chemical element is about the same as the number of protons4, it follows that practically the whole of the mass of the chemical elements consists of a collection of hydrogen mass-units or protons, and could be broken up into such.

¶33. Let us therefore, by way of experiment, break up the whole of the masses of the earth and planets into protons or hydrogen gas, and regard this as the protyle out of which these masses are built. This may have been the condition of things in some of the previous Rounds and Chains, as described in occult writings.

The volume of a gram of hydrogen at normal temperature and pressure is 11,316 cubic centimeters, so that the 5.98 x 1027 grams of matter which constitute the earth's mass, at this normal density, would have a volume of 6.67 x 1031 cubic centimeters. In the form of a sphere, it would have a diameter of 197,760 miles, and would reach a little less than half way to the moon.

If placed on the surface of the sun, it would form an atmosphere of hydrogen having a depth of

(3) 7,340 miles

¶34. If the masses of the planets were similarly reduced to hydrogen and placed on the sun's surface, they would form a solar atmosphere having a depth of

(4) 810,360 miles

The sun's diameter is 863,500 miles, so that this atmosphere would reach a height above the sun's surface equal to the sun's diameter. The corona, in Ball's Atlas of Astronomy5, shows this solar appendage extending a distance above the surface equal to the sun's diameter so that we may say that the masses of the planets, reduced to hydrogen, would form an atmosphere on the sun's surface having a volume equal to the sun's corona.

The height of the sun's chromosphere6 is from 5,000 to 10,000 miles, or an average of 7,500 miles, which, from (3), is the height of a hydrogen atmosphere on the sun's surface having the same mass as the earth.

The chromosphere is so called, because, as seen for an instant during a total solar eclipse, it is of a bright scarlet color, the color being due to hydrogen, which is its main constituent.

¶35. We have thus, by breaking up the earth and planets into protons or hydrogen, discovered a curious series of facts, which may turn out to be significant. We find that the chromosphere, which is usually regarded as the sun's atmosphere, and is mainly composed of hydrogen, is just about sufficient to build up all the chemical elements in the earth's mass; whilst the corona, if similarly composed of hydrogen, is sufficient to build up the masses of the planets.

Bishop Leadbeater tells us7:

"The seven Planetary Logoi, although they are great individual entities, are at the same time aspects of the Solar Logos, force-centers as it were in His body... Each of these centers has His special location or major focus within the body of the sun, and has also a minor focus which is always exterior to the sun. The position of this minor focus is always indicated by a physical planet".

ln Mr. Jinarajadasa's First Principles of Theosophy8, a further description is given of this relationship between the Solar Logos and the Planetary Logoi, and the general arrangement is beautifully illustrated by the colored frontispiece at the beginning of the book. We are further told9:

"As the center of the earth is approached, matter is found to exist in a state not readily comprehensible to those who have not seen it;... The tremendous pressures which exist here are utilized by the Third Logos for the manufacture of new elements:
...From this point also. incredible as it may seem, there is a direct connection with the heart of the sun, so that elements made there appear in the center of the earth without passing through what we call the surface".

¶36. The above gives us another link in the cycle of operations of which we are in search. The seven Planetary Logoi operate in fields of force connecting the sun and planets. The sun's atmosphere contains the masses of the seven planets resolved into protons, which is the mass-unit out of which the chemical elements are built. These elements, when formed at the sun's center, appear simultaneously at the center of the planet, by the fourth dimensional operation referred to in the preceding article (¶28). We have thus a partial description of the circulation of matter and energy between the sun and planets.

¶37. Turning now to the facts supplied by Western science, we are told10:

"When the corona is photographed in a 'prismatic camera', which has a prism or prisms in front of its lens, the picture is composed of several rings (seven in 1883) all of which, except the green one, are very faint and lie in the violet portion of the spectrum".

These seven rings, shown in the photographs of the corona, are further suggestive of the seven Planetary Logoi, whilst the color green which is more distinct than the rest, may be the color of our own Planetary Logos, since it corresponds to the Fa, or Great Tone of Nature11.

¶38. We are thus led to conclude that the seven Planetary Logoi, who are stationed in the sun, preside over portions of the sun's atmosphere which have the same mass as their physical planets. These planetary masses in the sun have their chemical elements, wholly or in part, disintegrated into their constituent units of mass, which, in the case of the earth, are protons and electrons, as described above (¶2 and ¶32). It seems likely also that the processes of disintegration and recombination are continually taking place, and that some of the solar activities are the manifestation of these operations. These protons and electrons, whether isolated or combined into chemical elements, carry an electric charge which is constant and invariable.

Its numerical value is the same for both proton and electron, but for the proton the charge is positive, and for the electron negative. This natural unit of electric charge has been very carefully measured, and its value, as given by Prof. Milikan12 in electrostatic units is

(5) 0.000,000,000,4774

Since there are the same number of these mass-units and electric charges presided over by our Planetary Logos, in the sun's atmosphere as in the earth, it is possible that they may be coupled together, each to each, by electric lines of force stretching from earth to sun, since each of these unit charges sends out lines of force into space. It is possible also that these lines of force may be the channels, and perhaps the only channels, by means of which light from the sun can reach the earth.

¶39. This would account for the observed fact that we can see the sun's chromosphere, but cannot see the sun's corona, except on the rare occasions of a total eclipse of the sun. We can see the chromosphere, because it is that portion of the sun's atmosphere which is connected by lines of force to our earth, atom for atom, each to each, and presided over by our Planetary Logos. We cannot see the corona, because it is similarly connected with the other planets, but not with the earth. If this be so, the sun as seen from the planets will be quite different from the sun as we see it, probably both in color and in size; and each planet will see a different sun, because its lines of force are connected with different portions of the sun's corona. In reality we do not see the sun at all, but only the physical manifestation of our own Planetary Logos.

"He who tells thee he has seen the sun, laugh at him... The Seven Beings in the Sun are the Seven Holy Ones, self-born from the inherent power in the Matrix of Mother-Substance. It is they who send (out) the seven principle Forces, called Rays"13.

¶40. Although the corona is difficult to see, it is not quite invisible, and this may be explained by the fact that there is a sprinkling of terrestrial matter in all the seven planets, as well as a sprinkling of matter from all the planets in the earth. If the teachings of Astrology are true, that different individuals have unequal portions of planetary matter in their constitutions, one would expect that, when the corona is viewed by a Jovian person, its appearance would be different from the appearance as viewed by a Martian person, and that people in general would not agree in their descriptions of what they saw at an eclipse of the sun. Now this is a well known fact in connection with observations of the corona. Prof. Young, in his book The Sun14, remarks on this point:

"A peculiarity in the manner of representing what one sees will often make the descriptions and drawings of two observers, side by side, so discrepant that one would hardly imagine they would refer to the same object. For instance, in 1870, two naval officers on the deck of the same vessel made drawings of the corona, one of which represented it as a six-rayed star, while the other showed it as two ovals crossing at right angles.
In 1878, the writer [Prof. Young], on comparing notes immediately after the eclipse with other members of his party, found that about half of them saw the corona principally extended to east and west, while the other half, himself among them, were just as positive that it brushed mainly to the north and south".

The drawings on pages 217-8 and 222-3, of the above work15 which are of the same eclipse by two different trained observers, will show how widely divergent is the seeing of this solar appendage.

Now the above divergence is quite consistent with our assumption that the sun's corona bears the same relationship to the planets as the chromosphere does to the earth, and that the teachings of Astrology about our vehicles being composed in different proportions of planetary matter are true. The way in which this matter enters into our constitutions will be found explained in The Hidden Side of Things, by C. W. Leadbeater16.

¶41. Since one of the fundamental distinctions between the teachings of Western science and Occultism has reference to the circulation of matter and energy in space and among the heavenly bodies, the firm establishment of the relationship of sun and planets, above indicated, will be of importance. It is therefore desirable to collect sufficient evidence bearing on the question.

The relationship between sun and planets has certain points in common with that of the anode and cathode in an X-ray tube, the planet being the cathode and the sun the anode. In each case there is a more or less complete vacuum between the two. If, therefore, the sun and planets were at a difference of potential sufficiently great, the sun would be bombarded with electrons across the interplanetary spaces just as is the anode or anti-cathode, in an X-ray tube. In this process the anode is rendered incandescent.

"Platinum may be fused, diamonds converted into coke; even tantalum and tungsten, with melting points in the neighborhood of 3,000° C., can be rendered molten. Owing to the low pressure most metals can be vaporized with ease"17.

¶42. It is now established that the polar auroras are permanent features of the earth's higher atmosphere18, and the aurora has its corresponding phenomenon at the cathode of a Crooke's tube, whilst the incandescent anode has its counterpart in our glowing sun.

Between the permanent aurora of our atmosphere and the sun's corona, there is the zodiacal light, acting as a bridge between the two, like the luminous striae in the positive column of a vacuum tube. Angstrom observed the bright aurora line in the zodiacal light, and concluded that in it there is the same material as is found in the aurora and the solar corona. Arehenius suggested that the phenomenon was due to the particles sent off by the earth19. The height of the lower fringes of the polar aurora is about 106 kilometers, or 66 miles20, where the atmospheric pressure is 0.006 millimeters of mercury. The pressure in a vacuum tube at which X-ray phenomena begin is 0.02 millimeters21, which is the pressure of the atmosphere at a height of about 75 kilometers22; but Dr. Simpson, the head of the Meteorological Department, London, has shown that even at a height of nine kilometers above the earth's surface there exists radio-activity ten times as great as any we are acquainted with at lower levels23. To quote Dr. Simpson:

"There can now be no doubt that the earth is giving off a constant stream of negative electricity which passes at least into the upper atmosphere and probably into cosmic space... The results of Vegard's and Stormer's work on the aurora ... give... indications of true radioactive radiation penetrating our atmosphere and producing the same apparent results as if the atmosphere were being bombarded from outside by the alpha radiation which is at present under investigation in our laboratories... Balloon ascents... have given almost incontestable proof of a radiation entering the atmosphere from above, which has ten times the penetrating power of the hardest radiation sent out from radioactive substances... if all the new radiation came from the sun, the latter would have to possess a specific activity 170 times as great as that of pure uranium... these observations leave little doubt of the existence of a new, extremely penetrating radiation, which increases as one ascends in the atmosphere".

¶43. The above facts are in accord with the theory that the action between the earth and sun is somewhat similar to that of the cathode and anode of an X-ray tube, and serve to establish it. To present the available evidence in further support of it would expand this into a treatise; but our purpose at present is only to introduce certain concepts into modern physics, which bring it into accord with the occult teachings, and to reserve the complete treatment until later. The Secret Doctrine lays stress on the importance of the polar aurora as a key to physical processes, particularly as to the nature and origin of light.

"The agitation of the Fohatic Forces at the two cold ends of the earth... The two poles are said to be the storehouses, the receptacles and liberators, at the same time, of cosmic and terrestrial Vitality (Electricity). From the surplus of which the earth, had it not been for these two natural safety-valves, would have been rent to pieces long ago"24.

We are, moreover, told that the true source of light will be elucidated by a study of Mr. Crooke's discovery of radiant matter: "Further familiarity with the northern streamers of the aurora borealis may help the recognition of this truth"25. Now Crookes' radiant matter, which we are advised to study, is the matter within the X-ray tube, which we have likened to the operation between the sun and earth; just us the incandescent anode in these vacuum tubes by its incandescence gives light, so its cosmic counterpart, the sun, gives light to the solar system.

¶44. Several important treatises have been recently written to show that the aurora is due to the passage of electricity between the sun and the earth, and the reader may study them in the writings Stormer26, and in those of Birkeland27, and those of Vegard28. Most excellent drawings of the aurora in color will be found in the results of the Zeigler Polar Expedition29. Miss Clerk30 expresses the opinion that the most promising electrical theory of the sun's corona is that of Prof. Bigelow of Washington.

"His able discussion of the eclipse photographs of January 1st, 1889, showed a striking agreement between the observed coronal forms and the calculated effects of a repulsive influence obeying the laws of electrical potential, also postulated by Huggins in 1885. Finely subdivided matter, expelled from the sun along lines of force emanating from the neighborhood of the poles, thus tends to accumulate at equipotential surfaces... Later, in 1892, Pupin in America, and Ebert in Germany, imitated the coronal streamers by means of electrical discharges in low vacua between small conducting bodies and strips of tinfoil placed on the outside of the containing glass receptacles. Finally, a critical experiment, made by Ebert in 1895, served, as Bigelow justly said, 'to clear up the entire subject and put the theory on a working basis'. Having obtained coronoidal effects in the manner described, he proceeded to subject them to a strong magnetic field, with the result of marshaling the scattered rays into a methodical and highly suggestive array. They followed the direction of the magnetic lines of force, and, forsaking the polar collar of the magnetized sphere, surrounded it like a ruffle. The obvious analogy with the aurora polaris and the solar corona was insisted upon by Ebert himself, and has been further developed by Bigelow.

What we really know about the corona can be summed up in a few words... It does not gravitate upon the sun's surface, and share its rotation... its gaseous constituents... are apparently in a state of efflux from, and influx to, our great luminary, under the stress of opposing forces,... it is almost certain that they are organized and arranged around it through electromagnetic action".

¶45. This efflux from, and influx to, the sun's surroundings is what we should expect to observe if there is a continual circulation of matter and energy between the sun and earth, as with the anode and cathode of a vacuum tube.

The theory that we are here propounding, that there is an atomic correspondence between the sun and earth, with a line of force joining each pair of atoms, must, if true, be of profound importance in the interpretation of physical phenomena. It pictures the atom as the terminus of a line, and it is along this channel or line of force that the most important phenomena will occur. Just as the termini of a railway are less significant than the traffic along the line, which is the real work of the railway, xxx the happening along the line of force xxing the atom on the earth with its partner on the sun, is the main fact to be studied.

"As a cone stands on its point or a perpendicular straight line cuts a horizontal plane only in one mathematical point, but may extend infinitely in height and depth, so the essences of things real have only a punctual existence in this physical world of space; but have an infinite depth in the metaphysical world. This is the spirit, the very root of Occult doctrine"31.

Western science is thus, as it were, attempting to understand the physics of a railway by studying the stations at the termini and ignoring the traffic along the line.

¶46. Astrologers are sometimes asked what is the astrological significance of the earth; and the opinion has been expressed that the earth is represented by the sun, but it would appear it is more than this, for on the above view the sun is actually the earth, for the only part of the sun that we are able to see is the physical vehicle of the Terrestrial Logos. The real sun is a combination of seven suns, one for each of the seven planets.

"The one Cosmic Atom becomes seven atoms on the plane of Matter and each is transformed into a center of energy; that same Atom becomes seven Rays on the plane of Spirit; and the seven creative Forces of Nature, radiating from the Root Essence"32.

CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY

¶47. The volume of the sun's Corona is equal to a volume of hydrogen at normal temperature and pressure, having a mass equal to the sum of the masses of the planets; and the volume of the sun's chromosphere is equal to a volume of hydrogen having the same mass as the earth.

The combination of scientific and occult teaching point to the conclusion that for each proton in the masses of the earth and planets there is an atom of hydrogen in the sun's atmosphere, each to each, and that between each corresponding pair there is a line of force, or channel, along which a rapid interchange of mater and energy is taking place. The portion of the sun's atmosphere to which the protons of the earth are attached is that known as the chromosphere.

The relationship between sun and planet is generally similar to that between anode and cathode in an X-ray tube.

References

 

Chapter IV

THE PROTON AND ELECTRON


¶48. In this article we propose to determine from the information given in Occult Chemistry, and the textbooks of Western science, the main differences between positively and negatively charged elements. References to Occult Chemistry will be generally to the new edition of 1919. We are told that1, in the ultimate state of physical matter,

"two types of atoms have been observed; they are alike in everything save the direction of their whorls and of the force which pours through them. In the one case, force pours in from the "outside", from four-dimensional space (the astral plane), and passing through the atom, pours into the physical world. In the second it pours in from the physical world, and out through the atom into the "outside" again, i.e., vanishes from the physical world. The one is like a spring from which water bubbles out; the other is like a hole, into which water disappears. We call the atoms from which the force comes out positive or male; those through which it disappears, negative or female.

In the terminology of Western science, according to the above description, the positive atom is a source, or ether-squirt and the negative atom an ether-sink; and theories of gravitation have been built up by physicists on the properties of such sources and sinks2.

¶49. Returning to Occult Chemistry, we read3:

"Speaking generally, positive bodies are marked by their contained atoms setting their points towards each other and the center of their combination, and repelling each other outwards; negative bodies are marked by the heart-shaped depressions being turned inwards, and by a tendency to move towards each other instead of away".

The drawings opposite page 7 show the hydrogen atom as consisting of four triangular triplets, marked negative, and two linear triplets, marked positive; we have therefore apparently twelve negative atoms and six positive atoms, which constitute the element hydrogen. But from the description of these linear triplets it would appear that the atoms composing them are not all positive, for we are told4:

"In the first positive hydrogen combination, E 2, an atom revolving at right angles to the plane of the paper, and also revolving on its own axis, forms the center and force, rushing out at its lower point, rushes in at the depression of two others".

From which we gather that the center atom of the linear triplet is a source, and therefore positive, whilst the two end atoms of the linear triplet are sinks, and therefore negative.

¶50 As there are two linear triplets in hydrogen, we have from them four negative atoms, which, added to the twelve forming the four triangular triplets, make a total of 16 negative atoms, out of the total of 18 forming the element hydrogen. We have thus only two positive atoms, in hydrogen, to neutralize the 16 negative ones, and form the electrically neutral element.

A molecule of hydrogen consists of two groups of 18 atoms, and when the molecule is ionized, one of these is charged positively, and the other negatively. We can conceive this as happening by transferring the two positive atoms from one group to the other, so that the positive ion would consist of 20 atoms, and the negative ion of 16, hence the ratio of the masses, positive and negative, would be

(6) 20/16 = 1.25

¶51 The velocity imparted to an ion by an electric force is proportionate to the charge on the ion, and inversely as its mass5. The charges on the two ions are the same, but their masses are different; hence, under an electric force, the velocity of the negative ion should be greater than that of the positive in the ratio 1.25, as shown by (6). The following observed velocities of positive and negative ions are obtained from the Smithsonian Physical Tables6, and Kaye and Laby's Physical and Chemical Constants7. They are the velocities under an electric force of one volt per centimeter.

VELOCITIES OF IONS

Negative

Positive

Ratio

Hydrogen 7.95 6.70 1.1866
Oxygen 1.80 1.36 1.3235
Air 1.78 1.40 1.2714
Average 1.26

¶52. We thus see that the ratio of the velocities, or, as they are technically termed, the mobilities, of the negative and positive ions in the permanent gases is, on the average, 1.26, which agrees, well within the margin of experimental error, with the required ratio given by (6), and thus supports our theoretical conclusion from the description of Occult Chemistry, that the proton, or positive ion, consists of 20 atoms, and the negative ion of 16 atoms. In the following table are given the masses in grams of these positive and negative bodies, multiplied by 1028,

MASS IN GRAMS x 1028

Proton (20 atoms) 18424.0
Hydrogen (18 atoms) 16620.0
Negative ion (16 atoms) 14773.0
Electron 9.01

¶53. If now we take the electron and weigh it in the surface gravitational field of the earth, and the negative ion and weigh it in the sun's gravitational field, at the earth's distance from the sun, we obtain a remarkable result. The weight of a body is its mass multiplied by the acceleration of gravity, at the point where the weighing is performed. The acceleration of terrestrial gravity at the surface is 979.75, when the average value is used, and the acceleration of solar gravity, at the earth's distance, is 0.59491. If now we multiply the mass of the electron by 979.75, and the mass of the negative ion by 0.59491, we obtain,

WEIGHT IN DYNES x 1028

Terrestrial weight of Electron 8826.3
Solar weight of Negative Ion 8788.6

¶54. The above result requires a little studious consideration. It will be seen that the weight of the negative ion, in the sun's gravitational field, is practically identical with the weight of the electron in the earth's gravitational field, the difference being only about one half per cent. If, instead of taking the earth's gravity at the solid surface, we take it at about 11 to 14 kilometers above the surface, or in the lower part of what is called the isothermal region or stratosphere8, where ions and electrons are numerous, the weights, instead of being half per cent different, will be in exact agreement. Now occult students are familiar with the phenomenon of levitation, in which a body is removed from the earth's gravitational field, and in consequence rises in the air; so that the above result suggests that the electron is simply a levitated ion, that is to say, the electron may be simply an ion transferred from the earth's gravitational field to the gravitational field of the sun. If this were so, a very interesting consequence would follow, for the presence of an electron in a chemical element would not add to its weight, but would subtract from it, so that the atomic weight of an element would be the weight of its positive constituents, minus the weight of the electrons, for the electrons in the daytime, when weighings are mostly made would gravitate upwards, towards the sun, instead of downwards, towards the earth's center.

According to modern theory, confirmed by experiment, the number of electrons in a chemical element is called its atomic number1 and these atomic numbers increase from hydrogen, 1, to uranium, 92, one step at a time. Hence although the weight of the electron is small, when there are many in an element, their effect on the atomic weights will be quite measurable.

¶55. Mr. S. G. Brown, in a letter to Nature9, writes as follows:

"If we can consider that the element is composed of a number of hydrogen atoms, then the departure from the simple sum of the weight of the hydrogen atoms composing the element must be due to the negative electrons. For example, the element vanadium has an atomic weight of 51.06. Suppose we consider it to be composed of 51 hydrogen atoms, then its atomic weight should be 1.008 x 51 = 51.408; but its atomic weight is 51.06. The difference is 0.348, due, I take it, to the negative electrons which have entered into the composition of the element.
I have obtained minus quantities for a number of the elements, starting from hydrogen, atomic weight 1.008, and stopping at Ge, and I find that they space themselves along a regular curve as shown in Fig. 1. That the minus quantities of the atomic weights should have arranged themselves in this regular way by pure accident, I cannot believe, so I suggest that there is some natural law at work to account for it. The explanation is to be sought, I think, in the supposition that the hydrogen atoms attract each other, producing the force of gravity, whilst the negative electrons are repulsed by gravity; the elements are, therefore, lighter than the sum of the hydrogen atoms themselves".

¶56. We thus see that Western scientists, from a study of the atomic weights, are led to contemplate a negative weight for the electron, which is the conclusion we have arrived at, on quite other considerations, in ¶53-4. So far, therefore, as a comparison of weights is concerned, our conclusion has the support of observation; but it so happens that, in physical experiments on the electron, it is not in general weighed, but its mass is measured directly from its inertia, or its resistance to a change of momentum, and this brings us to a rather abstruse department of physics. Those readers who have not quite clear ideas on the difference between mass and weight, will find a simple explanation in Sir Oliver Lodge's Elementary Mechanics10, and may with advantage also consult Everett's C.G.S. Units11. If we kick an empty barrel, it rolls freely; but if the barrel is full of oil or water, a much more powerful kick will be required to move it, and the strength of the kick will be a rough measure of the mass, or inertia, of the barrel. In the same way the mass of the electron has been measured by its resistance to a kick, and not by weighing. Newton showed that the weight of a body, and its mass, are proportionate to one another within the limits of experimental error. The experiments of Bessel, and recent determinations by Eotvos, have also demonstrated this to a high degree of accuracy12.

But these experiments can only tried under the small variations of gravity observed on the earth's surface, and the variation between terrestrial surface gravity and solar gravity at the earth's distance is

(7) 979.75 / 0.59491 = 1646.9

which is great. Can we therefore go to the extent of saying that, when the weight is reduced in the ratio (7), which happens when a body is transferred from the earth's gravitational field to that of the sun, then the masses are reduced in the same enormous ratio? If this is permissible, we have a complete explanation of the relative masses of the negative ion and the electron.

¶57. The two greatest authorities recognized by physicists, on a question of this character, are probably Profs. Eddington and Einstein; and, as the settling of this problem is all important for our further studies, it may be well to quote here the conclusions of these eminent physicists. In his book, Space, Time and Gravitation13, Prof. Eddington, dealing with this same problem of inertia and weight writes:

"One of the most important consequences of the relativity theory is the unification of inertia and gravitation.
The beginner in mechanics does not accept Newton's first law of motion without a feeling of hesitation. He readily agrees that a body at rest will remain at rest unless something causes it to move; but he is not satisfied that a body in motion will remain in uniform motion, so long as it is not interfered with.
It is quite natural to think that motion is an impulse which will exhaust itself, and that the body will finally come to a stop. The teacher easily disposes of the arguments urged in support of this view, pointing out the friction which has to be overcome when a train or a bicycle is kept moving uniformly. He shows that if the friction is diminished, as when a stone is projected across ice, the motion lasts for a longer time, so that, if all interference by friction were removed, uniform motion might continue indefinitely. But he glosses over the point that if there were no interference - with the motion if the ice were abolished altogether the motion would be by no means uniform, but like that of a falling body. The teacher probably insists that the continuance of uniform motion does not require anything that can be properly called a cause. The property is given a name - inertia; but it is thought of as an innate tendency, in contrast to force which is an active cause. So long as forces are confined to the thrusts and tensions of elementary mechanics, where there is supposed to be direct contact of material, there is good ground for this distinction ; we can visualize the active hammering of the molecules on the body, causing it to change its motion. But when force is extended to include the gravitational field, the distinction is not so clear. For our part, we deny the distinction in this last case. Gravitational force is not an active agent, working against the passive tendency of inertia. Gravitation and inertia are one... Whether the natural track is straight or curved, whether the motion is uniform or changing, a cause is in any case required. This cause is in all cases the combined inertia-gravitation... Meanwhile this identification of inertia and gravitation, as arbitrary components of one property, explains why weight is always proportionate to inertia".

¶58. Thus Prof. Eddington gives us the strongest support possible, for in his opinion gravitation and inertia are one, so that if the force of gravity varies in the ratio (7), as it does when changed from the terrestrial to the solar field, then the mass or inertia must also change in the ratio of the mass of the negative ion to that of the electron, or, as given in ¶52, the mass must change from 14773.0 to 9.01, which are to each other in the ratio (7). Einstein lays stress on the same fact in his popular exposition of Relativity14:

"If now, as we find from experience. the acceleration is to be independent of the nature and condition of the body, and always the same for a given gravitational field, then the ratio of the gravitational to the inertial mass must likewise be the same for all bodies. By a suitable choice of units we can thus make this ratio equal to unity. We then have the following law: The gravitational mass of a body is equal to its inertial mass.
It is true that this important law had hitherto been recorded in mechanics, but it had not been interpreted. A satisfactory interpretation can be obtained only if we recognize the fact that the same quality of a body manifests itself according to circumstances as 'inertia' or as 'weight'".

¶59. Having now such high authorities to support us, we may say with confidence that if a negative ion were transferred from the earth's gravitational field to that of the sun at the earth's distance, its mass would be reduced in the ratio (7), and would thus be identical with the observed mass of the electron. In view of the evidence adduced, we shall therefore conclude that the electron is the negative ion consisting of 16, in place of 18 atoms (as given in ¶52) transferred from the earth's gravitational field to that of the sun.

¶60. This view of the relationship of the negative ion to the electron is quite different from that current in scientific circles, where the negative ion is usually regarded as an electron combined with one or more molecules15. But recent researches by E. M. Wellisch, of the Sydney University16, appear to prove that the electron and the negative ion are quite distinct entities. In the above article he says17:

"It has long been known that in air at very low pressures the current of negative electricity is due practically entirely to free electrons; at the higher pressures, however, the current is due to the motion of negative ions. What is the nature of the negative carrier at intermediate pressures? The answer hitherto given to this question was that the carrier altered in nature during its motion between the electrodes, but in such a manner that for a given pressure it possessed an 'average' mass. If, for instance, we regard the ion as being constituted at high pressure by a cluster of molecules, then we should have to assume that, as the pressure was reduced, the average number of molecules in the cluster decreased ; as the pressure was still further reduced, an individual negative carrier would be for part of the time in the ionic state (say now as a single molecule), and for the remainder would exist as a free electron; at this pressure we would have at any given instant a number of free electrons and a certain number of ions, but if we were to follow one electron throughout its motion, we should find it associated on the average with a mass intermediate between that of an electron and that of a molecule. Ultimately at very low pressures the carriers would be all free electrons.
The answer afforded by the present experiments is fundamentally different. We now regard the electrons and ions as passing independently through the gas, each kind of carrier remaining constant in nature throughout. The transition from the ionic conduction at high pressures to the electronic conduction at low pressures is effected by means of an increase in the number of free electrons relative to the number of negative ions, without any alteration in the nature of either kind of carrier".

We may regard the above as the coping-stone of the evidence required by our theory. The increase in the number of electrons, relative to the number of negative ions, can be due to the transformation from the terrestrial gravitational field to that of the sun, as the pressure of the gas is diminished. The change from the ion to the electron will necessarily be a per saltum change, in which there are no intermediate phases. The ion will step out of a terrestrial line of force into a solar line of force and the transformation from ion to electron will be immediate. The ion will vanish, and the electron appear in its place. Thus, there will be an increase in the number of free electrons relative to the number of negative ions, as the pressure falls; and this agrees with observation.

CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY

¶61. The element hydrogen consists of 18 atoms, two of which are positive, and sixteen negative. When a molecule of hydrogen is ionized, the two positive atoms of one half of the molecule are transferred to the other half, so that the positive half, or proton, consists of 20 atoms, and the negative half of 16 atoms, and the ratio of the masses, positive to negative, is 20/16=1.25, whilst the ratio of the velocities, or ionic mobilities, under an electric force, negative to positive, is also 1.25.

The ratio of the mass of the negative ion (16 atoms) to the mass of the electron is the same as the ratio of the intensity of the earth's gravitational field at the surface to the sun's gravitational field at the earth's distance, or, using the figures from ¶52 and 56, we may say:

(8) Negative ion/Electron = 14773.0/9.01 = 979.75/0.59491 = 1646.9

The negative ion and the electron are interchangeable by an interchange of the terrestrial and solar gravitational fields. By a change from the terrestrial to the solar, the ion is changed to the electron; and, by a change from the solar to the terrestrial, the electron is changed to the negative ion.

The postulate that weight and inertia are identical, which is a fundamental portion of the theory of Einstein, is confirmed by the results of Occult research.

References

 

\

Chapter V

THE TERRESTRIAL LABORATORY


¶62. In our four preceding studies we have aimed at building a kind of bridge between the results of Occult research and those of Western science. It was pointed out in the first of these studies, ¶2, that an obstacle in the way of combining the two systems of research was the use of different units of mass. Modern physical theories are at present largely concerned with the carriers of the positive and negative electronic charges, known as the proton and the electron, whilst Occult Chemistry is based upon the atom, the mass of which has no obvious connection with the units of mass of the West. Our fourth article appears to establish this connection, but in a way which Western science would regard as so startling and unexpected that its recognition would revolutionize the whole of the physical sciences.

The significance of the conclusions arrived at in studies III and IV will be best appreciated if taken together. In the third, we concluded that each proton in the earth's mass had a hydrogen element in the sun's atmosphere coupled with it by a line of force, so that each constituent of the earth's mass and of the sun's chromosphere has a correspondence, each to each.

¶63. But, according to the science of the West, each proton of the earth's mass has attached to it an electron, so as to neutralize its charge, and we have seen in our fourth article that electrons are negative ions in the sun's gravitational field. Hence these electrons will not gravitate towards the earth's center, but towards the sun's center, with the result that there will be a continual stream of electrons from earth to sun. If, on arrival at the sun's surface, they are supplied with two positive atoms, they will become neutral hydrogen. Recent observations of the sun's atmosphere at the Kodaikanal Observatory show that at the center of the sun's disc, or that part of the sun diametrically opposite the earth, there is a descent of the constituents of the sun's atmosphere, which is rapid in the upper atmosphere, but slows down as it approaches the sun's surface or photosphere1. This action can only be interpreted as a kind of repulsion between the earth and the sun's atmosphere, since it acts only along the line joining the earth and sun's center. These observations of Mr. Evershed have been found so inexplicable to astronomers that every effort is made to avoid the obvious explanation, that there is a constant stream of hydrogen from earth to sun, which, leaving the earth as electrons, as previously explained, arrives at the sun as hydrogen.

¶64. But, as we have seen, the phenomenon above described, so puzzling to Western science, is exactly the phenomenon for which our researches would prompt us to look, since the great difference between Occult teaching and that of the West is that there is a continual circulation of matter and energy between the earth and the heavenly bodies, and particularly between the earth and sun, which the West as yet does not recognize.

For the same reason we should expect to find evidence of a negative current of electricity from earth to sun, which would show itself as an upward current in the earth's atmosphere.

In Humphrey's Physics of the Air2 we read that at least four different currents exist in the atmosphere, one of these being

"due to the downward flow of one set of ions, usually the positive, and the simultaneous upward flow of the other, in response to the vertical potential gradient. It generally is less during the day than at night, and less in summer than in winter; but always of such value that the sum total of the current for the entire earth is roughly 1,500 amperes. How this constant current always, on the whole, in the same direction, is maintained is one of the greater problems of atmospheric electricity".

Here again we have an observed phenomenon, which Occult teaching would lead us to expect, hut which is inexplicable to Western science.

¶65. When an electron is transformed into a negative ion by the process summarized in ¶61, its mass is increased more than 1,600 fold, and when a negative ion is changed into an electron its mass is reduced in the same ratio. Hence the transfer from one gravitational field to another, involves the creation and destruction of matter, which is in contradiction to the law of the conservation of mass. Thus the interchangeability of the ion and electron, when recognized in the West, will be revolutionary. It is possible to reconcile these changes, however, with the law of conservation, if we stipulate that the two opposite processes are always equal, just as, in the case of an electric current, the positive current may be accompanied by an equal and opposite negative current. There are, in fact, already indications that the West is awakening to the necessity for some process which creates matter. Prof. Eddington says3:

"Some mechanism seems to be needed, whereby either gravitation creates matter, or all the matter in the universe conspires to define a law of gravitation".

Our conclusion, that gravitation does actually create matter, would therefore seem to be what the West is in search of.

¶66. As such creation of matter is the special subject of this study, it may be well to collect here some guiding hints on the subject from Occult writings.

"Our globe has its own special laboratory on the far-away outskirts of its atmosphere, crossing which every atom and molecule changes and differentiates from its primordial nature"4.

When the laws of the solar system are completely developed, the atmosphere of the earth and of the other planets becomes a crucible in which is formed matter in the three states known to science - solid, liquid and gaseous - represented in Occult writings by earth, water and air; and the combining equivalents, or chemical properties, etc., are different for these on each planet, whilst between the planets and outer space there is a continual interchange of atoms. "Atoms are called Vibrations in Occultism; also Sound - collectively"5.

¶67. The kinetic theory of gases accounts for the phenomenon of the atmosphere, and other gases, by random molecular motions and collisions. But Prof. Jeans has recently shown that the properties of gases can be equally well explained as the energy of trains of sound-waves6, which is a distinct move in the direction of the views taught by Occultists. For the present we will base our investigations on the kinetic theory, with a change of the fundamental assumption. In the kinetic theory, the molecules of matter are supposed to be perfectly elastic, so that, when two molecules collide, they rebound from each other in such a way that their joint energy remains unchanged. Now it is possible to change this assumption in such a way that the phenomena based on it are in no way disturbed or invalidated. The requirements of the assumption are that the energy before and after collision shall not be changed. The kinetic theory fulfils the requirement by the assumption of perfect elasticity; we propose to fulfil the requirement by the assumption that, at every molecular collision, the energy is completely destroyed or vanishes, and is recreated or made to appear in exactly the same amount.

As far as the effect on the kinetic theory of gases goes, these two assumptions are interchangeable, without disturbing anything. It is only when we come to the problem of radiation, where Western theories have broken down, that the difference in the two assumptions become important. The "perfect elasticity" assumption imprisons matter in the planet or heavenly body to which it happens to belong, whilst the assumption of destruction and recreation of energy allows matter and energy to circulate freely between the sun and the planets, according to the teachings of Occultism.

68. But, in place of the random molecular collisions of the classical kinetic theory, we shall in general find it more suitable to follow the orderly sound-wave theory developed by Prof. Jeans. The sound-wave will have a wave-length, equal, on the average, to the mean free path of the air molecules. The length of this free path at normal pressure and temperature is 0.0000096 centimeters7,' and the velocity of the wave will be the length of the free path multiplied by the number of molecular collisions in unit time.

If we imagine a layer of air close to the earth's surface, of a depth equal to the mean free path, or 0.0000096 centimeters, then the amount of matter created and removed by these molecular sound-waves, in the interval between molecular collisions, will be the amount of matter in this layer which can be obtained by taking the product of the earth's surface, the air density, and the mean free path, all of which are known. If now we multiply this by the number of collisions in unit time, we obtain the creation of matter per second by the earth's atmospheric crucible.

Since the product of the mean free path and the number of collisions is the molecular velocity, we can obtain the creation per second by the product of the earth's surface, the air-density, and the molecular velocity. But, since the second is an arbitrary time-unit, it will be better to measure this matter-creation in some time-unit established by Nature, such as the day or the year. We can obtain the yearly creation of matter by multiplying that created per second by 31,558,000, the number of seconds in a year.

¶69. The molecular velocity varies with the temperature; and, as our terrestrial laboratory is at the outskirts of the atmosphere, or in the isothermal layer, where the temperature is constant, at about 50° C. below zero, which on the absolute scale is 223° K., we may adopt this provisionally for our calculation. The arithmetically mean value of the molecular velocity of air at this temperature8 is 40,400 centimeters per second, or two-fifths of a kilometer, that is, a quarter of a mile. Hence the amount of matter created and removed by our atmospheric laboratory, per second, is equal to a layer of air one quarter of a mile deep over the whole of the earth's surface. In order to obtain the creation of matter annually, we take the product of the following figures:

(a)The earth's surface in sq. cent. 5.101x1015
(b) The molecular velocity of the isothermal layer 40,400
(c) The density of air at average temperature and pressure 0.0012229
(d) The number of seconds in a year 31,558,000

¶70. We have, however, still one point to take into consideration before proceeding with our calculation, and that is the variation of mass with the gravitational field. The density of the air is the mass contained in unit volume, and this mass has been ascertained by weighing the air at the earth's surface, where the gravitational field intensity is that of the surface. But when this matter penetrates into the earth, between surface and center, the gravitational field becomes less. The mean gravitational field intensity inside the earth, averaging from center to surface, is only three-fourths the surface value; hence this created mass, when in the body of the earth, will have only three-fourths the value as measured at the surface; and this we must allow for. Taking, therefore, three-fourths of the product of the above figures, we have for the mass of matter in grams created by our terrestrial atmospheric laboratory in one year:

(9) 6'006 x1027 grams

The earth's mass is9

(10) 5.98x1027 grams

which is practically the same as that given by (9), so that the earth's atmospheric laboratory produces exactly the mass of the earth in the time of the earth's revolution round the sun. This annual output of our laboratory can be represented by a simple algebraic formula, within the range of the average schoolboy:

(11) M=(sqrt) Savy = E

where M is the mass created per year, S is the number of square centimeters on the earth's surface, a is the density of the air at normal temperature and pressure, or at 15°C., the average surface temperature of the earth, V is the molecular velocity in the isothermal layer, which is the position of the earth's laboratory, and y is the number of seconds in a year. The (sqrt) as explained above, is due to the gravitational field inside the earth's mass being only three-fourths the intensity of the surface field. E is the earth's mass in grams.

¶71. From the list of the velocities of ions given in ¶ 51, under an electric force of one volt per centimeter, which is technically termed the ionic mobility, the average mobility of the air ion is (1/2) (1.78 + 1.40) = 1.59, which is the average of the positive and negative velocities of the air ion. This is at the atmospheric pressure at the earth's surface, which is a pressure of about 760 millimeters of mercury. Now, this ionic mobility varies inversely as the pressure10, so that at the bottom of the isothermal layer, at a height of about 11 kilometers, where the pressure is about 176.2 millimeters of mercury11, this ionic mobility would be increased in the ratio 760/176.2, and the average ionic velocity would be 6.858 centimeters per second. If, instead of one volt per centimeter, we applied an electric force of 6242.1 volts per centimeter, the ionic velocity would be

(12) 6242.1 x 6.858 = 42809

centimeters per second, and would be very nearly the same as the molecular velocity of the isothermal layer, 40400, as given in ¶69. Since the measurements of ionic velocity can be only obtained very roughly, these two results may be regarded as equal.

¶72. Tn order to obtain the above equality, we have used a special electric force, viz., 6242.1 volts per centimeter and a volt contains 108 absolute units of electric force, so that this electric force in absolute units is

(13) 6.2421 x 1011

It was stated in the first of our studies, ¶5, that the earth's gravitational potential is the product of the surface gravity (= 979.75) and the radius (= 6.371 x 108); and

(14) 979.75 x 6.371 x 108 = 6.2421 x 1011

which is identical with (13), or the value of the electric force required to make the ionic velocity of the isothermal layer equal to its molecular velocity.

¶73. From the above result some very important conclusions can be drawn. For it indicates that gravitational potential operates in the same way as electromotive force, and may be regarded as identical with it. When an electromotive force is operating along wires, say in the lighting of a room, and a few of the lights are switched off, the electromotive force for these lights is screened off and the lights go out. When, in a similar way, the earth's gravitational potential is switched off a few of the atmospheric molecules, their motion stops and they become ions. Hence we may define ions as gaseous molecules switched off from the gravitational potential. If this be so, it is an important generalization, and may solve many mysteries.

The molecular velocity is being continually generated by this gravitational potential which causes a continual stream of matter from outer space into the earth with the molecular velocity, in the form of sound-waves. The amount of matter entering the earth from space in the time of the earth's orbital revolution round the sun, or in one year, is just equal to the earth's mass, as shown by (11). Thus the earth is created annually, or its substance renewed, by the power of sound.

¶74. Hence we may regard the gravitational potential as continually generating air on Nature's sounding-board, the ether, in the way above explained.

"Sound is the characteristic of Akasha (ether): it generates Air12.

The magic potency of Occult Sound in Nature and AEther which... calls forth... the illusive form of the Universe out of Chaos13.

The Pythagoreans asserted that... the World had been called forth out of Chaos by Sound14.

Where there was no AEther there would be no 'Sound', as it is the vibrating sounding-board in Nature15.

We say and maintain that Sound, for one thing, is a tremendous Occult Power; that it is a stupendous force, of which the electricity generated by a million Niagaras could never counteract the smallest potentiality"16.

The knowledge which enables us to operate on Nature's sounding-board, and utilize a portion of the tremendous activities at work there, is known to Occultists as the science of Mantra-Vidya.

CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY

¶75. There is a continual stream of electrons from the earth to the sun. These electrons, on arrival at the sun's surface, are supplied with two positive atoms, which, with the 16 atoms already contained, which are negative, transform it into neutral hydrogen. The stream of hydrogen from the earth is seen as a descent of the gases of the sun's chromosphere, in the center of the sun's disc.

There is a continual creation or emergence of matter in the isothermal regions of the atmosphere, the amount of which in one year is equal to the earth's mass.

The molecular velocity of the atmosphere is continually generated by the earth's gravitational potential, which is identical in operation with electromagnetic potential.

When molecules of gas are ionized, they are switched off from the operation of the earth's gravitational potential.

The molecular motions of the atmosphere do not conform to the methods contemplated in the kinetic theory of gases, but rather to the equivalent sound-wave theory developed by Prof. Jeans. These sound-waves have creative properties, and the science of their operation is that known to Occultists as Mantra-Vidya.

References

 

Chapter VI

THE CONSERVATION OF POWER


¶76. If we constructed two steam engines of exactly the same size, and similar in every respect, working under the same boiler pressure, and against the same resistance to their motion, then the energy-contents of the cylinders would be the same in both engines. If one of the engines made 20 revolutions per minute, and the other 200, the energy-contents of the cylinders of both engines would still remain the same, though the power of the engine running at 200 revolutions would be ten times as great as that of the engine running at 20 revolutions. An examination of the energy-content of both engines, at any instant, would show that they were equal, and would give us no indication of the power that was being expended. To obtain the power, we must divide the energy by the time in which it is expended. In the case of a steam engine, we must divide the energy-content of the cylinder by the time of the stroke; and, in the case of a molecule, we must divide the molecular energy, as given in (1), ¶3, by the time-interval between two energy creations, explained in ¶67. When energy is divided by a time, it is technically known as power or activity1, and is the rate of expending energy, or the time-rate of doing work.

¶77. The difference between energy and power serves to define one of the main distinctions between the teachings of Western science and that of Occultism. Where Western science says there is energy, the Occultist says there is power. We may illustrate this difference by measuring the energy in unit volume of air at normal temperature and pressure, according to Western science, and then, following the indications of Occult teachings, measuring also the power. In a cubic centimeter of air there are 2.705 x 1019 molecules, each having the energy given by (1), so that the total energy per cubic centimeter of air is 1,556,000, and on this, both teachings are in fair agreement; but the Occultist would point out that this energy is only the instantaneous value, and that in the time of a "to and fro" motion of the molecule along the length of its free path, or what in the kinetic theory would be two collision intervals of the molecules, this amount of energy is developed and drained away. The time of this "to and fro" motion is 0.000,000,000,3584 second, so that this amount of energy would be expended by the molecules 2,790,000,000 times per second. Thus the power or activity per unit volume of air is

(15) 2,790,000,000 x 1,556,0004 = 343 x 1015 ergs per second = 434,000 kilowatts = 582,200 horse-power

¶78. The above comparison may help us to visualize the two outlooks on Nature's operations. In the one case we have a small bundle of energy which cannot possibly be used, and in the other we find ourselves in the presence of a power which would drive all the factories in India! It is the difference between a fossil and a living organism. There may be as much molecular energy in the fossil as in the living organism, but the organism can do work, and this the fossil cannot do. In the one case, therefore, we are contemplating a mere skeleton, and in the other an organism pulsating with life and vigor, so that it is the difference between a dead and a living universe. The Western concept presents us with myriads of isolated, dead masses; the Occult concept is that of an enormous vascular system, through which matter and energy circulate from planet to sun, and from star to star, making the whole into a living entity, governed by the laws of life and evolution.

¶79. We have seen above that we can change the energy aspect of Nature, as visaged by Western science, into the power aspect, as studied in Occultism, by dividing energy by time. But many physical problems in Western science are treated under their force aspect, particularly where the force of gravity is concerned. The force of gravity exhibits itself in the familiar example of weight, and weight is mass multiplied by acceleration, which in classical physics is the definition of a force. If we place a ten-pound weight on a table, it exerts a downward force against the surface of the table, and this force is identical with its weight. So long as the table supports the weight, no work is being done, according to current physical theories; and, in order that the force of gravity shall do work, or expend energy as power, we must remove the table and allow the body to fall. The energy is then the weight, or gravitation force of the body multiplied by the height of fall, and the power is this energy divided by the time of the fall. Thus energy is force multiplied by a length, and power is force multiplied by a velocity, for velocity is length divided by time. Such are the accepted definitions of force, energy, and power2.

¶80. But we saw, in ¶72, that, through the gravitational potential, the force of gravity is always generating molecular velocity, so that, if a body is prevented from falling, and thus not allowed to exhibit energy and power in the mass as a whole, this energy and power is merely transferred to the molecules, one of the results of which is the creation of matter as shown by (11). Thus gravitation is not a force, but a power. It is the time-rate at which Nature expends energy and creates physical matter.

¶81. To the above conclusion the physicist may raise an objection. He may contend that there is no evidence that gravity affects the molecular energy, as exhibited in the form of heat; and our contention certainly implies that where the intensity of gravity is greater, then, other things being equal, the temperature of bodies should be greater. Let us examine this point.

The acceleration of gravity at the surface of the sun is 27,436, and terrestrial gravity is 979.75; so the ratio of solar to terrestrial gravity is

(16) 27,436 / 979.75 = 28.003

Hence the temperature of the sun should be about 28 times the temperature of the earth, in corresponding parts of its atmosphere. Measured on the absolute scale, the mean temperature of the earth's surface is 288.13 K., and that of the isothermal layer 219.13 K.

Multiplying these by the acceleration ratio in (16), we obtain for the sun's surface temperature 8068.4 K., and for its isothermal region 6136.2 K.

The computed effective temperature of the sun, from black body curves, is 6000° K. to 7000° K., and from total radiation 5830° K3. Prof. Bigelow4 gives for the temperature of hydrogen 8476° K., at 14,000 kilometers below the photosphere, and 5370° K. at 15,000 kilometers above it, which agrees well with the temperatures calculated from the acceleration ratio. In fact, Bigelow, in comparing solar temperatures and the thermodynamic relations of the solar and terrestrial atmospheres, simply utilizes the ratio of the gravitation intensities as given in (16)5.

Thus observation accords with the theory that molecular energy, or temperature other things being equal, is proportionate to gravitational intensity.

¶82. We may thus proceed with our conclusion that gravitation is not a force but a power, and one of the functions of this power is to create physical matter. If the earth's mass be taken as unity, and the period of the earth's orbital revolution as the unit of time, then the mass created in any interval of time by the earth's gravity is numerically equal to the number of years in the interval. If the unit of mass is one gram, and the unit of time one second, then the mass created per second is

(17) the earth's mass / 31,558,000 = 1.895 x 1020 grams

and the mass created in any time is the above multiplied by the time in seconds. Hence the result of the exercise of gravitational power may be defined as "mass multiplied by time".

¶83. But mass multiplied by time is a new principle in physics, known as action, and this new principle is given the name of "The Conservation of Action". It is due to the general recognition in the physical sciences of a fourth dimension; thus in a recent article by Dr. Stanley Allen6 we read: "In the four-dimensional world it is action, not energy, which is conserved". Again, Prof. Eddington says7:'

"After mass and energy there is one physical quantity which plays a very fundamental part in modern physics, known as Action. Action here is a technical term, and is not to be confused with Newton's 'Action and Reaction'. In the Relativity Theory in particular, this seems in many respects to be the most fundamental thing of all. The reason is not difficult to see. If we wish to speak of the continuous matter present at any particular point of space and time, we must use the term density. Density multiplied by volume in space gives us mass or, what appears to be the same thing, energy. But from our space-time point of view, a far more important thing is density multiplied by a four-dimensional volume of space and time; this is Action. The multiplication by three dimensions gives mass or energy; and the fourth multiplication gives mass or energy multiplied by time. Action is thus mass multiplied by time, or energy multiplied by time, and is more fundamental than either".

¶84. Now these three conservations of the physicist - the conservation of mass, the conservation of energy, and the conservation of action - can be shown to be the triple aspect of one unique law of conservation, which we may name the law of the 'Conservation of Power', deduced from the teachings of Occultists. In our quotations (¶48) from Occult Chemistry it is shown how a stream of matter pours into the physical plane from the astral or fourth dimension, through the positive atom, and, simultaneously, how a stream of matter is drained from the physical plane to the astral, through the negative atom. If the two streamings are at a constant rate, as well as equal and opposite, then the circulation of matter between the two planes, or its emergence into and disappearance from the physical plane, is equal to a mass multiplied by a time, and is therefore a quantity of action, which for any given time is a constant, and can be expressed by the law of the conservation of action.

Again, if the amounts of matter received from the astral plane and delivered to the physical by the positive atom are equal, the quantity of matter contained in the atom will not vary, and similarly for the draining away by the negative atoms. Hence we have the law of the conservation of mass. Now, energy is mass multiplied by velocity squared, so that, if the streaming is constant, both mass and velocity are constant, as well as energy, which is their product. We thus obtain the third law of the conservation of energy.

This constancy in the streaming of matter and energy implies the constancy of the power which drives the streams; hence the one, unique law, which stands behind the three laws of conservation, as stated above, is "The Law of the Conservation of Power". It is a fourth-dimensional law, as required by modern physics.

¶85. In our last study on "The Terrestrial Laboratory", we found that the molecular velocities were generated by means of the gravitational potential as given in equation (14), ¶72, this potential being the product of the earth's surface gravity and the earth's radius. Thus the earth's gravitational potential was made identical with electric force. But electric force, or, as it is often called, electric field intensity, is the electromotive force divided by the distance through which it operates8; hence, to obtain the total electromotive force expended throughout the earth's mass, we must multiply the electric force by the distance between the earth's surface and its center, or by the earth's radius. Putting this in symbols, if g be the surface acceleration, and R the earth's radius, the gravitational potential, which is identical with the electric force, is gR, and the total electromotive force expended in the earth's mass, P, is R times this; hence we have, for the total electromagnetic potential of the earth

(18) P = gR2 = 979.75 x (6.371)2 x1016 =3.977 x 1020

from (14).

¶86. The above expression is a familiar one, and will be at once recognized by the astronomer, because it is known as the astronomical mass of the earth. The astronomer does not measure the mass of a body in grams, but by the amount of force it exerts. If the mass of the earth were compressed into a point al its center, then the attractive force it would exert on unit mass, at the distance of one centimeter from the center, would be the value given by (18), so that we might infer that the earth's electromagnetic potential and the earth's force of gravity are identical. But, before coming to this conclusion, it may he well to scrutinize the above equation rather carefully. When physicists find a numeric equality such as the above, they are careful to ascertain whether the equated quantities have the same mechanical dimensions. Now the acceleration, g, has the dimension of a length divided by the square of a time; and, as the radius, R, is a length, the dimensions of gR2 are the third power of a length divided by the square of a time; and these, when length and time alone are used, are the dimensions of a mass9. The dimensions of electromotive force are usually given in terms of mass, length, and time; but, when the mass is transformed into its equivalent in length and time, the resulting dimensions are the third power of a length divided by the third power of a time10, and, as velocity is length divided by time, we may say that the dimensions of electromagnetic potential are the third power of a velocity. It follows from this analysis that the two quantities equated in (18) are not of the same nature, the one being the cube of a length divided by the square of a time, and the other the cube of a length divided by the cube of a time.

87. A little consideration will show us where the error lies. Since the fall of potential per centimeter per second in the earth's atmosphere was gR, we concluded that, from surface to center, or for the whole mass of the earth, it would be gR2 ; but in equation (11), ¶70, we see that a whole year is required to produce the earth's mass; hence P, in (18), is the fall of potential, not in one second, but in one year. Hence, if V be the fall of potential per second, and y the number of seconds in a year, we have P = Vy, and the fall of potential per second is

(19) V = P/y = gR2/y = 1.26 x 1013 = 126,000 volts

Thus the electromotive force is the earth's gravitational mass divided by a time, viz., a year; and both sides of the equation have the same dimensions, the third power of a velocity.

88. Now, what is this velocity, of which the earth's potential is the cube? If a stream of matter of unit density is passing through a surface with a velocity V, the mass of matter passing unit surface in one second is v and its energy is the mass multiplied by half the square of the velocity, or by (1/2)v2 ; hence the flux of energy through unit surface in unit time is v x (1/2)v2 = (1/2)v3 , and will have the same dimensions as electromotive force. If we equate (1/2)v3 to the potential given by (19), we obtain for the velocity

(20) v = 29319 centimeters per second

which is the velocity of sound in air at a temperature of -59.7° C. The temperature of the isothermal layer in summer is -51° C., and in winter -57° C. Even in winter the sun will contribute a little heat to the isothermal layer, so that, if this were omitted, the heat generated by the earth may be the equivalent of the temperature -59.7° C., as given above.

¶89. By applying formula (11), and using the sound velocity in (20), instead of that in ¶ 69, we obtain, for the density of the sound medium:

(21) A = 0.001729

which is greater than the density of air in the ratio four to three. It is exactly the density of argon, at the temperature 8.24° C., which is the mean temperature of the earth's surface at about a mile above the sea level.

These sound-streams should not be regarded as seated in the molecules of the atmosphere. We saw in ¶77 that the air molecules were, in a sense, an illusion. They are created, and drained away, many millions of times a second. In Occult Chemistry11 four states of matter are described, into which gaseous molecules split up. They are known as ethers 1, 2, 3 and 4, and, in some or all of these forms, they are able to interpenetrate the molecules of solid bodies, and cannot therefore be confined in closed vessels. It is probable that the molecules, as they are created and destroyed, are drained away in some of these ether forms, each sound-vibration in this substratum of ether creating and destroying the molecules, in which case there are 2,790,000,000 sound-vibrations per second, as explained in connection with equation (15).

¶90. In the finest of the ether forms, ether 1, occult writers speak of matter as in the atomic form, and state that space is filled with matter in this etheric or atomic form.

"The waves and undulations of science are all produced by atoms propelling their molecules into activity from within. Atoms fill the immensity of space... It is that inner work that produces the natural phenomena. Atoms are called vibrations and collectively Sound"12.

Occult writings contain abundant assertions of the creative power of sound, and this appears to be confirmed by the above investigations.

CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY

¶91. A fundamental principle, which emerges from the results of Occult researches, may be defined as "The Law of the Conservation of Power". This is the unique law of conservation, and is the basis of the three laws of conservation known to Western science - the law of the conservation of mass, the law of the conservation of energy, and the law of the conservation of action - which are triple aspects of the law of the conservation of power, and can be deduced from it.

This conservation of power exhibits itself statically as the force of gravity; but, when molar motion is prevented, the power is expended in generating molecular motions and the creation of matter and energy.

The quantities of matter and energy in the molecules of the atmosphere are constant, but not identically the same in successive instants. They represent the quantities of matter and energy in a single vibration of a sound-wave in the underlying substratum of ether, and these sound-waves repeat themselves 2,790,000,000 times per second, and develop the power shown in (15).

The fall of potential per second, required to generate the matter and energy of the gravitation process, is 126,000 volts; and the total fall of potential in one year is equal to gR2 , or the earth's astronomical mass. Thus "mass is to be regarded as potential energy that moves on through space"13.

References

 

Chapter VII

THE GEOCENTRIC UNIVERSE


¶92. Near the close of a strenuous life, the veteran scientist, Alfred Russel Wallace, the co-discoverer with Darwin of the principle of the survival of the fittest, wrote a book called Man's Place in the Universe1, the theme of which was that our earth was the center of the universe, and that our solar system, as well as the whole of the stars of the Milky Way, had been specially created and designed to fulfil the requirements of terrestrial man. The facts and arguments on which he based this remarkable conclusion were both sound and authoritative, and there does not appear to have been any serious attempt to refute them. Nevertheless, in spite of the soundness of the evidence, the arguments failed to carry conviction.

¶93. From the beginning of the present century, physicists have been faced with a similar difficulty in connection with the ether of space. If we regard the earth as the center of the universe, so that the ether of space has its center fixed in the earth, and its circumference in the ring of the Milky Way, then all difficulties in connection with the ether of space - mathematical, physical and electromagnetic - which have so greatly puzzled men of science during the last few years, at once vanish, and theories of relativity, etc., become superfluous.

Dr. Hounston, of Glasgow University, has recently shown2 that, if the ether of space is attached to the earth, then all the problems which have required the theory of relativity for their solution can be solved without it. The idea of an ether that was attached to the earth, and dragged along with it, was first suggested by Prof. Stokes in 18453. Stoke's ether has been since developed by Planck and Lorentz4, whilst quite recently Dr. Silberstein5 has demonstrated how such an ether would account for observed facts better than the theory of Einstein6.

¶94. But in spite of the fact that all the available evidence goes to prove that the earth is a specially favored planet, placed at the center of the universe, with the ether of space attached to it and focused upon its center, scientific men are not convinced by it. They think, and rightly so, that out of the millions of suns and planets in our sidereal system, most of them larger and more important than our little earth, it is absurd to suppose that the earth we happen to live on should have been chosen for the center of the universe, and for the material nucleus to which the ether is attached. As stated by Prof. Silberstein:

"I cannot help remarking here that it is repugnant to me to think of an omnipresent, rigid ether being once and for ever at rest relatively rather to one star than to another... None of the celestial bodies, be it ever so conspicuous in bulk or mass, can claim for itself this primacy of holding fast the ether... there is nothing that could confer this distinctive privilege upon any one of them. But, then, I am quite aware that what is repugnant to think of may not necessarily be wrong altogether"7.

¶95. Although the results of occult investigation confirm the fact that the earth is the center of the visible universe, and that the ether of space is attached to it, as indicated by experiment, nevertheless this configuration is accompanied by teaching which makes the fact cease to be repugnant.

In the third article we saw that the visible portion of the sun's atmosphere was specially attached to the earth, but this conferred no special privilege upon the earth over the rest of the planets, for each of the planets had likewise a portion of the sun's atmosphere assigned to it. Similarly we are taught in Occultism that all the heavenly bodies are the centers of universes and have attached to them an ether which extends to the boundary of their special universe. These boundaries are controlled by what is called the Fohat of the body.

"The elements of our planets cannot be taken as a standard for comparison with the elements in other worlds. In fact, each world has its Fohat, which is omnipresent in its own sphere of action. But there are as many Fohats as there are worlds, each varying in power and degree of manifestation. The individual Fohats make one universe collective Fohat"8.

¶96. Just as we found that the earth and planets had different sections of the solar atmosphere assigned to them, so with the systems of stars. The sidereal system, as seen from the earth, is that portion of the universe of stars which is specially attached to the earth by the terrestrial Fohat. The other planets may have an entirely different set of stars attached to them, which are invisible to us. When we examine the star systems visible to us, we find many dark spaces, but we are told that there are really no spaces void of stars.

"Another point most emphatically denied by the "Adepts" is that there exist in the whole range of the visible heavens any space void of starry worlds. There are stars, worlds and systems within as without the systems made visible to man"9.

¶97. The pole of the Milky Way is in right ascension 190°, and 28° north10. On the plane of the ecliptic, the pole is in Virgo 27°, and 29° 27' north latitude. Thus the plane of the Milky Way cuts the ecliptic at an angle of 60° 33', the ascending node being in Sagittarius 27°, and the descending node in Gemini 27°. The width of the Milky Way is very variable; but on a rough estimate it may be taken to have an average width of three-quarters of a Sign, so that the two crossings in Sagittarius and Gemini together occupy about a Sign and a half. There is thus room for seven or eight Milky Ways, if distributed evenly around the Zodiac. We have therefore ample room for the six additional galaxies required for our seven planetary Logoi, the visible one being assigned to our terrestrial Logos, in the same way as the Sun's chromosphere was assigned to Him in our third study.

¶98. Occult students are aware that there are higher orders of Logoi which govern stellar universes in the same way as our solar system is governed by the planetary Logoi, according to the fundamental rule of Occultism - "As above, so below". Over the cosmos in general there are, therefore, seven cosmic Logoi, one for each of the seven galaxies above described. Each planetary Logos may be regarded as specially linked with the corresponding cosmic Logos, and with the galaxy associated and controlled by Him. The monads in evolution in any planetary Chain will hence be shut off from six of the existing galaxies, and only able to see the seventh, the galaxy governed by the cosmic Logos corresponding to the planetary Logos of the Chain. The seven cosmic Logoi appear under different aspects according to the functions They are performing. As the "Primordial Seven", They are the highest Beings in the scale of existence11, and may be regarded as the septenary soul of the universe. As the seven "Son-brothers" of Fohat, They are the nervous and vascular system of the cosmos, having sprung from "the Brain of the Father and the Bosom of the Mother"12. As the Lipika, They are the great adjusters of the cosmic forces, keeping the balance between the planes, and making possible the laws of the conservation of matter, energy, etc., on all planes. They form the "Ring Pass-Not", which separates the seven galaxies of the cosmos, and the seven planetary evolutions of a solar system13. They occupy the middle wheels of the cosmos, which we may interpret to mean the material nuclei or planets of the cosmos14.

¶99. Applying the rule, "As above, so below", we may say that within a solar system the seven planetary Logoi in the sun correspond to the Primordial Seven of the cosmos, the Seven Spirits ensouling the planets correspond to the Lipika, whilst the lines of force joining the matter of the planet to the corresponding part of the solar atmosphere are the channels and vehicles of the seven Son-Brothers of Fohat. Fohat is therefore the interaction of the positive and negative aspects of the seven Logoi. The sun is positive or male, the planet negative or female, and Fohat represents or governs the laws of their interaction in the cosmic spaces. This triple aspect, or divine trinity, the Atma-Buddhi-Manas of the cosmos, is often spoken of in occult writings as that of Father-Mother-Son. In the sun the seven Logoi are united, and represent the unifying quality of the spirit. In the planets, the seven Logoi are separated, and represent the separative quality of matter. This work, of dividing the monads into seven separate evolutions until the day "Be-With-Us", is one of the functions of the Lipika15. Associated with the seven Son-Brothers of Fohat are "the seven forms of cosmic magnetism, called in practical Occultism the Seven Radicals"16.

¶100. These seven ethers of space, or seven forms of cosmic magnetism, are of great importance to us in the further development of our studies, particularly in connection with the theory of relativity and that of Einstein. "Space is called, in esoteric symbolism, the Seven-Skinned Eternal Mother-Father"17, and these seven skins, or magnetic substances, divide the cosmos into seven virtually distinct universes. By way of illustration we may say that our earth has fixed to it one of these seven ethers of space, of which it is the center and focus. From this center, lines of force radiate into space, being attached at the outer ends to one-seventh of the sun's atmosphere, the chromosphere, and to one-seventh of the stars, those of the visible galaxy. Similarly the planet Jupiter forms the center and focus of another of these ethers or cosmic magnetisms, lines of force from which are attached to a portion of the sun's corona, and to a galaxy of stars which is invisible to us, and may lie in a different portion of the heavens to what we may call our terrestrial galaxy. Similarly for the other planets. Hence we may say that each of the seven planetary chains of our solar system exists in a universe of its own, which is separate and distinct from the other six. Each planet, moreover, is the center of its own universe, the ether of that universe being attached to it. Hence motion relative to the planet is motion relative to the ether of space attached to the planet.

¶101. The stars of our Milky Way are divided into eight classes; but one of these, the N type, has properties so distinct from the rest that it is generally kept apart from the other seven, which make a regular, progressive series based on the stellar spectra18. These seven types of stars are supposed to be due to differences of temperature in the passage from a nebula to a dark star, as the star gradually cools down through loss of heat by radiation. But we have seen that our own sun probably exhibits a different appearance to each of the seven planets; and, for all we know to the contrary, it may appear to Jupiter and Mars as of the Orion type and Sirius type, so that the seven types of suns in our galaxy may be identical with the seven different suns as seen from the seven planets of our solar system. In any case, Occult teaching is positive in denying that either our sun or the stars are losing heat in such a way as to vary their temperature, or that their energies are running down in the way supposed by Western science19. "The sun is, as we say, the storehouse of our little cosmos, self-generating its vital fluid, and ever receiving as much as it gives out"20. We have seen in previous studies how the earth is able, by the power of its own gravity to produce the whole of its mass and energy every year, as explained in ¶70 and elsewhere. By a similar process, which may be given later it can be shown that the sun's energy is self-renewed in the sun-spot period, or a multiple of this.

¶102. A further important difference between the teaching of Occultism and that of Western science is in the interpretation of spectrum analysis as applied to the sun and stars. In our laboratories, when chemical elements, in the state of incandescent gases, have their light examined by the spectroscope, they exhibit spectral lines which are characteristic and generally different for each element. Hence, in the laboratory, a chemical element is often detected by its spectrum, and spectrum analysis has become one of the surest methods of chemical research. When, therefore, astronomers found that the light of the sun and stars exhibited these characteristic spectra, they felt justified in concluding that the sun and stars were composed of the same chemical constituents as the earth. But the occultist says this is not so.

"Now that the conditions and laws ruling our solar system are fully developed, and that the atmosphere of our earth, as of every other globe, has become, so to say, a crucible of its own, Occult Science teaches that there is a perpetual exchange taking place, in space, of molecules, or rather atoms, correlating and thus changing their combining equivalents on every planet... The spectroscope shows only the probable similarity (on external evidence) of terrestrial and sidereal substance; it is unable to go any further, or to show whether or not atoms gravitate towards one another in the same way, and under the same conditions, as they are supposed to do on our planet, physically and chemically. The scale of temperature, from the highest degree to the lowest that can be conceived of, may be imagined to be one and the same, in and for the whole universe; nevertheless, its properties, other than those of dissociation and reassociation, differ on every planet; and thus atoms enter into new forms of existence, undreamed of by, and incognizable to, Physical Science... Thus not only the elements of our planet, but even those of all its sisters in the solar system, differ in their combinations as widely from each other, as from the cosmic elements beyond our solar limits... Therefore, the elements of our planet cannot be taken as a standard for comparison with the elements in other worlds"21.

¶103. Physicists generally assume that atomic and molecular forces are the same throughout the universe; whereas, as we shall see, they are functions of the mass and gravitational potential of the body on which they are placed. Hence temperature, chemical affinity and electromagnetic forces have different quantitative relationships for each of the heavenly bodies. The following quotation gives a hint as to how the spectroscopic evidence ought to be interpreted.

"The essence of cometary matter [AND THAT OF WHICH COMPOSES THE STARS] is totally different from any of the chemical or physical characteristics with which the greatest Chemists and Physicists of the earth are familiar... While the spectroscope has shown the probable similarity [OWING TO THE CHEMICAL ACTION OF TERRESTRIAL LIGHT UPON THE INTERCEPTED RAYS] of terrestrial and sidereal substance, the chemical actions peculiar to the variously progressed orbs of space have not been detected, nor proven identical with those observed on our planet"22.

An important hint is contained in the words "intercepted rays of terrestrial light". It is usually supposed that we see the sun and stars by means of solar light and stellar light, but this is not so; we see the sun and stars by means of terrestrial light which is intercepted by these bodies. The earth, as it were, is a gigantic octopus, having innumerable tentacles which stretch out into space in all directions; where these tentacles touch a sun or star, we perceive the effect as light along the terrestrial tentacles. These tentacles are the earth's vascular system, through which it pours the whole of its mass into sun and stars every year. As the terrestrial elements are poured into sun and star, they send the same vibrations along the tentacles as when incandescent in our laboratories, and hence give out the same spectrum. The spectrum of sun and star, therefore, is that of terrestrial matter circulating throughout the terrestrial universe, and not, as supposed by Western science, the spectrum of the chemical elements of which these heavenly bodies are composed.

¶104. One of the great distinctions between Occult teaching and that of Western science is that Western science regards many things as constant throughout the universe, which are only constant for the earth. Physicists think they have discovered the cosmic universe, whereas they have only discovered the terrestrial universe. Each heavenly body, like our earth, is the center of a universe, and has a framework of stars to mark its extent and boundaries. Such planetary world-spaces, with masses of matter at their boundaries or horizons, technically called mass-horizons, are similar in mathematical structure to the cosmic world-space favored by Einstein23.

The planetary universe, other than that of the earth, can be explored by the occult powers latent in man; but so far our physicists have not come into contact with them. All phenomena known to Western science are those of our terrestrial universe. The sun is the terrestrial sun, the stars the terrestrial stars, and the ether of space is the terrestrial ether. The substance of all these is continually being interchanged between earth and star.

"Paracelsus named it the sidereal light... He regarded the starry host (our earth included) as the condensed portion of the astral light... whose magnetic or spiritual emanations kept constantly a never-ceasing intercommunication between themselves and the parent fount of all the astral light... As fire passes through an iron stove, so do the stars pass through men with all their properties and go into him as the rain into the earth"24.

¶105. This astral light of Paracelsus is what in the West has been called the ether of space, whilst in reality it is the earth's electromagnetic field. The following description of this is taken from the writer's pamphlet, Einstein's Theory25, and is based on researches along the lines of Occult teaching.

"The ether of space has been a source of bewilderment to Western science since the age of Descartes, as will be seen from Whittaker's History of the Theories of Ether and Electricity26. In my opinion, this is due to having confused it with the earth's electromagnetic field. If we throw a stone into a sheet of water and watch the ripples move away from the disturbance in ever-increasing circles, we have a sectional view of the ether as understood in the West. Sir William Bragg, in the recent Robert Boyle lecture at Oxford27 illustrates one of the difficulties of this view of the ether, where he says: 'It is as if one dropped a plank Into the sea from a height of 100 ft., and found that the spreading ripple was able, after traveling 1,000 miles and becoming infinitesimal in comparison with its original amount, to act upon a wooden ship in such a way that a plank of that ship flew out of its place to a height of 100 ft'. Bragg's description of the Western theory of the ether amounts practically to a reductio ad absurdum, and it may be well to compare it with the ether as taught in the East. Imagine an enormous bicycle wheel with a large number of thin, hollow, steel spokes, from hub to rim. This may be taken as a rough sectional view of the earth's electromagnetic field. The hub of the wheel is the earth, the spokes are the lines of force constituting the earth's electromagnetic field. Between the spokes is the ether of space, which may be of infinite extent. Each spoke begins on the earth, and ends on a star, so that the electromagnetic field is finite. As the distance between the spokes increases with the distance from the earth, there is plenty of room for lines of force from other planets and suns. The different fields of force can therefore interpenetrate and cut each other. If the force of a falling plank is applied to a line of force at one end, it will be delivered undiminished at the other end, so, that Bragg's difficulty does not apply to the Eastern theory. The number of spokes through unit area will diminish as the distance squared, and the force in the same ratio, but the force applied to an individual spoke will pass to any distance without loss. Vibrations pass along these lines of force according to the undulatory theory of light, whilst corpuscles pass within the hollow tubes in accordance with the corpuscular theory. It is not a question of which is true, the undulatory or corpuscular theories according to the Eastern school, they are both true. The number of lines of force issuing from each square inch of the earth's surface is about thirteen million of millions, and the total number of spokes in the terrestrial wheel requires thirty-two figures to express it. Our sun's surface is 10,000 times that of the earth, and the number of suns forming the stars of our milky way is estimated at one thousand millions. If each of these suns had t he same surface as our own, the earth would be able to supply one line of force to each square inch of surface of every star in our sidereal system. Our electromagnetic field, therefore, keeps us in excellent telegraphic communication with the heavenly bodies".

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

¶106. Each heavenly body is the center of a universe, so that there are as many universes as there are suns and planets. These universes overlap and interpenetrate each other, but are, nevertheless, quite distinct and separate universes. They consist of a central body, to which is attached an ether of space, or an electromagnetic field, of which the lines of force are focused on the central body as origin, and terminate in a framework of stars, which mark the boundary and limits of the universe. This ether of space may be of the type, and possess the mathematical properties, of the metrical and electrical fields of Einstein and Weyl28.

The universe, as known to us, is one such universe, having the earth as center, and having the earth's electric and gravitational fields as the ether of space attached to it, whilst the visible galaxy is the framework of stars forming the termini of the terrestrial lines of force, and the boundary of our space. All the properties of this geocentric universe are specialized to earth's requirements, and are more or less functions of the earth's mass. Thus the visible sun is the terrestrial sun, and the stars are terrestrial stars, and both sun and stars, as seen from another planet, may be quite different in appearance and properties.

Whilst the planet and its field may be regarded as the domain, and under the control, of the planetary Logos, the framework of stars which bound the universe may be the domain, and under the control, of the corresponding cosmic Logos.

Since there is a constant circulation of matter between the central body and the bounding stars of the planetary universe, the stars, as seen through the spectroscope, will always appear to be composed of the same chemical constituents as the central body.

References

 

Chapter VIII

THE MUNDANE EGG


"The stars surround the whole earth, as a shell does the egg"1.

¶107. From the conclusions arrived at in the previous studies it may be inferred that there are many things that may appear to be of cosmo-centric importance to Western science, which, nevertheless, may be of little interest outside our geocentric universe; and, as the interpretation of phenomena by Occultists and by Western science differs largely because, on the one hand, the phenomena are regarded as geocentric and, on the other, as cosmo-centric, it may be well here to examine a few of the more important cases.

It is now well known that the number of sunspots varies from year to year, increasing to a maximum, then decreasing to a minimum, in a cycle having an average period of about eleven years. Corresponding to this, there is a variation of the forces of terrestrial magnetism. This sunspot variation is regarded by Western science as common to the solar system, and even to the stars of the cosmos. But these sunspots are merely openings in the chromosphere, which is only seen from the earth, and not from the other planets. There may be spots in parts of the corona which are seen from the planets but not from the earth, and the periodicity and laws of variation may be different in the two cases. Thus sunspots, as seen by us, may be a purely geocentric phenomenon, and not cosmo-centric as generally supposed.

¶108. To take another illustration, on 21st February, 1901, a new star blazed forth in the constellation Perseus, so that within three days its light increased 10,000-fold2, or from below an eleventh magnitude star to a little brighter than the first magnitude star Capella, and about the third brightest star in the heavens. By 25th June, 1901, or four months after its appearance, the star had vanished, and become transformed into a nebula.

Was the above event witnessed by the inhabitants of other stellar systems, or only by those in our geocentric universe? In other words, was it a cosmic event, or was it only a terrestrial event? Western science will reply emphatically that the event was cosmic, although this reply involves physical difficulties which, so far cannot be surmounted. For instance, how can a body, larger and hotter than our sun, have its heat dissipated in a few months? According to Lord Kelvin, it will require at least 10,000,000 years for our own sun to cool down; how then can the heat of a larger and hotter body disappear in so short a period? There is at present no satisfactory explanation of new star phenomena on the principles of modern physics3.

¶109. If, however, the event is merely geocentric, that is, merely a change in the relationship between our earth and the star. a satisfactory explanation presents fewer difficulties. Our earth sends out lines of force into space which terminate in the surrounding stars. Some stars are linked with us by many lines, some by few, and others by none at all. These linkages may vary from time to time, according to the motions and configurations of stellar systems. If the linkages increase, the star will become brighter; if the linkages decrease, the brightness becomes less. If a star, previously disconnected with our lines of force, forms a contact, then an event will happen similar to the passage of an electric spark between charged spheres. This would constitute a small disturbance in the higher regions of the atmosphere of the star, a disturbance so trifling as to be scarcely perceptible to the inhabitants of the system; but, as the whole of the effect would be transmitted along the terrestrial lines of force, it would be seen by us as a temporary blazing up of the star to ten thousandfold its normal brilliancy. Thus the geocentric effect would be enormous, and the cosmic effect infinitesimal.

¶110. If we regard the system of visible stars as the number of points of contact which our geocentric universe makes with other universes and with the cosmos in general, then the total mass of the visible stars may, perhaps, have a definite relationship to some fundamental property of our earth. The number of stars in our Galaxy, according to Eddington's estimate4, lies between 770 millions and 1,800 millions. Taking the mean of these, we have, for the number of stars in our Galaxy,

(22) (1/2)(770+1800) millions = 1,235,000,000

He further estimates that, on the average, 30 of the stars have a mass equal to 10 times the mass of the sun5, so that each star averages one-third the mass of our sun. The sun's mass in grams is 1.97 x l033 ; hence, taking one-third of this, and multiplying by the number of stars, as given by (22), we have, for the mass of matter in our sidereal system,

(23) 81.1 x 1040 grams

We are told in The Secret Doctrine6, that the interval between one Night of Brahma and the next is 311,040,000,000,000 years, and that half of this has transpired in the present Mâhâmanvantâra7. The Pralâya which terminates this period is called Prakritikâ, because it is the time when the elements are broken up into their original protyle. The matter of our physical plane has, therefore, had a life of 155,520,000,000,000 years, during the current Mâhâmanvantâra. Now, in ¶70 it is shown that the earth generates its own mass every year, so that in half a kalpâ the mass generated will be

(24) Earth's mass x 155,520,000,000,000 = 93.0 x 1040 grams

On comparing this with the total mass of matter in the sidereal system, it will be seen that it is of the same order of magnitude; and, if we had accurate data to measure both masses correctly, it is possible that they might be exactly equal.

¶111. According to Occult teaching, electricity is matter8, and, if the usual dimensions of an electric charge, in electrostatic units, be analyzed into length and time, as is done in ¶86, they will be found to be the same as the dimensions of a mass. We will therefore ascertain the earth's electrostatic charge, and compare it with the mass of the Galaxy as given by (23). According to the accepted theory of Rutherford, the positive charge on an element, or the charge on its positive nucleus, is the atomic number multiplied by the electronic charge. This electronic charge is given in (5), ¶38, and the atomic numbers of the elements are given in the Smithsonian Physical Tables9 for all the elements. Using these data, we find that the electrostatic charge on the element iron is 134,780,000,000,000 times its mass, so that, if the earth were composed of iron, its charge would be 80.6 x l040, which is very close to the mass of the Galaxy as given by (23). If we take 1040 as the unit of measurement, then a copper earth would have a charge 79.2; one of zinc, 79.4; of silver, 75.4; of arsenic, 76.2; and of tin, 72.9. The average of the above six elements is 77.3. If we take the entire system of elements, from hydrogen (=1) to uranium (=92), and assume the earth is built up of equal masses of each element, then the earth's electrostatic charge would be

(25) 76.57 x 1040

¶112. On comparing the values of (23) and (25), we see that they are of the same order of magnitude, so that, within the limits of observational error, we see that the ratio of the earth's charge to its mass is the same as the ratio of the mass of the visible universe to the earth's mass, and this equality of the earth's charge with the mass of the visible universe is significant. We saw in ¶110 that the visible stars may be regarded as points of contact between our terrestrial universe and the cosmos. The stars are, as it were, pouring matter and energy into our universe like inflating a bubble, and this matter and energy is drunk up by the earth, and vanishes through the atomic nuclei, as described in Occult Chemistry10 and quoted in ¶48-49. In the stars we have matter and energy radiating and diverging throughout our space, whilst in the earth, as center, we have this same matter and energy converging upon the atomic nuclei, and constituting the electric charge of the chemical elements, and of the earth. Now, according to the most recent developments of Einstein's theory, mass is the measure of the flux of matter and energy through the surface of the body11. Hence the influx through the star surfaces measures the mass of the stars, whilst the outflux through the matter of the earth measures the earth's charge; and, since the influx and outflux of our terrestrial universe must be equal, the mass of the visible stars must be equal to the earth's charge.

Some of the developments of Einstein's theory have an interesting bearing on the above result. This theory has evolved by attributing properties to cosmic space which we hope to show later are only the properties of the earth's electromagnetic field. By such a proceeding he arrives at conclusions which, though erroneous as applied to cosmic space, may be taken as quite correct in connection with our geocentric universe. One of these conclusions is that space is curved, and that the amount of matter in the universe is limited by this curvature. From our point of view we may regard this curvature of space as the conformation of our Mundane Egg. To quote Prof. Eddington12:

"Wherever there is matter there is action, and therefore curvature; and it is interesting to notice that in ordinary matter the curvature of the space world is by no means insignificant. For example, in water of ordinary density the curvature is the same as that of space in the form of a sphere of radius 570,000,000 kilometers. The result is even more surprising if expressed in time units; the radius is about half-an-hour.

It is difficult to picture what this means; but at least we can predict that a globe of water of 570,000,000 km. radius would have extraordinary properties. Presumably there must be an upper limit to the possible size of a globe of water. So far as I can make out, a homogeneous mass of water of about this size (and no larger) could exist. It would have no center and no boundary, every point of it being in the same position with respect to the whole mass as every other point of it - like points on the surface of a sphere with respect to the surface. Any ray of light, after traveling for an hour or two, would come back to the starting-point. Nothing could enter or leave the mass, because there is no boundary to enter or leave by; in fact, it is co-extensive with space. There could not be any other world anywhere else, because there isn't an 'anywhere else'".

The mass of a sphere of water having a radius of 570,000,000 kilometers, which according to the above is the maximum amount of water that could exist, is

77.57 x 1040 grams

and is apparently identical with the earth's electrostatic charge, as given by (25). From this we may infer that Einstein's theory attributes properties to cosmic space which are in reality properties of our geocentric universe.

¶113. One of the difficulties encountered by physicists is due to the existence of two distinct systems of units in which electrical quantities are measured, the one system being called electrostatic, and the other electromagnetic. These units are not of the same order of magnitude, the one being enormously greater or less than the other; thus the unit quantity of electricity in electromagnetic measure is thirty thousand million units in electrostatic measure, and in all cases measurements in the two systems are to each other in the ratio of some power of the above number. The two systems of units are due to the fact that the ratio of the elasticity of the ether (which we may regard as the etheric pressure) to its density is the square of thirty thousand millions; and, until the actual values of these etheric constants are known, it is not possible to dispense with the two systems of measurement, whilst retaining the C.G.S. Units13.

At the end of Everett's C. G. S. System of Units14 an interesting attempt is made to equalize the electrostatic and electromagnetic systems by the adoption of new units of mass, length, and time15. These new units had to fulfill the three following conditions: (i) The acceleration due to the attraction of unit mass at unit distance shall be unity. (ii) The electrostatic units shall be equal to the electromagnetic units. (iii) The density of water at 4° C. shall be unity.

The result of the calculation is that the new unit of time will be 3928 seconds, or one hour, five and a half minutes, the new unit of length 1.178 x 1014, or a little less than Saturn's distance from the sun, and the new unit of mass 163 x 1040 grams, or about twice the mass of the sidereal system as given by (23).

¶114. The above calculation is based on the assumption that the unit of mass is a mass of water in the form of a cube, the distance from corner to corner being the unit of length. If we take the unit of mass in the form of a sphere, having the unit of length as radius, then the new unit of time is 1893.2 seconds, or 31.56 minutes, the unit of length 5.679 x 1013 centimeters, or 567,900,000 kilometers - the same length as the radius of Eddington's sphere of water in ¶112, with four significant figures instead of two - and the new unit of mass

76.72 1040

which is in almost exact agreement with the earth's electrostatic charge as given by (25). The sole data on which both the above calculations are based, are the density of water = 1, the gravitational constant = 0.000,000,06658, and the velocity of light = 29,990,000,00 centimeters.

¶115. In the following table is given for comparison, the quantities so far obtained:

  x 1040 
Mass of matter in our sidereal system 81.10 (23)
Mass of matter generated in half a kalpâ 93.00 (24)
Earth's electrostatic charge 76.57 (25)
Einstein's maximum mass of water

77.57

(26)
Unit of mass equalizing electrostatic and electromagnetic units 76.72

(27)

There is one significant property about the above figures, viz., in cases where the data from which they are calculated are known with accuracy, the agreement is close, as in (25), (26), and (27), whilst in cases where the data can be only roughly estimated, as in (23) and (24), the agreement is correspondingly rough. This implies that the difference may be entirely due to errors of observation, or rough estimates, and that in reality all the figures are equal. This can be proved in the case of (26) and (27), for Einstein's mass is based on Eddington's statement of 570,000,000 km. for the radius of the sphere of water, which is evidently a rough measurement, since only two significant figures are given. The actual radius, however, is 567,900,000 km., which brings it into exact agreement with the unit of mass (27).

¶116. The above results lend support to the following hypothetical statements. The amount of matter generated by the earth's gravity from the beginning of the kalpâ is equal to the mass of matter visible to us in our sidereal system. It is the unit of mass which equalizes the electromagnetic and electrostatic systems of units, and is identical with the earth's electrostatic charge, and Einstein's maximum mass of water.

Such a result may, at first sight, appear weird and fantastic; yet the consequences of Einstein's theory of gravitation are somewhat similar. Thus in Eddington's Space, Time, and Gravitation16 (p.157) we read:

"Now, if all intervals vanished, space-time would shrink to a point. Then there would be no space, no time, no inertia, no anything. Thus a cause which creates intervals and geodesics must, so to speak, extend the world.... An alternative way is to inflate the world from inside, as a balloon is blown out... For Einstein's cylindrical world it is necessary to postulate the existence of vast quantities of matter... This additional matter may either be in the form of distant stars and galaxies... or it may be uniformly spread through space17... The revised law of gravitation involves a new constant which depends upon the total amount of matter in the world; or, conversely, the total amount of matter in the world is determined by the law of gravitation18... Some mechanism seems to be needed, whereby either gravitation creates matter, or all the matter in the universe conspires to define a law of gravitation... It leads to the result that the extension of space and time depends upon the amount of matter in the world... The more matter there is, the more space is created to contain it; and, if there were no matter, the world would shrink to a point"19.

¶117. In the above, Einstein finds for the cosmos properties similar to what we find for the terrestrial universe, or the Mundane Egg; he suggests that the gravitation process, which creates matter, is something like that of blowing bubbles in space, the amount of matter created being proportionate to the number of bubbles blown, and this is the process of matter creation, as disclosed by Occult investigations. The atom "is formed by the flow of the life-force and vanishes with its ebb. When this force arises in space... atoms appear; if it be artificially stopped for a single atom, the atom disappears; there is nothing left"20. The units of force, out of which the atoms are built,

"are all alike, spherical and absolutely simple in construction. Though they are the basis of all matter, they are not themselves matter; they are not blocks, but bubbles. They do not resemble bubbles floating in the air, which consist of a thin film of water separating the air within them from the air outside, so that the film has both an outer and an inner surface. Their analogy is rather with the bubbles that we see rising in water, before they reach the surface, bubbles which may be said to have only one surface - that of the water which is pushed back by the contained air... Fohat "digs holes in space" of a verity, and the holes are the airy nothingnesses, the bubbles of which "solid" universes are built... What are they, then, these bubbles? Or rather, what is their content ?... The ancients called that force "the Breath"... it is the Breath of the Logos... The Breath of the Logos, then, is the force which fills these spaces... And when He draws in His Breath, the waters of space will close in again, and the universe will have disappeared. It is only a breath"21.

This is the equivalent Occult version of Eddington's statement at the end of ¶115: "If there were no matter, the world would shrink to a point".

¶118. It would thus seem that each Planetary Logos generates not only the mass of the planet, or physical nucleus, but also the space which constitutes its universe. This process of generation appears to be connected with, and perhaps identical with, the gravitation process, which creates matter by blowing bubbles, or impregnating the inert substance of space with the Divine Breath, or life of the Logos. As the creation proceeds, the planet's universe expands, and contacts a larger and larger portion of the cosmos, and this continues for a period equal to the Mâhâmanvantara of the planet. In the case of the terrestrial Logos, this period is an Age of Brahma; and, as the earth's mass is produced annually, as shown in (11), ¶70, the total mass produced from the beginning of the kalpâ is the earth's mass multiplied by the number of years elapsed from the beginning of the kalpâ to now, and is equal to: the electrostatic charge the mass of the whole of the stars visible to us, the unit of mass which equalizes the electrostatic and electromagnetic systems of units, and the maximum mass deduced from Einstein's theory. This ever-growing mass constitutes the framework of the geocentric universe, enclosing it within and without, as an egg encloses an unhatched chicken. It is known in Occultism as the Mundane Egg, from which the terrestrial Logos, Brahma, is born.

"The One Supreme Planetary Principle, who blows the Egg out of His mouth, and who is, therefore, Brahma"22.

It may be well here to emphasize that the terrestrial universe is enclosed within and without from the cosmos in general. The outside enclosure corresponds to the shell of the egg, or the stellar system visible from our planet, whilst the inside enclosure corresponds to the nervous system of the enclosed embryo, through which alone impulses can he conveyed to it. This nervous system is the network of lines of force constituting the earth's electromagnetic field, which in Occultism is known as "the Web of Life". This web is apparently identical with the geodesics, or the meshwork which controls the geometry of space in a gravitational field. It is the "metrical field" of Einstein, which governs the motions of falling bodies, and, as such, agrees with Occult teaching, which attributes gravitation to the cosmic prânâ, or Life-Force, circulating in Nature's Life-Web. These lines of force in the terrestrial universe shut us off from the cosmos in general, and only allow contact with it in a limited and specialized form, which is impressed with some terrestrial property, such as the vibrations of terrestrial matter, or the velocity of radiation in the earth's electromagnetic field. This Mundane Egg is the unique system of co-ordinates discussed in theories of relativity, and is the only system of co-ordinates of which humanity in general can have any physical science.

At the end of human evolution, humanity, as it were, hatches out of this Mundane Egg, and experiences the same expansion of consciousness as that of a chicken issuing from its shell to the light of its farm-yard. This process is known in Occultism as Initiation. Then man's Ray becomes seven Rays, his sun, seven suns, and his system of stars, seven systems. Thus man is the embryo of a God, and awaits his birth into divinity.

CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY

¶119. Matter and energy radiate from the stars and spread in a divergent form throughout our terrestrial universe, from where they subsequently converge upon the earth as foci. Hence, in our system, forces are divergent from the star, and convergent for the earth, so that stellar changes, such as light-variations and new star phenomena, may have only infinitesimal effects in the star systems themselves, whilst the effects on the earth may be great. This is the raison d'etre of stellar influences, as taught in Astrology. The stars pour their influences upon man "as rain upon the earth".

This radiating or diverging energy of the stars is the expression of their inertia or mass, whilst the corresponding converging energy upon the earth is the expression of the earth's electric charge, and the two are necessarily equal. Thus the total mass of our Galaxy is equal to the earth's electrostatic charge, and electricity is matter, as taught in Occultism.

As the earth creates its own mass every year, its increasing mass enlarges its universe, increasing its points of contact with the cosmos, in such a way that the total mass produced from the beginning of the kalpâ is equal to the mass of the visible stars and to the earth's electric charge.

This mass is the natural unit of mass for our electrical system, and unifies all electrical quantities in the electrostatic and electromagnetic systems of units. It is identical also with the maximum mass of matter deduced from the theory of Einstein.

Our terrestrial universe has some of the properties of a living embryo, called in Occultism the Mundane Egg, in which evolutionary systems are undergoing a process of hatching out.

References

 

Chapter IX

EINSTEIN AND GRAVITATION


¶120. There are certain numbers used by physicists which are regarded by Western science as fundamental constants of Nature, the values of which, given below, are taken from the 1920 Edition of the Smithsonian Physical Tables1.

NATURE'S CONSTANTS

Velocity of light, c =2.99860 x 1010
Planck's element of action, the "quantum", h =6,547x10-27
The constant of gravitation,G =6.66 x l0-8
Boltzmann gas constant, k =1.372 x 10-16
Elementary electrical charge, or charge on election, e =4.774 x 10-10
Mass of electron,m =9.0I x 10-28
Mass of hydrogen =1.662 x 10-24
Rydberg's constant,N =109678.7

All the above are looked upon as unchangeable throughout the cosmic universe; and the first three - the velocity of light, Planck's quantum, and the constant of gravitation - are regarded as pre-eminently the expression of what is most fundamental in Nature2.

¶121. Einstein's theories are, in general, based on the assumption that the velocity of light is a constant throughout the whole of space, and it is admitted that, if this assumption were invalid, the whole structure built up by Einstein would collapse3.

Professor Jeans recently pointed out4 that

"our whole knowledge of physics is 'surface-physics'; we ought to remember that our knowledge of physics is derived wholly from experiments conducted on the surface of a planet with the aid of light emitted from the surfaces of sun and stars... There may be a more general physics applicable inside a star, and this may contain sources of energy unknown to us... Conservation of mass and of energy may be only phenomena of 'surface-physics'".

Thus, if we could conduct our experiments in the interior of the earth, or in the spaces between the heavenly bodies, we might need to modify our physical laws, even the most fundamental ones, such as the conservation of matter and energy. This word of caution applies particularly to Einstein's basic assumption of the constancy of light velocity throughout the cosmos. All experiments on the velocity of light have been confined to the earth's surface. How do we know that we should find the same velocity if these experiments were tried on Mars or Jupiter? The physicist will reply that the velocity of light is a property of the space between the heavenly bodies, and that we have proved that between the planet Jupiter and the earth the velocity of light is the same as at the earth's surface.

Against this it may be urged that the velocity of light is not a property of space, but of a special medium of space, and that space may contain many such media, differing in radiation velocity as well as other properties. In this alternative possibility lies the whole crux of the problem. If, as taught by Occultism, each planet has its own Fohat, or medium of space, then the velocity of light is a property of the medium attached to the earth, and this velocity may be quite different from that of the media attached to other bodies.

¶122. In what way can we obtain evidence that will enable us to decide between the contention of Western science, that space contains only one medium, or none at all, and that of Occultism, which maintains that space contains many media? One way would be to try experiments on the surfaces of different planets; but this is not at present feasible. Another way, not quite so satisfactory, is to search for internal evidence bearing on the question. In other words, trace out each assumption to its natural consequences, and see whether these favor the one assumption or the other. Einstein has traced out the consequences of his assumption, and these consequences should be something that is applicable to the whole cosmos. If Einstein's results are meaningless as applied to the cosmos, but have a definite physical meaning as applied to the earth, then this is presumptive evidence that Einstein's theory is wrong as applied to the cosmos, but may be right as applied to the terrestrial universe. Now, we saw in the previous study that Einstein's maximum mass of matter was incomprehensible as a cosmic fact, but tremendously significant as applied to the earth alone, because it gave us a relationship between a property of our medium of space and the earth's electrostatic charge. Both Einstein and Everett obtained this maximum, or unit of mass, by the simple process of making the density of water, the velocity of light c, and the gravitational constant G, each equal to unity. In other words, by changing the assumption from that of Einstein to that of Occultism, we find that, by making the two properties of the terrestrial space-medium, c and G, and the density of the earth's surface-substance, water, each equal to unity, we are able to deduce the earth's electrostatic charge; a fact of great terrestrial importance, but without meaning for the cosmos as a whole.

¶123. The above result contains one weak point which the man of science will easily detect, for this result is based not only on two constants of space, c, and G, but on the density of water; and it will be asked: Why should water be chosen, rather than any other substance? No reply can be given to this that will be regarded as fully satisfactory to Western science, for the complete answer involves the recognition of the facts observed by Occultists. But. even to the science of the West, the properties of water are somewhat unique. It is the general solvent other substances, it occupies the great bulk of the earth's surface, where the electrical charge of a sphere is situated. Its molecular number is 10, which confers upon it remarkable properties, as pointed out by Prof. H. Stanley Allen5. He shows that there must be a numerical connection, involving powers of 10, between the unit of length and the unit of mass in the C. G. S. system. Such a relation ship gives us water as the standard substance of our planet, the dens ity of which must be unity in order to satisfy this relationship. Its density bears the ratio 4π (4 x 3.14159) to the earth's volume intensity of Magnetism, which again is significant.

To occult students it may be further pointed out that its molecular weight is 18, and in hydrogen, the unit of atomic mass, there are 18 atoms, so that water bears the same ratio to unit atomic weight as hydrogen bears to the atom of Occultism. If water were broken up into 18 atoms of hydrogen, it would carry 18 electronic charges; and, in the periodic table of the elements, 18 electronic charges is a periodic set in which the chemical properties of the elements repeat themselves. From argon, atomic number 18, to krypton, atomic number 36, is a cycle of 18 charges or a periodic set. Similarly from potassium to rubidium, etc. Now argon has the same chemical properties as krypton and potassium the same as rubidium, so that the electronic charges, manifested or hidden in water, added to an element, generate another element with similar chemical properties. We may therefore regard the elements as built up, by steps down the columns of the periodic table of successive additions of water, or the periodic set of charges on its constituent hydrogen. Such is a brief sketch of the reason why water is a unique substance and specially related to the charge of the earth. It could be greatly expanded, did space allow.

¶124. Our previous study, therefore, gives presumptive evidence in favor of the Occult teaching as against the assumption of Einstein but it may not be sufficient to constitute a proof. If true, however, there must be other facts which confirm it. for the facts in favor of a truth, if it be really a truth, are infinite, since every other fact must be in conformity with it. We may therefore search for other evidence, which may be obtained from the following easily proved theorem:

"The ratio between the mean force of terrestrial gravity and the mean force of terrestrial magnetism is the square of the velocity of light".

¶125. The demonstration of this theorem has been given in the pamphlet, Einstein Theory6, and to this the reader may be referred for details, which may be omitted here. The mean force of terrestrial magnetism is the mean intensity of magnetization per unit volume, 0.07903, multiplied by (4/3)π = (4/3) 3.14159; and the following values are obtained from A Treatise on Magnetism and Electricity7:

Intensity of terrestrial magnetism I = 0.07903

(28) Mean force of terrestrial magnetism f = (4/3) π I = 0.33104

One of the quantities, therefore, required by our theorem is f = 0.33104, the mean force of terrestrial magnetism, as observed by Western physicists. The force of terrestrial gravity is given in equation (18), and is explained in ¶86. It is identical with the earth's astronomical mass, and is equal to the mean acceleration of gravity at the earth's surface, g multiplied by the square of the earth's radius, R; or gR2 , as given by (18). This is the total force of terrestrial gravity outside the earth's surface; but what is meant by the mean force of terrestrial gravity is the average value of this force inside the earth's surface, or at every point of the earth's volume. This can he ascertained by means of the calculus, on the assumption of uniform density, with the result that it is exactly three-fourths of the surface value. Thus we have for the mean force of terrestrial gravity, from (18):

(29) F = (3/4) gR2 = 2.9826 x 1020

Now our theorem states that the square of the velocity c is equal to the ratio F/f, or

c2 = F/f = 9.0101 x 1020

(30) c = (F/f)(1/2) = 3.0016 x 1010

¶126. The velocity of light, as given in ¶119, is 2.9986 x 1010, and this is the most probable value. Physicists generally use the value 3x 1010, and the actual measurements range between 2.986 x 1010 and 3.153 x 1010 8.

The result of our theorem, as given by (30), is therefore well within the errors of observation, and is proved.

Here then we have a fundamental property of outside space, the velocity of light, shown to be a function of the forces operating inside the earth's mass, the forces of terrestrial gravity and magnetism. Does this amount to absolute proof that the velocity of light is a property of the terrestrial universe? In the opinion of Western physicists, perhaps not. They may contend either that it is accidental, or that the ratio of the mean force of gravity to the mean force of magnetism is the same for all the heavenly bodies. This would not explain why this velocity of light gives us the earth's electrostatic charge, as shown in the preceding study, unless it is held that the electrostatic charge of all the heavenly bodies is the same as that of the earth. This would make the electric charge of the chemical constituents of the sun's mass exceedingly small as compared with the terrestrial elements, whilst the magnetic intensity per unit volume of the sun's mass would be 329390 times the magnetic intensity of the earth. Both these deductions would be contrary to observation, for astronomical facts imply that the matter of the sun is highly electrical as compared with the matter of the earth, and that the magnetic forces are not nearly so great as three hundred thousand times those of the earth. Moreover, by the known laws of physics, electric and magnetic forces vary together, so that when the one is great, the other is great: whereas the above supposition would make them vary inversely, the magnetic force varying directly as the mass, and the electric force varying inversely. This would be a very improbable hypothesis, for the laws of the electromagnetic field require that the electric and magnetic energies shall be equal9.

¶127. But let us proceed with further proofs for, as stated above, if a proposition is true, all other facts help to establish it. There is a region of our terrestrial laboratory at the outskirts of the atmosphere, which has recently greatly attracted the attention of Western science on account of the development of wireless telegraphy. The possibility of sending wireless messages for such long distances has greatly puzzled physicists, for it is contrary to the laws of the earth's electromagnetic field, according to which these electrical vibrations should dissipate into space instead of passing round the earth's surface. The observed strength of the Marconi rays is two million times greater than that predicted by theory10. In order to explain this, physicists have to suppose that at a height of about one hundred kilometers above sea level (69 miles) there is a layer of the atmosphere composed principally of hydrogen and helium, which is permanently ionized with negative ions or electrons, so as to enclose the earth in an electrically charged spherical shell, like the charge on a sphere, which always resides at the surface. This electrical shell prevents the Marconi rays from dissipating into space, thus confining them to the earth's surface, and rendering wireless telegraphy a possibility11.

¶128. This region of the atmosphere, at a height of about one hundred kilometers, has many other features that are of interest to us. From the surface up to a height of a little more than six hundred kilometers, the viscosity of the atmosphere remains practically constant, and then, above this height, when the pressure falls below one ten-thousandth of an atmosphere, the viscosity suddenly becomes zero12. At the height of one hundred kilometers the pressure is 0.0067 millimeters of mercury, or less than one hundred-thousandth of the pressure at the surface, and is composed of 95.5% hydrogen, 3% nitrogen, and 1.3% helium13. In an X-Ray tube, a pressure so low as this would produce very hard rays, and with a fall of potential of 126,000 volts, as shown by (19), ¶87, the velocity of the cathode rays would be more than two-thirds the velocity of light14. It is at such pressures that Thomson and Aston have investigated the positive rays, measured the mass of individual atoms, and counted the number of isotopes of which the chemical elements consist. At this pressure matter takes on a new form: cohesion and viscosity have vanished, and atoms and molecules exist as separate units. In ¶71, we showed that at the bottom of the isothermal layer, at a height of 11 kilometers, the ionic velocity developed by the earth's gravitational field was equal to the molecular velocity. But, as this ionic velocity is inversely as the pressure, the velocity developed at a height of 100 kilometers would be 1.12 x 109 for the air molecule and 5.17 x 109 for hydrogen. The alpha rays from the radioactive elements have a velocity which ranges from 1.45 x 109, for Uranium I, to 2.22 x 1099, for Thorium C. Hence molecular velocities at 100 kilometers are of the same order of magnitude as the alpha rays.

¶129. It was stated in ¶43 that the action between the earth and the sun is similar to that of the cathode and anode in an X-Ray tube, and this position of the spherical shell at 100 kilometers may be taken as corresponding to the surface of the cathode, where gaseous matter is divided into two opposite streams, the cathode rays moving in the direction of the anode, and the positive rays moving through the surface of the cathode, and away from the anode. The cathode rays consist of electrons, which in the case of our terrestrial cathode move towards the sun, and the positive rays consist of the chemical elements, molecular or atomic, moving downwards into the earth's atmosphere. It was shown in ¶70 that this motion of the molecules at the height of 11 kilometers is in one year sufficient to renew the whole of the earth's

mass; and, although the density of the atmosphere at 100 kilometers is very much less, the molecular velocity is proportionally greater, so that in this region also an amount of matter equal to the earth's mass will enter the earth annually. Stormer has shown15 that the average height of the lower fringes of the polar aurora is about 100 kilometers, so that these fringes also mark the position of our terrestrial cathode. In the works cited in ¶44, Stormer, Birkeland and Vegard have shown that the variations of terrestrial magnetism can be explained by the motions of positively and negatively charged bodies, or alpha and beta rays, in the auroral regions, whilst Vegard has shown16 that the characteristic fringes of the aurora can be accounted for by the clear-cut ranges of alpha particles. When we add to this the fact that the aurora is now discovered to be a permanent feature of the upper atmosphere17, we have both fact and deduction to confirm our theory.

¶130. At this cathode, or electrical surface of our planet, two opposite processes are apparently taking place. The atmosphere, which at this height, as stated above, consists of 96% hydrogen, is greatly ionized, so as to form an electrical screen for Marconi rays. These ions, as suggested in ¶73, are molecules which have been switched off from the earth's gravitational potential and are relatively stationary. It is flow further suggested that the process here taking place is a mutual transfer of molecular or atomic matter between the solar and terrestrial gravitational fields the negative ions being transferred to the sun's gravitational field, and becoming electrons which move towards the sun, as explained in ¶61, whilst positive ions from the sun enter the earth's gravitational field and become positive hydrogen or protons, which hydrogen, by a later process taking place between the electrical surface and the lower atmosphere, is built up into the elements of higher atomic weight.

These two reverse processes may be defined as radioactive and inversely radioactive, and are processes of alchemy or transmutation.

Hence radioactivity is a property of all the elements at the cathode, or electrical surface of a planet, and this surface is the seat of an alchemical laboratory as taught by Occultism18. We would here suggest that this electrical surface of our planet is the real surface from the point of view of the physicist, and that the keys to the interpretation of physical phenomena may lie concealed in the operations of forces at this level.

¶131. But the reader may be inclined to ask: What has all this to do with the velocity of light being a function of the earth's mass, which is the proposition we set out to prove? The connection is this: at this electrical surface, at a height of 100 kilometers, or more exactly 98 kilometers, the average acceleration of gravity is 950.32, and this acceleration, if operated for a year, or 31,558,000 seconds would develop a velocity

c = 31,558,000 x 930.32 = 2.9986 x 1010

(30) = the velocity of light,

so that, just as the total mass of the earth is generated in the terrestrial laboratory in one year by the gravitational potential, as shown in (11) and explained in ¶70-72, so, in one year also, the earth's surface gravity develops the characteristic velocity of outside space, the radiation velocity or velocity of light.

Now this is a property which, like the others, occurs only in the case of the earth. The surface gravities of Jupiter or Saturn, in their respective periods, would develop velocities quite different to the velocity of light. In both cases they would be much larger. This relationship of the velocity of light, like that of the others we have investigated, is a property peculiar to the earth, and to the earth alone.

References

 

CHAPTER X

EINSTEIN AND GRAVITATION


¶132. Although the physicist may, perhaps, be a little shaken in his contention that the relationship between the earth's mass and the velocity of light, as shown above, is purely accidental, he will probably assert that the last relationship, given by (30), can have no physical meaning. He may point out that the earth's gravity, however long applied to a body, could never make it move with the velocity of light. The highest velocity that can be generated by terrestrial gravity on a falling body is 11.16 kilometers, or 6.94 miles, as given by (2) in ¶5. This is quite true; but the validity of this objection depends upon the reply to the question "When a body falls to the ground, is this due to the ether pushing the body downwards, or is it due to the body pushing the ether upwards"?

Owing to the Newtonian law that action and reaction are equal and opposite, either of these processes would cause the body to fall. Put in other words. we may ask: "In the mechanism of gravitation, is it the ether that accelerates the mass, or is it the mass that accelerates the ether"? We propose to show that it is the mass that accelerates the ether, and that the mass falls, or has weight, because of the reaction to this process. When a falling body reaches the earth's surface, its motion stops, but the body still has weight; and this weight is the reaction of the acceleration of the ether which is a continuous process; and this continuous process is the force-aspect of what we have termed the conservation of power, as described in ¶84.

¶133. The above theory of the gravitation process is in contradiction to certain physical ideas prevailing in Western science, and has been deduced from the investigations of Occultists as given in Occult Chemistry and The Secret Doctrine. It is therefore desirable to compare it with the conclusions of Western physicists, amongst whom Einstein stands out pre-eminent.

The statement of Einstein, quoted in ¶58 - "The same quality of a body manifests itself according to circumstances as 'inertia' or 'weight' may be taken as the latest dictum of science on the nature of gravity. He gives an illustration of its meaning in his popular exposition, Relativity1. He imagines a man in a box, placed in outer space where there is no gravitational field owing to the absence of attracting matter.

"As reference-body, let us imagine a spacious chest, resembling a room, with an observer inside who is equipped with apparatus. Gravitation naturally does not exist for the observer. He must fasten himself with strings to the floor, otherwise the slightest impact against the floor will cause him to rise slowly towards the ceiling of the room.

To the middle of the lid of the chest is fixed externally a hook with rope attached, and now a 'being' (what kind of a being is immaterial to us) begins pulling at this with a constant force. The chest, together with the observer, then begins to move 'upwards' with a uniformly accelerated motion. In course of time their velocity will reach unheard-of values - provided that we are viewing all this from another reference-body which is not being pulled with a rope.

But how does the man in the chest regard the process? The acceleration of the chest will be transmitted to him by the reaction of the floor of the chest. He must therefore take up this pressure by means of his legs, if he does not wish to be laid cut full length on the floor. He is then standing in the chest in exactly the same way as anyone stands in a room of a house on our earth. If he release a body which he previously had in his hand, the acceleration of the chest will no longer be transmitted to this body, and for this reason the body will approach the floor of the chest with an accelerated relative motion. The observer will further convince himself that the acceleration of the body towards the flow of the chest is always of the same magnitude, whatever kind of body he may happen to use for the experiment.

Relying on his knowledge of the gravitational field, the man in the chest will thus come to the conclusion that he and the chest are in a gravitational field which is constant with regard to time...

We must note carefully that the possibility of this mode of interpretation rests on the fundamental property of the gravitational field, of giving all bodies the same acceleration, or, what comes to the same thing, on the law of the equality of inertial and gravitational mass...

Suppose that the man in the chest fixes a rope to the inner side of the lid, and that he attaches a body to the free end of the rope. The result of this will be to stretch the rope, so that it will hang 'vertically' downwards. If we ask for an opinion of the cause of the tension of the rope, the man in the chest will say: 'The suspended body experiences a downward force in the gravitational field, and this is neutralized by the tension of the rope: what determines the magnitude of the tension of the rope is the gravitational mass of the suspended body". On the other hand, an observer who is poised freely in space will interpret the conditions thus: The rope must perforce take part in the accelerated motion of the chest, and it transmits this motion to the body attached to it. The tension of the rope is just large enough to effect the acceleration of the body. That which determines the magnitude of the tension of the rope is the inertial mass of the body".

In the above illustration, it is seen that to the man in the chest it is the gravitational mass that causes the tension of the rope, whilst, to the man outside, it is the inertial mass that is the cause of this tension. By gravitational mass is meant the weight and what Einstein wishes to lay stress upon is that this property of bodies can be regarded either as their weight or their inertial mass, according to the position of the observer, or, in technical language, according to the system of co-ordinates chosen.

¶134. This identity of weight and inertial mass is the fundamental assumption of Einstein's general theory of relativity, and is known as the Principle of Equivalence, or the Equivalence Hypothesis2. In the earlier or special theory of relativity, the fundamental assumption was the constancy of the velocity of light; hut this is now modified or partially abandoned3. The velocity changes slightly in a gravitational field, but only to an infinitesimal amount.

This Equivalence assumption of Einstein is justified by the experiments of Eotvos, which have proved its truth to a high degree of accuracy. It is quite possible that it may be a cosmic fact, and not confined to the terrestrial universe, which we contend is the case with the velocity of light. But the truths that follow from this assumption were truths before Einstein demonstrated them. Given the assumption, there may be many methods of deducing these truths besides that of Einstein, so that the resulting truths are independent of the method of demonstration.

They may be even independent of the assumption, and may follow from other assumptions, or from observed facts not at present recognized by Western science. We propose to show that the observed facts and teaching supplied to us by Occultists enable us to dispense with Einstein's assumption, though admitting its truth, because we are able to demonstrate that it necessarily follows from the mechanism of the gravitational process, and hence becomes a secondary deduction from still more primary principles.

¶135. If we trace out the path of Einstein's box as it moves with accelerated velocity through space, it would, as it were, bore out a channel in space, along which the medium inside the box, if confined to the box, would move with accelerated velocity, so that the medium inside the box would be an instance of a continually accelerated medium. If the channel traced out by the motion of the box be also full of the medium, and the motion causes the medium for the whole length of the channel to move with the same velocity as the box, we have a long tube in space along which a medium is moving with continually accelerated velocity. Suppose now the box is without a bottom, so that the man falls out of it. The man would really be stationary inside the tube, with the medium moving upwards past him; but, viewed from the box, he would appear to be falling in a gravitational field. Let us now dispense with the box, but retain the tube, the man, and the medium; and let us give the man the power to accelerate the medium continually by pouring it out through the surface of his body with ever-increasing velocity; then, if the man had a solid foothold, say on the earth's surface, the medium would still be accelerated along the tube, and the reaction of this accelerated medium on the man would cause his feet to press against the earth's surface, and give him weight. The accelerating medium in the tube would be the man's gravitational field.

If we reduce all this to the atomic scale, so that, in place of the man and tube, we have an atom and a line of force issuing perpendicularly from the earth's surface - the etheric medium inside the line of force being continually accelerated by the atom pouring it forth through its surface as described in Occult Chemistry4 - we obtain a model mechanism of a unit gravitational field giving a unit atomic weight. The earth's gravitational field, or that of a sun or planet, is simply a multiplication of such units. There is nothing difficult or mysterious about the mechanism of the operation; it violates no law of mechanics, and is as simple as holding a hose-pipe. When water issuing from a hose-pipe is accelerated whilst passing along the conical nozzle, the hose-pipe pushes against the man who is holding it, just as a body resting on the earth pushes against the earth's surface and constitutes a weight. The resisting push of the man against the hose-pipe is the force which accelerates the water issuing from the nozzle. Similarly the push of the earth's surface against the weight is the force which accelerates the medium in the lines of force issuing from the weight. Without the resisting push of the earth's surface, the weight would fall or be accelerated, instead of the medium.

¶136. This explanation of the mechanism of gravitation is not based on theory, but on facts carefully observed by students of Occultism, which are recorded in Occult Chemistry, The Secret Doctrine, and elsewhere. One of the functions of the atom is to pour out a continual stream of substance through its surface, as assumed in the above explanation and previously described in these studies (¶48, etc.). It is the work of Fohat, which is the living force of the Cosmos. "Fohat is everywhere: it runs like a thread through all"5. "All the 'Forces' of the scientists have their origin in the Vital Principle, the One Life collectively of our Solar System"6. Occultism teaches most definitely that gravitation is caused by the cosmic "prâna", or the vital principle in nature, and "prâna" is one of the aspects of Fohat7. Fohat is the guiding spirit, immanent in every atom of matter, and is behind all such manifestations as light, heat, sound, adhesion, etc8. It is the one instrument with which the Logos works9 . Fohat is called the "pervader" because He pervades the atoms and gives them shape10. He is the personified electric vital power, the transcendental binding unity of all cosmic energies11. The force which causes the atoms to aggregate and combine, or in other words to gravitate and enter into chemical combination, is a transformation of Fohat12. He unites and brings together all forms13, and is the mysterious link between Mind and Matter, the animating principle electrifying every atom into life14.

137. The objection referred to in ¶131, that the acceleration of gravity cannot develop a velocity equal to the velocity of light, whilst true of a falling body, is not true of the medium of space. The acceleration of a falling body ceases when it reaches the earth's surface, and so its velocity has a definite maximum, whilst the acceleration of the medium can go on indefinitely, and, if continued for a year, will develop the velocity of light. We may therefore conclude that the force of gravity acts by the body accelerating the medium, and not by the medium accelerating the body. Moreover, this acceleration is continuous, whether the body is falling or stationary.

It was shown in ¶70, that gravity creates the whole of its mass in one year, and, since in the same time it develops a velocity in the medium equal to the velocity of light, as shown in (30), it follows that, when an atom has generated the light velocity in its line of force it vanishes and is replaced by newly created matter. Since this process is going on continuously all the year round, there must be lines of force with velocities everywhere between zero and the velocity of light, so that the average velocity of the medium traveling along the terrestrial lines of force, for the whole earth, will be exactly half the velocity of light.

If S be the number of square centimeters on the earth's surface, then S = 5.101 x 1018, and half the velocity of light (1/2)c = 1.4993 x 1010; so that the volume of ether issuing from the earth's surface in one second is S*(1/2)c. If I' be the density of this issuing stream, the mass passing out from the earth's surface in unit time will be SI'*(1/2)c; and, to account for the earth's inertial mass by the same process as that of gravitation, we must make the above etheric mass equal to the earth's inertial mass, so that, if E be the earth's mass, we have

E = SI'.(1/2)c = 5.98x1027 grams

(31) I' = E/S.(1/2)c =0.07818 = etheric density

If we compare the density of the outgoing ether, I' = 0.078l8, with the value of the earth's magnetic intensity, I = 0.07903, as given in (28), ¶124, we see they are practically equal. If we assume that these two are exactly equal, and then recalculate the earth's mass from the formula SI'*(1/2)c, we obtain 6.04 x 1027, in place of 5.98 x 1027, and the sum of the masses of the earth and moon is 6.05 x 1027. Hence we see that, on the theory that the volume-intensity of magnetism I is identical with the density of the ether streams I' issuing from the earth's surface, and determines the value of the inertial mass, we obtain the sum of the masses of the earth and moon, instead of the earth's mass alone.

138. Now, it often happens that a small discrepancy, such as the above, gives us more insight into the workings of nature than an exact agreement. Physicists have often wished that they could find some small discrepancy in the law of gravitation, because that would give them a hint as to its real nature; and in fact such a discrepancy, in the case of the orbital motion of Mercury, has served to establish Einstein's theory of gravitation and his principle of equivalence. Hence the above discrepancy, when analyzed, becomes more convincing than if it had not occurred. It is well known that when two magnets are set alongside each other, the north pole of the one sets itself to the south pole of the other, and the magnetic lines then pass through both magnets, and add to each other's magnetic intensities, so that we may consider it extremely likely that the north-seeking magnetism of the moon is opposite to the south-seeking magnetism of the earth, and that the lunar magnetism, passing through the body of the earth, adds itself to the intensity of terrestrial magnetism. Hence, when physicists measure the magnetism of the earth, they are really measuring the sum of the magnetisms of the earth and the moon, instead of that of the earth alone. Hence the discrepancy shown above.

¶139. We are now in a position to prove our claim that the Equivalence Hypothesis of Einstein is a deduction from the mechanism of gravitation as shown by occult investigations. Let us suppose that the force of gravity at the earth's surface became twice as great as it is at present. The velocity generated in a year would then be twice the velocity of light, as will be seen from (30), and the average velocity of the ether in the terrestrial lines of force, as shown in ¶136, would be half of this, or (1/2)(2c) = c, the velocity of light. The expression for the earth's inertial mass, as given in (31), instead of E = SI'*(1/2)c, would be 2E = SI'c. Hence, if the value of the surface gravity were doubled, the inertial mass would also be doubled, and so proportionately with any other variation. This is Einstein's principle of Equivalence, that the inertial mass and the acceleration of gravity shall vary together, and it follows as a simple deduction from the first principles derived from occult studies.

¶140. The theory of the gravitation mechanism expounded in this study implies, in a sense, that each body should have its own ether, and each atom its own line of force. Such a theory is at present attracting the attention of a few Western scientists.

Prof. Lenard has recently set forth some such view in an article which first appeared in Stark's Jahrbuch, and has since been published in pamphlet form15.' Prof. Jeans16 also agrees that such a theory would satisfy all the requirements of the electromagnetic theory, but appears to prefer dispensing with an ether altogether. In the classical text books of electromagnetism the phenomena of electricity and magnetism have been explained, wholly or in part, by strains in the ether. The view of the ether propounded in these studies requires that these strains should be replaced by motions in the ether having mass, momentum and energy. The most recent developments of these theories in the West are in accordance with this view, since the theory of relativity requires that strains in the ether should be replaced by the flow of momentum in space17. The propensity amongst modern physicists to dispense entirely with the ether of space is not general ; several physicists of eminence, like Sir Oliver Lodge, still hold on to an ether. Prof. D. N. Mallik, in the Second Edition of his Optical Theories18 based on lectures delivered before the Calcutta University, expresses the opinion that the theory of relativity will not "dispose of the physical existence of the ethereal model, until a better one has been found, which shall explain the intimate nature of the various concepts of modern physics, corpuscles and negative particles, electric charge and magnetic force, gross matter and gravitation, in one comprehensive scheme"19. Such a comprehensive etheric model, in the opinion of the writer, cannot be constructed until Western science is willing to recognize the results of Occult researches, or until Occult students can construct it for themselves.

CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY

¶141. There are a number of constants which Western science regards as "Nature's Constants", common to the cosmos as a whole, one of which, such as the velocity of light, are constants of the terrestrial universe, but not of the cosmos.

The whole of Western physics is surface physics, and some of its laws may not be applicable to the interior of suns and planets, or to the inter-planetary and inter-stellar spaces.

The density of water is not an arbitrary constant, since water is a unique and standard substance for terrestrial matter.

The ratio of the mean force of terrestrial gravity and the mean force of terrestrial magnetism is the square of the velocity of light, and the acceleration of gravity at the electrical surface of the earth in the earth's orbital period generates the velocity of light. Hence the velocity of light is a function of the earth, and not of cosmic space.

At the height of the fringes of the earth's permanent aurora, about 100 kilometers above sea level, where the acceleration of gravity generates the velocity of light in one year, the composition of the atmosphere is mostly hydrogen in an ionized state, or switched off from the earth's gravitational field, the pressure is one hundred thousandth of the surface pressure, and the viscosity of gases is zero. The general condition is that of the surface of a cathode in an X-Ray tube where experiments are being conducted in positive rays. The velocities are of the same order as those of alpha and beta particles in radioactive substances, and a process of radioactivity and inverse radioactivity is in continuous operation on all elements, the positive rays moving towards the earth, and the electrons or negative rays towards the sun by an interchange between the solar and terrestrial gravitational fields, the amount of matter transmuted in one year being equal to the earth's mass. It is this cathode surface of our planet which acts as an electrical screen, without which wireless telegraphy would be impracticable.

The generation of the light velocity, and the creation of the earth's mass, each in the period of one year, may be regarded as complementary and mutually explanatory facts.

Gravitation is the force-aspect of what we have termed the conservation of power; and, when a body falls to the ground, it is not because the ether pushes it downwards, but because that body pushes the ether upwards; or, in other words, it is not the ether that accelerates matter, but it is matter that accelerates the ether. The maximum velocity that can be generated is not the parabolic velocity, or velocity from infinity, which is the maximum for matter, but this maximum for the ether is the velocity of light, or the velocity generated in one year. When an atom has generated the light velocity in its line of force, it vanishes and is replaced by another atom; and so on continuously.

Einstein's illustration of his Principle of equivalence can be transformed, without any change of principle, into an atom accelerating the contents of its line of force, so that the atom and its line of force are the embodiment of Einstein's Equivalence Hypothesis. Conversely this fundamental assumption of Einstein can be deduced from the mechanism of the atom and the line of force, as deduced from occult investigations. Hence, taking the observed facts of Occultism as a basis, Einstein's assumption is superfluous and unnecessary, since it can deduced from a higher principle in Nature, viz., the flux of the Fohatic energy through the atom in accordance with the law of the conservation of power. It follows from this that everything that can be deduced by Einstein from his theory of gravitation can be likewise deduced from the teachings of Occultism, along with much besides, since the greater includes the less.

The density of the ether issuing from the earth's surface is identical with the volume-intensity of terrestrial magnetism, and the earth's inertial mass is identical with the mass of the ether leaving the earth in unit time. Thus the flux of magnetism through the earth's surface in unit time, the flux of the ether in unit time, and the earth's inertial mass, are identical.

The velocity of this magnetic or etheric flux is half the velocity of light, and since the atomic mechanism which produces inertia also produces gravity, the relationship between the inertial mass and the gravitational mass is invariable, as required by Einstein's theory.

References

 

Chapter XI

FOHAT, AND THE LAWS OF PHYSICS


¶142. The process of the preceding study is, in a sense, the converse of the method adopted by Einstein. By applying mechanical principles to the facts observed by occult investigators, we obtained the law of gravitation, and then from the gravitation mechanism deduced the Principle of Equivalence of Einstein. The method based on Occultism, therefore, includes that of Einstein as a particular case, but includes much else besides. It is a larger base from which to work, and if properly handled, should prove more fruitful in results.

But Einstein's fundamental assumption is deservedly regarded by physicists as remarkably fruitful. Prof. Eddington points out1 that the equations of hydro-mechanics, the laws of the conservation of matter and energy, and Newton's first law of motion, can be obtained from Einstein's law of gravitation, and remarks: "It is startling to find that the whole of the dynamics of material systems is contained in the law of gravitation". This Equivalence Hypothesis has been thus formulated2: "A gravitational field of force is precisely equivalent in its effects to an artificial field of force introduced by accelerating the framework of reference, so that in any small region it is impossible to distinguish between them by any experiment whatever". Prof. Eddington, in the report above referred to3 puts it a little differently: "A gravitational field of force is exactly equivalent to a field of force introduced by a transformation of the co-ordinates of reference, so that by no possible experiment can we distinguish between them".

¶143. The above will probably convey little meaning to the non-mathematical lay reader, so, that we will try to illustrate it by means of the gravitational model constructed in the preceding study. To an atom is attached a line of force, which is a hollow tube bored out in space in a direction perpendicular to the earth's surface. Along the interior of this tube a stream of ether is moving with continually increasing velocity. If we stand in the atom, and fix our attention on a point in the stream of ether, this point will appear to be receding from us with ever-increasing velocity, like a stone falling to the ground. If now, instead of standing in the atom, we stand at this fixed point in the ether and regard ourselves as stationary, the atom appears to be falling. Hence, either the atom or the point in the ether can be transformed into the falling body, according as we shift our position from one point to the other. When we shift our we transform our co-ordinates; and this is what is meant by the phrase. When we fix our position in the ether stream, by a mathematical artifice, we create a gravitational field for the atom, which is the exact equivalent of the gravitational field in which it is immersed. This is Einstein's Principle of equivalence. It is like the common experience of two trains in a station, when one begins to move. By looking at the train alongside of us, we cannot at first say whether we are moving or the other train. Einstein asserts that for movements in space we can never say which train is moving. Nature has so contrived things that we can never find out. If we jump from one train to the other, the train we have jumped from is moving, and that we have jumped into is stationary. Motion depends upon the position of the observer. It is, in a sense, subjective, not objective.

¶144. This power to transform away a gravitational field has its limitations.

"A limitation of the Principle of Equivalence must be noticed. It is clear that we cannot transform away a natural gravitational field altogether... They were concerned with a practically infinitesimal region, and for an infinitesimal region the gravitational force and the force due to a transformation correspond"4.

Motion along a line of force in India will not transform away a gravitational field in America, because the direction of motion is different. It will only transform away the field in its immediate neighborhood. In reality it will transform away the field only from one line of force to the next adjoining it; and, as these lines of force are very close together, the space occupied by each is the infinitesimal region of Einstein. The distance between two adjoining lines of force is Einstein's infinitesimal length (ds), which is termed a geodesic. Although a part of a curve, it is so short that it may be treated as a straight line, and it is the shortest distance between two consecutive points. The new law of inertia is that a particle left to itself moves along the geodesic or shortest lines in the space5. If the particle is remote from other bodies, so that there is no gravitational field, the space has the Euclidean character, and we have Newton's law of inertia; otherwise the particle is in a space of non-Euclidean character (the space being always the four-dimensional space), and the path of the particle is along a geodesic in that space6. Newton's law of inertia is therefore termed the limiting case of that of Einstein, and is only obeyed when there is no other matter in the neighborhood. Newton's first law of motion, or the law of inertia, is as follows: "Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line, except in so far as it may be compelled by force to change that state"7.

¶145. Since this is a deduction from the basis of Einstein's theory, and this basis is a deduction from the mechanism of gravitation disclosed by Occult observations, this mechanism should also enable us to deduce Newton's first law of motion, as well as Einstein's generalization of it. We will now show how this can be done. Take a sphere of matter like the earth, and divide it into two hemispheres by a plane through its center. If the plane divide it into an eastern and western hemisphere, it will best serve our purpose. If we stand on the edge of this dividing plane in the northern hemisphere, looking south at noon, then the western hemisphere is on our right, and the eastern on our left. Let us suppose for the moment that the earth is stationary in its orbit; then in the hemisphere to the west there are the same number of lines of force as in the eastern hemisphere, and they have the same average velocity, viz., half the velocity of light. Moreover, each line of force in the western half can be paired off with one in the eastern half, which is exactly opposite in direction. The reactions, therefore, in the two hemispheres, which, taken separately, would tend to move the earth in opposite directions, are exactly equal and opposite, so that they cancel each other. Similarly with the northern and southern hemispheres, or any other division into hemispheres we choose to make. Thus the part of Newton's law which says: "Every body continues in its state of rest, except in so far as it may be compelled by force to change that state", is fulfilled, because, there being no unbalanced force to compel the earth to change its state of rest, it remains stationary. There are many forces operating on it, but, when added up algebraically, their sum is zero.

¶146. Now let us suppose one of the cosmic gods gives the earth a push in a direction which, to the above observer, is exactly from east to west, the direction in which the earth is moving in its orbit. Then in the western hemisphere the lines of force are pointing wholly or partially in the direction of motion, and any resistance in the surrounding space to the motion of the lines of force, as they accompany the earth, will cause them to open out like the ribs of a fan. If an umbrella is turned with its hollow or concave side to a strong wind, it is turned, and the ribs, instead of curving towards the handle, curve away from it. Similar thing happens to the lines of force in the western hemisphere; they are curved backwards into the eastern hemisphere. When this happens, the reactions between the lines of force in the two hemispheres are thrown out of balance. They are opened out in the west and crowded together in the east, hence the reacting force pushing the earth eastward is reduced, and that pushing the earth westward is increased, so that there is a balance of force always pushing the earth westward, or in the direction in which it was originally pushed, and this continuous push will remain constant until some other force is applied in the opposite direction to stop it. In the absence of any attracting body such as the sun, the motion will continue in a straight line directed from east to west, as originally pushed. Thus we have the second portion of Newton's law: "Every body continues in its state... of uniform motion in a straight line, except in so far as it may be compelled by force to change that state".

The fan-like opening out of the lines of force in the forward direction is due to the resistance of the medium to the motion of the lines of force sweeping through it, so that the greater the resistance the greater the opening out, and the greater the balance of push in the eastern hemisphere. Hence, however great the resistance of the medium to the motion of a body, the push in the direction of motion will be correspondingly great, so that Newton's law of inertia is independent of the resistance of the medium of space. Physicists usually assume that space is absolutely frictionless, and therefore offers no resistance to motion; but we see from the above that this assumption is not necessary, since, whether the resistance of space is great or small, constant or variable, it will not affect the law of inertia as above explained. (The germ of the above theory of inertia will be found in the writer's "Scientific Notes" in The Theosophist of August, 19138).

¶147. But the conditions that permit of Newton's law of inertia rarely or never occur in practice, and the general motions of bodies in space, if left to themselves, are along the geodesics of Einstein. The earth, therefore, does not move in a straight line, but in a curved line, which at every point is a geodesic conformable to the sun's gravitational field. We will therefore attempt to describe the mechanism which determines the curve of the earth's path.

The light from the sun divides the earth's surface into two equal hemispheres, the light and the dark. In the absence of the sun or other body, the lines of force in these two hemispheres would be equal and opposite, and the forces would cancel, as in the illustration of a stationary earth. But there are also lines of force issuing from the sun, and these strike against the terrestrial lines in the light hemisphere, and operate upon them as would a wind that turned an umbrella inside out. The earth's lines of force are hence condensed in the dark hemisphere, and open out fan-like in the hemisphere turned towards the sun. This gives a balance of force in the dark hemisphere directed towards the sun; and this force, combined with the westward motion, determines the form of the earth's orbital motion along the geodesics of Einstein.

¶148. The process described in the last paragraph is made quite clear and visible to us in the case of comets. As shown by equations (30) and (31), the velocity, on the average, of the ether in the lines of force is the product of the surface gravity of the body and half the orbital period; and, although comets sometimes have long periods, their surface gravity, owing to their low mass and density, is always very small. Hence the resulting velocity in the lines of force is much less than in the case of planets, and the lines of force are in consequence more flexible to any forces tending to alter their direction. In the field of the powerful lines of force from the sun, they will therefore bend and dispose themselves something like a woman's hair blowing in the wind. They will be parted in the middle and stream out behind. The tails of comets are always directed away from the sun, and stream out in ever-increasing length as the comet approaches the sun. The lines of force issuing from the head, in the hemisphere facing the sun, jut out for a little way, and then turn back, much as described above in the case of the earth, that is, like an umbrella turned inside out. Agnes Clerke, in describing the return of Halley's comet in 18359, says:

"Some curious phenomena accompany the process of tail-formation. An outrush of luminous matter, resembling in shape a partially opened fan, issued from the nucleus towards the sun, and at a certain point, like smoke driven before a high wind, was vehemently swept backward in a prolonged train. The appearance of the comet at this time was compared by Bessel, who watched it with minute attention, to that of a blazing rocket".

Hence the bending of the lines of force of comets is greatly exaggerated as compared with planets, and, being illuminated, they give a very perfect illustration of the inertial mechanism. The earth, however, exhibits the same phenomena, though on a much reduced scale. The turning back of the lines of force from the light to the dark hemisphere is seen on the earth, after sunset and before sunrise, as zodiacal light, whilst the earth's cometary tail is illuminated near the apex of the earth's conical shadow, and is sometimes seen at a point of the sky diametrically opposite the sun at midnight. It is known as the Gegenschein10.

¶149. It was shown in ¶126-129 that observed facts in connexion with Marconi rays, etc., require the earth to have an electrical surface at a height of about 100 kilometers above sea level, which reflects Marconi rays and keeps them from being dissipated into space. If the lines of force are denser in the dark hemisphere than in the light, then in the dark half the reflecting power of this electrical screen must be greater than in the light half, and Marconi rays should show an increase of efficiency in the night as compared with the day. Now this is found to be the case.

"An important epoch in this connexion is the year 1902, when Senatore Marconi discovered, during one of his early voyages across the Atlantic in the S. S. Philadelphia in February, 1902, that radio signals from Poldhu could be received at night about thrice the distance they could be read in day-time, being detectable only up to 700 miles by day, but readable up t0 2,099 miles by night"11.

Another interesting feature is that, if a wireless message is being sent between two places where it is required to cross a region where the sun is rising or setting, that is, if it is required to cross the margin between the light and dark hemispheres of the earth, there is a special action on the Marconi rays which is very perceptible12.

¶150. In the illustrations given above, one particular feature should be noticed. It is not the sun that pulls the earth towards it; it is the surplus lines of force in the dark half of the earth that push the earth towards the sun; and these accelerating forces are produced by the earth's mass, and not by the mass of the sun. It is not the sun that attracts the earth, it is the earth which pushes itself towards the sun, and the force of the push comes from the reaction on the accelerated ether in the terrestrial lines of force. The real prime mover is Fohat, operating at the atomic centers of the matter of the earth, as described in Occult Chemistry13 and quoted in ¶48 and elsewhere. The direct force between the sun and earth, as between any two bodies, is repulsion, and not an attraction, and this repulsion shows itself as the pressure of radiation, which physicists have measured. This pressure per square centimeter is numerically equal to the radiation energy per cubic centimeter for totally absorbing bodies14.

There is no such thing as a pull, or force of attraction, in the whole of the universe - or, at least, so it appears - for, when the mechanism of the pull is analyzed, it always turns out to be a push. It remains a pull, only so long as we do not understand it. When we realize its true nature, we immediately see that the real force vis a tergo, or push from behind. A horse does not pull a cart; it pushes its collar. The sun does not pull the earth towards it, it directs the terrestrial lines of force, so that the inertial forces of the earth push the earth towards the sun. Inventors have recently been working out a process whereby aeroplanes and submarines can be guided by wireless telegraphy. When this is accomplished, it will still be the engines of the airplanes and submarines that do the work of propulsion, and the energy of the wireless rays will only determine the direction. So in the case of the gravitational forces between the earth and sun; the sun determines the direction in which this force shall be applied, but it is the inertial forces of the earth that exercise the actual propulsion.

¶151. The whole process of inertia-gravitation is so beautifully illustrated by the illuminated lines of force of comets, that by the study of comets physicists can examine it in detail.

The keys to the problem are: (i) The operation of Fohat at the atomic centers, as described in Occult Chemistry; (ii) the acceleration of the etheric medium, due to this action of Fohat, as given by equation (30); and (iii) the expression for the inertial mass, as given by (31).

With these as keys, the configuration of the lines of force, made visible to us in the case of comets, enables us to see and deduce the entire phenomenon of inertia-gravitation, as assumed in the theory of Einstein. The action between two bodies is one of repulsion, and this repulsion is proportionate to the area exposed to it. The lines of force issuing from a body expose a larger area to this repulsion than the central body from which the lines emerge; and, being more easily moved, they are driven behind the body, and the reaction of the acceleration in these lines of force is directed along the line joining the centers of the two bodies, and towards each other. This directed force being greater than the direct repulsion, the bodies tend to move towards each other. Thus a repulsive force is transformed into an apparent attraction.

¶152. The complete operation of the inertia-gravitation mechanism can be illustrated by a mechanical toy; and, although some physicists have regarded it as for ever insoluble, it would appear to be so remarkably simple that it could be explained to an infant class.

Take an ordinary weather-cock and fix it to a trolley running on railway lines, these lines being parallel to the direction of the wind. Attach a small hose-pipe to the flat body of the cock, with the nozzle at the head, and the flexible hose at the tail. If this be held directly across the railway lines, and therefore at right angles to the wind direction, the force of the wind against the flat body of the cock will drive the trolley along the lines; thus the wind will act as a repulsive force, driving away the trolley.

If now the mechanism be left free to turn on its vertical axis, the head of the cock, with its attached nozzle, will turn in the direction of the wind and the railway lines. Everyone who has handled a hose-pipe has felt the reactionary back-push of the issuing jet, and will easily understand that this back-push will drive the trolley against the wind. We have therefore a repulsive force, that of the wind, transformed into an apparent attraction.

The water issuing from the hose-pipe is performing the same mechanical operation as the tail of a comet. In the above, the wind corresponds to the lines of force issuing from the sun, and the jet of water corresponds to the accelerated ether in the lines of force of the attracted or gravitating body.

The turning of the cock on its vertical axis in the direction of the wind corresponds to the pushing of the lines of force from the light hemisphere into the dark. The only principle of mechanics assumed in the mechanism is Newton's third law of motion: "To every action there is always an equal and contrary reaction; or, the mutual actions of any two bodies are always equal and oppositely directed"15. This third law of Newton therefore becomes the unique principle of mechanics, from which the inertia-gravitation laws can be deduced.

¶153. An important property, which should be carefully noted in the above, is that the same mechanism which produces Newton's laws of inertia performs the operation of gravity. Hence inertia and gravitation necessarily vary together, since they are but two different aspects of the same operation. Thus, in place of the Newtonian laws of inertia, we have the combined inertia-gravitation law, assumed by Einstein, upon which his chief conclusions are based. This mechanism, in spite of its simplicity, apparently contains the whole mystery of gravitation.

There are, however, several reasons why it was not possible for Western physicists to discover it. In the first place, the inertia-gravitation law of Einstein is quite new, and has not yet been fully assimilated by the scientific mind. Secondly, gravitation can only be explained by the action of Fohat and the observations of Occult investigators, which physicists will not recognize. Thirdly, the minds of scientific men have been obsessed by the two laws of conservation, those of energy and matter, in a form which effectively shut out the solution.

These laws are true, but they are not the whole truth. They are merely aspects of the wider law of the conservation of power, as shown in our sixth study, ¶91. This law, to the Western mind, will appear extravagant, and at first sight it seems to be. To expend all this energy in order merely to cause bodies to gravitate looks like an unpardonable waste of power. Here again the view-point which has recently prevailed in philosophical circles has blocked the way. To the old-fashioned scientist of the nineteenth century type, the universe was the result of the fortuitous concourse of atoms, and the life-evolutions on a few of the planetary surfaces were accidental excrescences. But, from the point of view of the Occultist, it is the laws of physics that are the excrescence, and the main purpose of the universe is the evolution of a race of gods, the divine sons of the Logos. It is for the evolution of divinity, therefore, that this enormous expenditure of energy is maintained, so that physical laws are but the lower aspect of the life of the cosmos. The master-key to the problem was not contained in science. It was concealed in religion. Fohat is one of the Divine Trinity. His operations are the expression of the Divine Immanence in nature; and, until this was recognized, no solution was possible. The truth taught us by our pious nurses, as we toddled to and fro from our infant class - that God did all these things - was after all the real truth, and "Thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes"16.

CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY

¶154. The conclusion arrived at in the preceding study, that Einstein's Principle of Equivalence can be deduced from the observed facts and teachings of Occultism, is further illustrated.

The mechanism of gravitation can be observed in detail by the study of comets, in which bodies the lines of force which cause the force of gravity are illuminated. The partial illumination of the terrestrial lines of force in the zodiacal light and the Gegenschein will also serve this purpose.

The principle can be illustrated by a simple mechanism, which only involves Newton's third law of action and reaction, and the observed operation of Fohat.

The force of gravity is not a pull but a push, and the mechanism which produces the laws of inertia also performs the operation of gravity, so that the two phenomena are essentially the same.

Newton's law of action and reaction is the unique axiomatic law of mechanics, since the other mechanical laws are deducible from it.

An explanation of the law of gravitation involves the operation of Fohat, the physical aspect of which is the law of the conservation of power.

References

 

CHAPTER XII


THE ELECTRON AND THE ATOM OF OCCULT CHEMISTRY


¶155. On February 3rd, 1925, there died at Torquay, one of that group of advanced souls whose function it is to bring our fifth race civilization to its zenith. This was Mr. Oliver Heaviside, F.R.S., a nephew of Sir Charles Wheatstone, the practical founder of modern telegraphy.

For fifty years Heaviside lived practically a hermit's life at Torquay. He was a good correspondent, but very difficult to approach personally1.

He was both a great mathematician and a great authority on all that concerned electrical science. The first volume of Heaviside's Electromagnetic Theory2, was published in 1893, the second in 1899, and the third in 1912. He had great difficulty in getting his writings published, because his mathematics were of a very advanced type, and he had consequently few readers, but fortunately Sir Oliver Lodge, Prof. Perry, and Dr. Searle had noted the advent of a mathematical physicist of superior ability and helped him to get his papers published. He was truly a philanthropist, and cared little for personal gain, though he has probably saved the Government of every large civilized country in the world millions of pounds in the cost of their telephone schemes.

Dr. Simpson, formerly of the Indian Meteorological Department, speaking as president of the Mathematical and Physical section of the British Association at Southampton in 1925, said of him,

Heaviside commenced his electrical work on the commercial side, but he retired and devoted himself to science for its own sake. Realizing throughout the immense commercial value of his work, he took out no patents, and asked for no remuneration, but gave to humanity discoveries the value of which cannot be estimated.

¶156. Now it so happens that the next step in tracing a connection between the electron and the atom of "Occult Chemistry", is concerned with one of the profound electrical controversies in which Heaviside took a leading part.

It has been previously remarked3 that

the links between Occult and Western Science usually emerge from the more recondite portions of Western researches,

and this is to be expected, because the differences between the two are not in the observed facts, but in the fundamental concepts which interpret the facts. Hence this difficulty though great has got to be faced, if those links are to be made. The controversy above referred to gave rise to the adoption of what is called rational units, in which Heaviside was a pioneer. It arose over the frequent occurrence in the equations of electri cal problems of the factor 4π which made the equations cumbersome and inelegant. Heaviside describes it as "The Eruption of 4π's"4 and speaks of "The Origin and Spread of the Eruption" with the dismay with which one would speak of the spread of smallpox.

¶157. The controversy emerges from a portion of Clerk Maxwell's Electricity and Magnetism5 and is discussed by Heaviside, in his Electromagnetic Theory6. Maxwell's treatment is too mathematical for these pages, but may, perhaps, be sufficiently elucidated by means of diagrams.

In Figure 1, let A and B, be two metallic discs of an electrical condenser, with a slab of glass, or other nonconducting material between them, and let the plate C be an imaginary division between the metallic discs dividing this glass slab into halves. Let W be a conducting wire joining A and B, and let us suppose that by the action of an electromotive force from a battery D, a quantity Q of positive electricity is transferred along the wire from B to A. The positive electrification of A and the negative electrification of B will produce a certain electromotive force acting from A towards B in the dielectric stratum, or glass slab, and this will produce an electric displacement from A towards B, indicated by the two lines a and b, on each side of the imaginary division C, within the glass slab. The amount of this displacement as measured by the quantity of electricity forced across this imaginary division of the glass slab dividing it into two parts, will be, according to Maxwell's theory, exactly Q7.

¶158. Such is Maxwell's theory of electrical displacement, and we may now proceed to an application of it. In Figure 2, let B be a hollow conducting sphere having within it another smaller conducting sphere A charged with a positive quantity of electricity e. If the outer hollow sphere B be originally uncharged, then when the charged sphere A is placed within it, the displacement on B will be e , but the induced charge, or the induction on B will be +4πe8. It is not necessary that the surface of B should be that of a sphere, the surface may have any other shape provided it is a closed surface.

This remarkable result of Maxwell's theory is what gave rise to the 4π controversy in which Heaviside took a lea ding part.

Another way in which it gives rise to the occurrence of 4π in electrical equations may be seen from the following which is extracted from a work of Silvanus Thompson 9. When a sphere is charged until its electrical density is d per unit of surface, the quantity of electricity is

Q = 4πr2d

where r is the radius of the sphere, since on a sphere of radius r, there are 4πr2 units of surface. "The problem is to find the force exercised by this charge upon a + unit of electricity, placed at a point infinitely near the surface of the sphere. The charge on the sphere acts as if at its center. The distance between the two quantities is therefore r. By Coulomb's Law the force

f = Q x 1/r2 = 4πr2d/r2 = 4πd

This important result may be stated in words as follows:

The force (in dynes) exerted by a charged sphere upon a unit of electricity placed infinitely near to its surface is numerically equal to 4πr times the surface density of the charge.

¶159. Now let us take a gravitational problem and treat it in the same way as the above. We shall then see how the 4π emerges from the formula. Let the gravitational density on the earth's surface be

g = 981.27

so that if the earth's radius is R, the quantity of gravity over the whole of the earth's surface is

q = 4πR2g

and if we may regard this as acting from the earth's center, as in the above case, then since the distance from the center is R, the force on unit mass placed infinitely near the earth's surface is

F = q x 1/R2 = 4πR2g/R

= 4πg = 12330.96

This is the sort of result that Heaviside objects to, and his objections appear reasonable. The force exerted by the earth is not q = 4πgR2 , but gR2 = q/4πr, which is the force exerted by the earth on outside bodies, and which has to be divided by the square of the distance between them.

¶160. But the adherents of Maxwell would probably reply that these outside bodies are not infinitely near the earth's surface, and that gravity and electricity are different things, so that before turning down Maxwell in favor of Heaviside, let us inquire if there are any forces which may be regarded as infinitely near the earth's surface. Now it so happens that there are. These occur in what is known as the photo-electric discharge. When ultra-violet light, and electromagnetic waves of still higher frequency fall upon the surfaces of bodies, they cause electrons to be ejected from the body with high velocities. The law which governs these ejections was announced by Einstein in 1905, and was not proved until after 1914, but is now universally conceded10.

It is regarded as one "of the most fundamental and far-reaching of the equations of physics, and one which is destined to play in the future a scarcely less important role than Maxwell's equations have played in the past11".

This equation is

hn = Ve/c = (1/2)mv2

where h is Planck's constant = 6.547 x 1027, n is the frequency of the light wave, or the number of light vibrations per second. V is the difference of electrical potential which will give s. the velocity v to the electron; e = 4.774 x 10-10, is the electrostatic charge on the electron, and m = 9.005 x 10-28, is its mass, whilst c = 2.9986 x 1010,is the velocity of light. If 1 be the wave-length of light having the frequency n, then n = c/1, so that we may write (37), in the form

hc/1 = Ve/c

(38) hc2/e = V1

The potential V, and the wave-length 1 can have any value separately, but as they always vary in opposite directions, when multiplied together the product is a constant. This is shown by the first term hc2/e, to which the product is equated, for h, c, and e, are all constants. Now when an observed physical relationship discloses a universal constant, it implies some important property of nature's mechanism, and as the potential V, and the wave-length 1 impinge upon the earth's surface in order to eject electrons from it, they may be regarded as infinitely near to that surface, as required by (36). The examination of this constant therefore may determine whether we ought to follow Maxwell or Heaviside.

By means of the values of h, c, and e, given above we obtain

II hc2/e= V1 = 12331

which as will be seen agrees almost exactly with the value of (36), so that we may write

(40) hc2/e = V1 = 4πrg = Constant.

(41) hn = Ve/c = (1/2)mv2 = n(4πge)/c2

(42) h = 4πge/c2= 6.547 x 10-27

Thus is the theory of Maxwell vindicated. That the above series of equations, (36-42), are of the highest importance will be conceded when it is realized that they unify the labors of Newton, Maxwell, Einstein and Planck, who are perhaps the four greatest physicists of modern times. The gravitational formula of Newton, the electromagnetic equations of Maxwell, and the radiation theories of Einstein and Planck, are linked together and mutually explain each other. This will become clearer as we proceed with our studies.

¶161. Here the reader will probably ask. Are we then to conclude that Maxwell was right and Heaviside wrong, and we are now in a better position to answer this question.

We can best visualize the standpoint of Heaviside perhaps, in connection with equations (35) and (36). It is quite true that the earth's attractive force as used by astronomers is only gR2 , in place of 4π.gR2 ,as in (35), but this is because they measure this force in one direction only.

The constant factor in the earth's attraction, between say the earth and Mars, is gR2 , but it is also gR2 , between the earth and Venus, and between the earth and moon, all of which may have quite different directions, and if this attractive force is integrated so as to include all directions then the force is not gR2 , but 4π.gR2 ,and this as Heaviside shows is what gives rise to the eruption of 4π's, which so offends his mathematical taste.

It is due to geometrical fact that in a sphere of unit radius, the surface of the sphere has 4π units of area.

When the force from a s pherical body operates in one direction only it may be regarded as operating through unit surface of a unit sphere, and when it operates in all directions, it operates through all the surface of the sphere, or through 4π units area in a unit sphere. Hence> when 4πappears in an equation it may indicate a change from a line to a surface force, and such a change might be very significant. Lord Kelvin

never regarded seriously any suggestions for "rationalizing" our system of electrical units. In fact he regarded the proposals as "frivolous nonsense12".

Without going so far as this, we may, perhaps, say that it may occasionally happen that by using units which suppress the 4π, an additional veil is drawn over the operations of nature, and as the object of science is to lift these veils, and not to add to them, the use of such units is not in the interest of scientific progress.

¶162. We now come to the application of the above to the facts of Occult Chemistry. Suppose that the charge on an electron when in a> conductor is operating along a line only, and that by the Maxwellian displacement, it is forced out into the open and operates in all directions, so that the effect of its charge is 4π times as great as when buried in the conductor. Then since the charge> on a conductor may be regarded as the sum of the charges on electrons, we should have a sufficient explanation of Maxwell's Induction being 4π times the charge as described in ¶158. Since the charge on an electron is measured in the open, where its charge is e, then on the above assumption its charge before displacement, or beneath the surface of the conductor would be

(43) e' = e/4π

and the above simple equation is the link we require to connect the facts of Western Science with those of occult researches, especially to explain the relationship of electrons and the atoms of Occult Chemistry. Equation (43), is the part of the fruitage of our inquiry into the significance of the 4π controversy which we needed for our next step forward.

¶163. It is now generally admitted that the mass of an electron as given in ¶160, is entirely of electromagnetic origin, so that its mass m, and its radius a, have the relationship13

(44) m = 2e2/3ac2

hence from the measured values of m, e, and c, we have for the radius

(45) a = 2e2/3mc2 = 1.8765 x 10-13

but from (44), it will be seen that the mass of the electron varies as the square of the charge e, so that if from (43), the charge of an electron within a conductor is changed from e to e'= e/4π, then the mass m, will be changed to m', where m and m' have the ratio

(46) m/m' = (e/e')2 = (4π)2

(47) m' = m/(4π)2 = 5.70246 x 10-30

¶164. According to Occult Chemistry14 , the ultimate atom of the physical plane consists of 10 coils, each of which is a spiral of 1,680 turns, so that the number of turns in an atom is 16,800, and in the 18 atoms of hydrogen the total turns will be

II N = 18 x 16,800 = 302,400

If we enclose within each of these turns the reduced electronic mass m', as given by (47), then the total mass of electrons within the coils of hydrogen will be

(49) H' = Nm'= 1.7244 x 10-24

¶165. The mass of hydrogen from Prof. Millikan's latest measurements15, is

(50) H = 1.662 x 1024

This differs from the mass obtained in (49), by a small percentage, which will be dealt with in later articles. It is due, for the most part, to the fact that the earth and moon are a single gravitational mechanism, and just as the ten coils of the atom have three, to represent the sun, and seven, to represent the seven planets16, so the electronic mass m', in each turn of the coils has added to it an additional mass, which represents the moon. Such addition had to be made when dealing with terrestrial magnetism17, and cannot be eliminated from the atomic mechanism. It is one of the keys to the Astrological influences of the moon.

The great importance of the 4π controversy in relation to our researches will show itself in later articles.

The object of this was to demonstrate how by means of it we could link together the atom of occult research and the electron, and this is shown in equations (43-50).

References

 

CHAPTER XIII

THE DIMENSIONS OF MATTER AND SPACE

¶166. It was shown in the preceding article that one of the links between the mass of the electron, and the mass of the atom of Occult Chemistry, depended upon the interpretation of a fundamental problem which has divided physicists into two schools, and when this problem is probed mot deeply it will be found that questions of a still more fundamental nature are involved. These questions relate to the dimensions of space, and the contents of space. Up to recently physical investigations were concerned, for the mos part, with the properties of the contents of space, but recently Einstein, and his school, have shown that physical phenomena can be treated as if they were the properties of space itself. In these writings it has been customary to quote the authority of writers on occultism in support of the conclusions arrived at, but on this most fundamental of all questions it is not possible to do so because, occult writers of' the highest authority are themselves divided on the question, which may be thus stated. Has space more than three dimensions, or are the higher dimensions, beyond the third, the dimensions of the contents of space, and not of space itself ?

¶167. The answer of The Secret Doctrine1 to this question is clear and emphatic:

The processes of natural development which we are now considering will at once elucidate and discredit the fashion of speculating on the attributes of two, three, and four or more dimensional space; but, in passing, it is worth while to point out the real significance of the sound, but incomplete, intuition that has prompted - among Spiritualists and Theosophists, and several great men of Science, for the matter of that - the use of the modern expression, the "fourth dimension of space"... The familiar phrase can only be an abbreviation of the fuller form - the fourth dimension of matter, in Space... So long as there are foot-rules within the resources of cosmos, to apply to matter, so long will they be able to measure it three ways and no more; just as, from the time the idea of measurement first occupied a place in the human understanding, it has been possible to apply measurement in three directions and no more.

¶168. On the other hand Bishop Leadbeater writes2:

Many persons have come to suppose that the fourth dimension is an exclusive appanage of the astral world. A little thought will show that this cannot be so. Fundamentally there is only one kind of matter existing in the universe, although we call it physical, astral or mental according to the extent of its subdivision and the rapidity of its vibration.
Consequently the dimensions of space - if they exist at all - exist independently of the matter which lies within them; and whether that space has three dimensions or four or more, all the matter within it exists subject to those conditions, whether we are able to appreciate them or not.
It may perhaps help us a little in trying to understand this matter if we realize that that which we call space is a limitation of consciousness, and that there is a higher level at which a sufficiently developed consciousness is entirely free from this. We may invest this higher consciousness with the power of expression in any number of directions, and may then assume that each descent into a denser world of matter imposes upon it an additional limitation, and shuts off the perception of one of these directions. We may suppose that by the time the consciousness has descended as far as the mental world only five of these directions remain to it; that when it descends or moves outward once more to the astral level it loses yet one more of its powers, and so is limited to the conception of four dimensions; then the further descent or outward movement which brings it into the physical world cuts off from it the possibility of grasping even that fourth dimension, and so we find ourselves confined to the three with which we are familiar.

¶169. We thus find that advanced Students of occult science are as clearly divided on the fundamental problem we are discussing as are the leaders of western science. What we may term the Maxwell-Lodge-Blavatsky school holds that space has only three dimensions, and that the higher dimensional properties are due to the contents of space, whilst the other, the Heaviside-Einstein-Leadbeater school holds that these higher dimensions are the property of space itself. It is not therefore possible to decide this question on authority only, as the authorities on each side appear about equally weighty. Madame Blavatsky is particularly emphatic on her side of the question for in one of her letters to A. P. Sinnett3, she says:

It made Master always laugh when he heard the" knots" made on a sealed rope or the passage of matter through matter referred to as the result of the action of a "four dimensional space", when "dimension" has nothing to do with it, and that such "dimension "is a faculty of our matter - as the physicists and chemists know it, and not anything pertaining to one of the "Worlds".

¶170. It may be well to point out here that to the student of occultism life and force are but two aspects of the same thing. What we feel as consciousness welling up within us is on the life side what on the form side we study as the forces pouring through the atoms of our bodies.

Each of these Forces has a living Conscious Entity at its head, of which Entity it is an emanation4.

The atom can scarcely be said to be a "thing", though it is the material out of which all things physical are composed. It is formed by the flow of the life-force and vanishes with its ebb. When this force arises in "space"... atoms appear; if this be artificially stopped for a single instant, the atom disappears; there is nothing left. Presumably, were that flow checked but for an instant, the whole physical world would vanish, as a cloud melts away in the empyrean. It is only the persistence of that flow which maintains the physical basis of the universe5?

¶171. It follows from the above that whatever can be said of consciousness can be also predicated of forces, and this may be of help in our attempt to solve the fundamental problem of dimensions, since we have direct experience of consciousness from within, but can only study forces from the outside. With this identity in our minds let us inquire why there should be two such distinct schools of interpretation covering the same range of facts. This can only be because both interpretations equally fit the facts. The equations of Einstein can be applied either to the elements of space or to the elements of space-contents without affecting the correctness of the mathematical treatment, and we shall see that this interchange applies equally to the logical reasoning of Bishop Leadbeater. So long therefore as this condition lasts there will be two schools of interpretation. It is only when new facts are added which are covered by one interpretation and not by the other that we can discriminate between the two. Now this is what has happened in our investigations. By means of the Maxwell-Lodge-Blavatsky interpretation we can make the link between the facts of occult chemistry, and the facts of western science, whereas by means of the Heaviside-Einstein-Leadbeater interpretation we cannot do this. Thus the Blavatsky interpretation covers the larger range of facts, and by the rules which govern rival hypotheses it is the one that for our purposes should be adopted.

¶172. The position may become clearer by means of an analysis of Bishop Leadbeater's statement. With characteristic frankness he takes us into his confidence both as to the experiences and as to the reasons why he interprets them in the way he does. The experiences of higher dimensions are the direct testimony of consciousness, and as such cannot be gainsaid. They are moreover in accord in both schools of occultism. But the reasons given for the interpretation are subject to the ordinary laws of logic, and the canons of logic may be applied to them. Let us attempt to do this.

Bishop Leadbeater says:

The dimensions of space exist independently of the matter which lies within them; and whether that space has three dimensions or four or more, all the matter within it exists subject to those conditions, whether we are able to appreciate them or not.

This is quite true, but the next statement introduces controversial matter. He proceeds as follows:

It may perhaps help us a little in trying to understand this matter if we realize that which we call space is a limitation of consciousness, and that there is a higher level at which a sufficiently developed consciousness is entirely free from this. We may invest this higher consciousness with the power of expression in any number of directions, and may then assume that each descent into a denser world of matter imposes upon it an additional limitation, and shuts off the perception of one of these directions.

Of the above it might be said, that the words are the words of Bishop Leadbeater, but the voice is the voice of Madame Blavatsky. It is true that we may assume that each descent into denser matter shuts off perception in one direction, but this is to give away the whole case, for it is an illustration not of space imposing a limitation in accordance with the statement put in italics, but of the contents of space imposing such limitation, which is exactly the teaching of H. P .B., and quite contrary to the interpretation adopted by Bishop Leadbeater. The illustration chosen makes the dimensions o[ consciousness a function of the material vehicle in which it operates, and quite independent of the properties of space. We have only to reverse the operation to obtain any number of dimensions whilst space itself remains unchanged.

¶173. It is possible, perhaps, to describe a process of expanding consciousness from a lower to a higher dimension by means of a simple illustration. Let us suppose ourselves at the bottom of the vertical shaft of a coal mine looking up to the night sky. We should observe a small solid angle of the sky containing one or two stars. We should feel as if living in a linear universe in which all the forces operating upon us were along one line, the line between ourselves and the few visible stars. If now we slowly ascend the shaft of the mine, the small solid angle of the sky first visible to us would gradually enlarge until when we reached the surface the portion of the sky visible would be from horizon to horizon, or half the sphere, which in mathematical measure is a solid angle of 2 π units. By continuing our ascent along the same line until the earth became small the whole sphere of the stars would be visible to us which in mathematical measure is a solid angle of 4 New Roman" π . At the beginning of the operation our consciousness was a line consciousness, at the finish it is a surface consciousness. It has acquired an additional dimension. Transformed into terms of force in accordance with what is said in ¶170, we have been translated from a line-force universe into a surface-force universe, and viewed mathematically it would constitute a transformation from a force along a line to a flux of force through a spherical surface, and this transformation would be expressed by multiplying the line force by 4 π . The process above illustrated is identical with that by means of which Maxwell6 obtains an induction 4 π e, from an electric charge e, which has given rise to the rational units controversy in which Heaviside took such a leading part, and which is partially treated in ¶158, and the succeeding paragraphs.

¶174 The way in which a line force is transformed into a force through a spherical surface may be illustrated by a quotation which shows how the line force multiplied by 4 π , becomes a surface force.

A field of H units means one where there would be H dynes on unit pole, or H lines per square centimeter. It follows that a unit magnetic pole will have 4 π lines of force proceeding from it: for there is unit field at unit distance away, or one magnetic line per square centimeter; and there are 4 Roman" π square centimeters of surface on a sphere of unit radius drawn round the pole. A magnet whose pole-strength is m, has 4 π m, or 12.57 x m, lines running through the steel, and diverging at its pole. The above mentioned rule is the origin of the 4 π symbol which comes in so often into electro-magnetic formulae7.

It will be seen from the above that the 4 π factor arises from the method of measuring forces, for this method ensures that a force along a line shall be always numerically equal to the surface force through unit surface of a sphere of unit radius, and as such a sphere contains 4 π units of surface, the complete surface force is always 4 π times the line force. Nevertheless the forces are not of the same character, for the line force is one dimensional and the surface force two dimensional. The method of measurement merely imposes the condition that the number representing the line force when multiplied by 4 π shall give us the number representing the surface force. If in a cargo of fruit, we always arranged that the number of apples should be 4 π times the number of oranges, then if we knew the number of apples we could always ascertain the number of oranges, and vice versa, but by multiplying the oranges by 4 π we should not transmute them into apples. But what the school of rational units does is to multiply the number of oranges by the square root of 4 π , (4 π )(1/2), and divide the number of apples by (4 π )(1/2), thus making the number of apples equal to the number of oranges8. In this way they draw a veil over a fundamental operation of nature, and bury one of the keys which opens the door between the facts of occult chemistry and the facts of western science.

¶175. We will now attempt to penetrate this fundamental problem in the light of what is said above, and show how it gives a possible solution not only of the dimensions of consciousness on physical and higher planes, but also of the corresponding electromagnetic forces and the interchange of matter or substance between the planes.

In ¶163-1649, of the preceding article we showed how the mass of hydrogen and its 18 atoms could be built up by placing the electronic mass m' in each of its 302,400 spiral turns. Since hydrogen is now considered to be the mass unit out of which all the other elements are composed, it follows that m' is the small element of mass out of which all physical plane matter is constructed. Let us therefore concentrate attention on the mass element m', and try to analyze its properties. Now mass is the measure of inertial force, so that our element of mass is also our element of force, and from what is said in ¶170 about force being identical with consciousness, it is also our element of consciousness. Let us first tabulate such observations as bear upon the subject we are studying, the references to Occult Chemistry being to the second edition. An enlarged drawing of the positive and negative atom will be found on page 21, Plate II.

Force pours in the heart-shaped depression at the top of the atom, and issues from the point, and is changed in character by its passage; further, force rushes through every spiral and every spirilla, and the changing shades of color that flash out from the rapidly revolving and vibrating atom depend on the several activities of the spirals10. Positive bodies are marked by their contained atoms setting their points towards each other and the center of their combination, and repelling each other outwards; negative bodies are marked by the heart-shaped depressions being turned inwards, and by a tendency to move towards each other instead of away11.

In the negative triad of hydrogen the three atoms are symmetrically arranged round the center of out-welling force12. The forces which flow in the ten spiral whorls of which the atom is composed come from the astral plane or pass to the astral plane13. Atoms which pour force into the astral plane are positive. Atoms which receive force from the astral plane are negative14. Atoms exposed to an electric current arrange themselves in parallel lines, and in each line the depression at the base receives the flow, which passes out at the apex into the depression of the next in the line. The atoms always set themselves to the current15. It seems probable that what modern science calls an electron, we (Bishop Leadbeater)16, call an astral atom.

The atom is in reality a vortex, formed by the flow of the divine life-force17.

These ultimate physical atoms pervade all space of which we know anything18.

The Breath of the Logos is the force which fills these spaces:

They are full of His Life, of Himself, and everything we call matter, on however high or low a plane, is instinct with divinity: these units of force, of life, the bricks with which He builds His universe, are His very life scattered through space19.

¶176. We see from the above that Bishop Leadbeater considers it probable that the astral atom is identical with the electron, which is exactly the conclusion to which these researches have led us. The observation that the atoms form in a line when exposed to an electric current, the stream of force passing into the base of one atom and out of the apex into the base of the next is in full accord with the modern theory of the electric current if these streams of force are streams of electrons, for modern science regards an electric current as a flow of electrons along a wire from atom to atom. With this point clear in our minds, let us trace this flow from the point in space where it emerges until it reaches the three atoms of the negative triad of atoms in hydrogen above described. The individual electron whilst in this line of passage will have the charge and the mass given to it by the measurements of western science. It will be in open space, the volume occupied by hydrogen being as large relatively to the volume of the electron as the orbit of Neptune is to the volume of the sun. Its forces can therefore operate all round a sphere, as in our coal mine illustration after we had been translated into outer space at an enormous distance from the earth. Its forces would not be linear but surface forces, and its electric charge a surface charge.

But when it enters the spiral of the atom this condition is changed, it has descended the shaft of the coal mine, and its forces can only act along the axis of the spiral. The surface force has become a line force, and has lost a dimension. Translating these forces into the equivalent consciousness, if the element of consciousness it possesses was previously four-dimensional, it will now be three dimensional, and translated back into electric charge, if in open space where the men of science measure it the charge was e, the charge becomes e/ π 4 = e', as given by our equation (43), and as shown in ¶163, this will have the effect of changing its mass from the mass m, as measured by science, to the mass m' = m/(4 π )2, and our construction out of it of the mass of hydrogen and the mass of the atom of Occult Chemistry, will follow as a consequence.

References

 

Chapter XIV

THE GREAT TONE

¶177. In an earlier chapter1 is given a series of "Nature's Constants", which are considered by physicists to be universal constants.

That is to say, they have the same numerical value in the stars and planets as when measured on the earth. In the case of one of these constants, the velocity of light, we have found reasons to doubt this universality2, and as we proceed we shall find reason to doubt this with regard to others. One of these with which we are now immediately concerned is known as "Rydberg's Constant".

In 1885, Balmer discovered that a number of the spectral lines of hydrogen formed a regular series, the wave-lengths of which could be calculated with great accuracy by means of a simple mathematical formula. This gave rise to further researches, and in the next few years, the physicists Rydberg, Kayser, and Runge, found similar series in many of the other chemical elements. Additional interest was given to these researches by the further discovery by Rydberg that these series in the different elements were definitely related to each other through a particular wave-number now known as "Rydberg's Constant".

Evidently this natural constant must be connected with some fundamental process in the atomic mechanism, and this conclusion was confirmed in 1913, when Niels Bohr, a young mathematical physicist of Copenhagen3, devised an atomic model which appeared to account for Rydberg's constant, and described its method of operation. Bohr's theory of the atom now takes the lead over all others in general scientific estimation; and this is largely due to its ability to explain the existence in nature of Rydberg's constant4.

¶178. The dimensions of light waves are usually expressed in three forms which are definitely related to each other,

the wavelength, the wave-number, and the wave-frequency. The wave-length is measured in angstroms, the unit of which is one hundred millionth of a centimeter. The wave-number is the number of wave-lengths in one centimeter, and is the reciprocal of the wave-length. The wave-frequency is the number of wave-lengths given out in one second of time, and is equal to the wave-number multiplied by the velocity of light5.

For Rydberg's constant these three dimensions are as follows:

Rydberg's Wave-length = 911.7624 x 10-8
Rydberg's Wave-number = 109,677.69
{51} Rydberg's Wave-frequency = 3.288795 x 1015

There are small differences in Rydberg's constant as used by physicists, and the above is taken from Taylor's Physical Chemistry6.

¶179. The constants of Rydberg will be of special interest to occult students, because from them can be traced a connection with "The Great Tone" of Nature. The Secret Doctrine7, referring to this says::

As there is sound in Nature which is inaudible, so there is color which is invisible, but which can be heard. The creative force at work in its incessant task of transformation, produces color, sound and numbers, in the shape of rates of vibration which compound and dissociate the atoms and molecules. Though invisible and inaudible to us in detail, yet the synthesis of the whole becomes audible to us on the material plane. It is that the Chinese call the "Great Tone" or Kung. It is, even by scientific confession, the actual tonic of Nature, held by musicians to be the middle Fa on the keyboard of a piano, we hear it distinctly in the voice of Nature, in the roaring of the ocean, in the sound of the foliage of a great forest, in the distant roar of a great city, in the wind, the tempest and the storm; in short, in everything in Nature which has a voice or produces sound. To the hearing of all who hearken, it culminates in a single definite tone, of an inappreciable pitch, which, as said, is the F, or Fa, of the diatonic scale.
In the Theosophical Convention Lectures for 1904, given at Benares, Dr. Besant shows the relationship of the "Great Tone" to the Green of the solar Spectrum, and the further connection with Rydberg's constant can now be traced through the green line of the Aurora Borealis. Hints are given here and there in The Secret Doctrine8 that through the mediation of color and sound, the forces of the polar aurora, are connected with the generation of the elements, and it is a remarkable fact that much in connection with this phenomenon still remains an insoluble problem to western science. The significance of the polar aurora in connection with these studies has been already emphasized in ¶42-44, and in ¶129. A most diligent worker at this problem of physics is Prof. Vegard, D.Sc., of the University of Christiania, and some of the results of his recent investigations will be found in the Philosophical Magazine9.

¶180. The origin of the auroral green line is still a matter in dispute. Vegard claims to have proved that it is due to Nitrogen10, but McLennan and Shrum11, make a similar claim for Oxygen, or possibly Helium. We shall see later that it probably arises from all terrestrial matter, and is therefore not generated by one chemical element rather than another12. McLennan and Shrum give for the wave-length in angstroms 5577.35 Ä., whilst Vegard13, gives 5578.2 Ä.

Vegard's measurement is from the actual polar aurora, whilst McLennan's is from laboratory experiments, hence we prefer to base our calculations on Vegard's measurements, which when corrected for vacuum gives for the auroral wave-length 1, and the wave-frequency n, the values

{52} Auroral wave-length 1 = 5579.75 x 10-8

{53} Auroral wave-frequency n = 5.3741 x 1014

If now in {51}, we represent Rydberg's wave-frequency by R, its ratio to the auroral frequency will be

{54} R/n = 6.11974

from which we see that Rydberg's frequency is, roughly, six times as great as the auroral frequency.

¶181. The earth's mass is 81.45 times the mass of the moon14, so that if the earth's mass be taken as unity, the sum of the masses of the earth and moon is

{55} p = 1.012278

and if now in {54}, we take

{56} R/n = 6py = 6.11974

{57} y = R/6pn = 1.007586

The atomic weight of hydrogen when that of oxygen is taken at 16, is sometimes given at 1.008, and sometimes at 1.0077, the last being regarded as the most accurate15, though the fourth decimal is uncertain, so that the value of y in {57}, may he regarded as identical with the atomic weight of hydrogen. The reasons why the atomic weight of hydrogen, and the moon's mass, should be involved in the relationship of the two important frequencies R, and n, will appear as we proceed.

182. A considerable portion of the first volume of these studies16, was taken up with the attempt to prove that the velocity of light was not a cosmic constant, as is assumed by western science, and which forms the basis of the theory of relativity. There was not at that time (1923), any generally available information from occult sources which gave definite teaching on this matter. It is therefore gratifying to find from a recent publication, The Mahatma Letters to A. P. Sinnett, that the above deduction made from independent investigation is amply confirmed by a very high occult authority, the Master K. H., for in the course of His reply to the question: "Is the photographic value of light emitted by the stars a safe guide to their magnitude" He says:

"They (modern astronomers) cannot know it, for the simple reason that heretofore they have in reality found no sure means of measuring the velocity of light. The experiments made by Fizeau and Corun known as the two best investigators of light in the world of science, notwithstanding the general satisfaction at the results obtained, are not a trustworthy data neither in respect to the velocity of light with which sunlight travels nor to its quantity. The methods adopted by these French men are yielding correct results... only as regards the velocity of light between the EARTH AND THE UPPER REGIONS OF ITS ATMOSPHERE ... there being between the Paris Observatory and its fortifications no atmosphere, no meteoric masses to impede the ray's progress, and that ray finding quite a different qualify of a medium to travel upon than the ether of space, the ether between the sun and the meteoric C ONTINENT above our heads, the velocity of light will of course show some 185,000 and odd miles per second and your physicians shout 'Eureka'! Nor do any of the other devices contrived by science to measure that velocity since 1887 answer any better... Could they measure light above our atmosphere they would soon find they were wrong"17.

¶183. It was stated in the pamphlet by the writer18, that the radiation velocity of the heavenly bodies varies as the square root of their masses, but as the proof of this belongs to a later stage, we may assume this law provisionally. Taking the moon's mass as given in ¶181, we have for the earth's radiation velocity c, and the moon's radiation velocity v,

c (earth) = 2.99860 x 1010

{58} v (moon) = 3.32256 x 109

¶184. In 1904, H. A. Lorentz, showed that on electromagnetic theory19 the electrionic mass m, increases with the velocity v, in accordance with a formula which has since formed the basis of the theory of Relativity, but which however preceded it and is independent of it. If therefore we take an electron moving with the lunar velocity v, as given in {58}, the mass m is increased to

{59} μ = 1.0061955m = 9.06075 x 10-28

{60} e/ μ = 5.2689 x 1017

the values of e and m being as given in ¶160.

¶185. The physical interpretation of {60}, is that a force e acting on a mass v for unit time would give it the acceleration {60}, but of course such an enormous acceleration could not operate on a single electron for one second, since long before one second had elapsed the electron would have been carried beyond the orbit of Neptune. But if instead of a single electron there was a string of n electrons, then it would be proportionately reduced to the moderate acceleration

{61} g = e/n Roman" μ = 980.425

If now we increase the force e in the ratio p, as given by {55}, so as to add the moon's mass action to that of the earth, and take another string of electrons equal to the Rydberg frequency R, we should obtain the reduced acceleration

{62} a = pe/R Roman" μ = 162.174

{63} g/a = 6.0455

{64} a/g = 0.1654 a = 0.1654g

¶186. The acceleration given by {61}, is that of terrestrial gravity in latitude 43° and is approximately the mean value of gravity at the earth's surface. The value of the moon's surface gravity20, is 0.17g, which agrees with {64}, so that whilst the frequency n, or the frequency connected with the "Great Tone" of Occultism, gives us the value of terrestrial gravity g, the Rydberg frequency R, which plays such an important part in all spectral theories, gives us the surface gravity of the earth's companion, the moon.

¶187. Before giving a physical interpretation of the important results obtained in {61-64}, let us return for a moment to our small element of mass m', as given by {47}, in ¶163. We there found that a change in the electrionic charge e, to e' = e/4 π from {46}, transformed the mass of the electron m into m' = m/(4 π )2 . Now the difference between m and μ as shown by {59}, is less than one per cent, and if the charge e in {60}, were changed to e' we should by the same law have the same mass a changed to

{65} μ ' = μ (4 π )2= 5.7378 x 10-30

μ 'g = 5.62547 x 10-27

μ 'a = 9.3052 x 10-28

{66} Roman" μ 'g + μ 'a = 6.6556 x 10-27

The value of Planck's radiation constant as given in ¶160 is h = 6.547 x 10-27 which differs from {66}, by less than one half per cent, so that the difference is less than the probable errors of measurement, and we may write for this important radiation constant,

(67) h = μ 'g + μ 'a = 6.547 x 10-27

¶188. The physical interpretations of equations {61}, and {62}, which gives the values of surface gravity on the earth and moon have already been given21, 21 and those equations are merely putting in mathematical form. What is there given verbally. To repeat a portion of this, the action of gravity does not accelerate the body which has weight, but the etheric medium which flows through the body. Through the field of force e, in the ease of the earth, there flows a stream of electrionic masses at the rate of n per second, so that in unit time n of these masses are given the acceleration g, in a direction upwards from the earth. The reaction of this acceleration gives the reverse acceleration downwards to the body, just as when holding a hosepipe the hand feels the reaction of the stream of water issuing from the nozzle.

It is interesting to note that since the above explanation of the gravitation mechanism was published, such a repulsive process continually accelerated has been actually observed above the sun's surface22. The key to the gravitation process for the earth is in the mysterious green line of the aurora borealis which is not an occasional phenomenon, as was formerly supposed, but is continuous in the upper atmosphere throughout the day and year23, 23 its color is the green of vegetation. It is the fundamental vibration frequency for all matter of which the earth is composed, and is therefore intimately related to all physical phenomena that take place on our planet. Its corresponding sound is "THE GREAT TONE" of Occultism.

References

 

Chapter XV

THE CREATION OF MATTER

¶189. In the closing paragraph of the preceding chapter, we gave a physical interpretation of equations {61-64}, showing how the accelerations of gravity on the surfaces of the earth and moon are produced from the electrionic charge e, through the frequencies n, and R, or the frequencies of the polar aurora and Rydberg. But the physical interpretation of {67}, which gives us Planck's constant h, was deferred for later treatment. A western physicist inspecting the equation would probably say that the relationship, though numerically accurate, was certainly accidental, because Planck's constant was a property of every light-wave, and it would be absurd to suppose that light received from Sirius or Arcturus, or even from the sun, could involve the accelerating forces of the earth and moon.

He would further object that the formula contains the surface value a of the lunar acceleration; whereas the constant h is measured on the earth's surface, where the acceleration due to lunar gravity is much smaller than a. The first objection is connected with the truth or otherwise of the theory of relativity, against which we are continually knocking our heads, and will be dealt with later. The second objection is partly explained in the pamphlet, Einstein's Theory1, and in the chapter, "The Geocentric Universe", taken as a whole, and particularly in ¶105. The germ of the idea is that the energy and force of a light ray does not spread throughout space, but is contained undiminished within lines of force. The reason why gravity decreases as the square of the distance increases is that those lines of force open out like the spokes of a wheel, so that the number crossing any area perpendicular to the path of the rays varies inversely as the square of the distance, but the acceleration within each line of force is the same as at the surface of the body emitting the ray. This theory has since been adopted by Sir J. J. Thomson, and developed in The Philosophical Magazine2. The reason why the lunar acceleration a, has to be combined with the terrestrial acceleration g, is that the earth and moon are one gravitational mechanism, hence the occurrence in our formulae of the multiplier p, as in equations {55-7, and 62}. We had to adopt the same expedient when explaining terrestrial magnetism in ¶137-8.

¶190. The quantum of energy which plays such an important part in modern physics, is Planck's constant h, multiplied by the wave-frequency f, and this wave-frequency is the velocity of light c, divided by the wave-length λ hence we have for this quantum of radiation energy,

{68} hf = hc/ Roman" λ

Since both h and c are constants, we see that the quantum, which differs in value for each light ray, is the constant hc,

divided by the variable wave-length λ From {67}, the value of this important constant for all radiation.

{69} hc = Roman" μ 'ac + μ 'ac = 1.9632 x 10-16

The above is, perhaps, the most fundamental constant in the whole of terrestrial physics. Its dimensions are that of a Power, or Activity3, and may be regarded as the time rate of doing work of our Planetary Logos, which is thus a constant, and the most fundamental of all. It is the power exerted in each wave-length of every kind of electromagnetic radiation, whether these be X-Rays, γ -Rays or visible light rays, and may be taken as the basis of the Law of the Conservation of Power, from which we have deduced the other laws of conservation, those of matter and energy4.

¶191. It has been stated previously5, that Einstein's Theory seems to require some mechanism whereby gravitation creates matter, and Occultists affirm that light creates matter. An inspection of equation {69}, shows that within the light waves there is the force of gravity, so that if we show that the creation of matter follows from {69}, we shall satisfy the requirements both of modem science and Occultism. But before doing so, it may be well to quote some of the occult teachings on this creative process.

Light - the first mentioned in Genesis, is termed by the kabalists Sephira, or the Concealed Wisdom in the father. Light is the first begotten, and the first emanation of the Supreme, and Light is Life, says the evangelist. Both are electricity the life-principle, the animo mundi pervading the universe, the electric vivifier of all things. Light is the great Protean magician, and under the Divine Will of the architect, its multifarious, omnipotent waves give birth to every form as well as to every living being. From its swelling, electric bosom, springs matter and spirit. Within its beams lie the beginnings of all physical and chemical action, and of all cosmic and spiritual phenomena: it vitalizes and disorganizes, it gives life and produces death, and from its primordial point gradually emerged into existence the myriads of worlds, visible and invisible celestial bodies. It was at the ray of this first mother, one in three, that God, according to Plato, 'lighted a fire which we now call the sun' and, which is not the cause of either light or heat but merely the focus, or as we might say, the lens, by which the rays of the primordial light become materialized, are concentrated upon our solar system, and produce all the correlations of forces6.

¶192. An angry physicist reading the above would perhaps describe it as a piece of nonsensical rigmarole, that could only emanate from one unacquainted with the laws of physics. Yet, the above quotation contains the key to equation {69}, and also to others. Nothing could appear more obvious to the western physicist, and less in need of proof, than that the sun and stars were the sources of the light we see, and yet the physicist has, in his own laboratory, an excellent illustration of a light making process which should open his eyes to other possibilities. Let us consider the case of an ordinary X-Ray tube, having a tantalum anticathode: unless effective means are taken to keep the anticathode cool, it becomes so much heated that it melts7. Now the melting point of iron is 1530° , and the melting point of tantalum is 2900° so that the temperature imparted to the anticathode is nearly twice that of melted iron8. It must, therefore, glow with an intense white heat, and light up the whole of the tube. An infinitesimal being living on the cathode would regard it as perfectly obvious that the cause of the light was the anticathode, just as the terrestrial physicist is convinced that the cause of daylight is the sun. But yet we know that the inhabitant of cathodeland would be quite mistaken, for the cause of the anticathode glow is the bombardment by days from the cathode. The same principle applies in the case of the electric arc light. To quote from Sir J. J. Thomson9:

A current can pass in the direction in which the negative electricity comes from the hot electrode, (the cathode), into the gas, but not in the other direction. Thus although in ordinary arcs the positive terminal, (the anode), is the hotter, this experiment shows that a high temperature of the negative, electrode is the essential condition for the arc discharge, and that if we can keep the temperature of the negative terminal up by independent means we can get a discharge, even although the temperature of the positive electrode is comparatively low. No arc, however, will pass if the negative terminal is cold... From these experiments Fleming concluded that the are discharge consists of a torrent of negatively electrified particles of carbon shot off from the cathode, these carry the current and striking with great violence against the anode hollow it out, just as a body is hollowed out when struck by a sand blast.

It has been previously pointed out10, that the relationship between the earth and sun is that of the cathode and anticathode in an X-Ray tube, so that as stated in the above quotation, the sun is merely the focus of these rays which originate on the earth, and are an emanation of our planetary Logos. Master K. H, told Mr. Sinnett, long ago11, that

Science makes too much and too little at the same time of solar energy and even of the sun itself; the sun has nothing to do whatever with rain and very little with heat.

Which last conclusion we arrived at by independent investigation in an earlier chapter12. The above reasons explain why every light wave contains the terrestrial acceleration g, and the lunar acceleration a, as shown in {69}. It is because the earth and moon combined are the immediate sources of their own light and heat. The sun does not appear to be of a distinctly higher order than the planets. The sun and planets are brothers in origin, the sun being the eighth left out13. The difference between the sun and planets appears to be one of function, just as the anode and cathode have different but complementary functions. The sun focuses the energies of all the seven planetary Logoi, which with the Trinity is the Manifested Unit of our Solar Universe. But the Life of the system is derived from the Central Spiritual Sun, and the Kosmic Logoi.

¶193. This Hierarchy of spiritual Beings, through which the Universal Mind comes into action, is like an army... each with its separate individuality or life, and its limited freedom of action and limited responsibilities; each contained in a larger individuality, to which its own interests are subservient, and each containing lesser individualities in itself14. The Son of the Immaculate Celestial Virgin... is born again on earth as the Son of the terrestrial Eve, our mother Earth... Above, the Son is the whole Kosmos15. There are two "Fires", and a distinction is made between them in Occult teachings. The first... concealed in the Central Spiritual Sun, is spoken of as triple;... while the Fire of the Manifested cosmos is Septenary, throughout both the Universe and our Solar System16.

Fohat is closely related to the 'One Life'... By the action of the Manifested Wisdom, on Mahat - represented by these innumerable centers of spiritual energy in the Kosmos - the Reflection of the Universal Mind, which is Cosmic Ideation, becomes objectively the Fohat of the Buddhist esoteric philosopher. Fohat, running along the seven principles of Ákásha, acts upon manifested Substance... and... sets in motion the law of Cosmic Evolution... The Solar System, brought into existence by these agencies, consists of Seven Principles... Fohat, then, is the personified electric vital power, the transcendental binding unity of all cosmic energies,... the action of which resembles - on an immense scale -that of a living Force created by Will,... the forces it acts upon being cosmic, human, and terrestrial... It is, metaphysically, the objectivized Thought of the Gods, the 'Word made flesh'... In its secondary aspect Fohat is the Solar energy, the electric vital fluid,... or - Electricity17.

¶194. The above quotations will serve to illustrate the further interpretation of equation {61}, shown that the value of terrestrial gravity where it was g = e/n μ. In the chapters with subtitles, "The Geocentric Universe", and "The Mundane Egg", it was described how the Universe we see is only one seventh of the universe, as seen by the inhabitants of the solar system as a whole18. What terrestrial humanity really sees is the universe of the Kosmic Logos belonging to One of the seven Mystery-Gods of the planets, the Cosmocratores, or fabricators of our solar system. Beings of approximately the same order as the Central Spiritual Sun, which gives life to the whole Kosmos19. This Kosmic Logos represents the same ray in the Kosmos, as our earth represents in the Solar System, and the vital electric forces which animate the matter of the earth, arise primarily from what we may term the Terrestrial Kosmic Logos, whose vehicle is the totality of stars visible to us in the heavens. As quoted above, this Son of the Immaculate Celestial Virgin is born again on earth as the Son of the terrestrial Eve, on Mother-Earth, the Isis of the religion of Egypt, and the original of the Immaculate Virgin of the Christian Churches.

It was shown in the chapter "The Mundane Egg"20, that as near as can be measured, the total mass of the visible universe is the same as the total electrostatic charge of the earth. This charge therefore is the Life of our Kosmic Logos, and all terrestrial forces are the direct emanation from Him. Occult students are familiar with the phrase; "I am That", which implies that if we dig deep enough into ourselves, we become identical with the One Life. Similarly, according to the occult maxim; "as above so below", if the Spirit of the Earth, could penetrate deep enough into its atomic centers, it would realize itself as identical with the Life of Its Kosmic Ray.

¶195. We found the value of the earth's electric charge21 by counting the number of electrionic charges e, contained in all the elements of the earth's mass, as deduced from Rutherford's theory of atomic nuclei. Hence the charge e is an elementary unit of the Life-Force of our Kosmic Logos, the Creator of our Earth. According to modern physics, it is the unchangeable unit of all electrical phenomena, and as shown by {61}, it is the actuating force behind terrestrial and lunar gravity. Being a portion of the Life of our Kosmic Cosmocratore, its function is to create, and in equation {67}, we have seen how through the action of gravity, it creates the hitherto incomprehensible constant h, of Prof. Planck, which is the energy unit contained in every light-wave, and in the electromagnetic waves of all kinds of radiant energy. We will now show how this creative process is continued by means of light and gravity, agreeably to the theory of Einstein, and the teachings of Occultism.

¶196. It is now considered that all chemical elements may be built up out of two mass units, the mass of the Proton, which, for our purpose, may be defined as one sixteenth of the mass of Oxygen, and the mass of Helium, which is equal to the mass of four Protons. All atomic weights are now expressed in Protons, so that the atomic weight of Hydrogen y = 1.00758, as given in {57}, is the mass of Hydrogen in terms of the Proton taken as unity. The mass of Hydrogen in grams H = 1.662 x 10-24 was given in {50}, hence the mass of the Proton in grams is

{70} P = 1.6495 x 10-24

and the mass of Helium, or what is regarded as the same thing, the mass of the Alpha particle ejected from Radium, and other radioactive bodies, is four times P, so that if we represent this unit of mass by A, we have for the mass of Helium in grams,

{71} A = 4P = 6.598 x 10-24

In {70}, and {71}, therefore, we have the two fundamental masses out of which all the chemical elements, according to modern theory, are built up, and we propose now to show how the most important of these, the mass of Helium A, can be generated from the light-ray, in conformity with the teachings of Occultism, supplemented by the results of modern physical investigations.

¶197. In a later chapter we hope to show how the elements of the Ancients, and of modern Astrology, by successive operations of the force of gravity, are transformed from one to the other, so that in a sense, the mass of one subplane is the weight of the subplane next higher in the scale. In ¶133-4, we described Einstein's Principle of Equivalence, the fundamental assumption of which is that weight and mass are identical. If we apply Einstein's principle to equation {67}, where it is shown that Planck's radiation constant h, is the sum of two weights, μ 'g and μ 'a it follows that this radiation constant is a mass, and we have here an instance of the creation of larger mass h, from a smaller mass μ ' by the application of the terrestrial and lunar accelerations g, and a. Having thus got our mass h, there is no inherent reason why we should not apply to it a further gravitational acceleration, lunar or terrestrial, and thus obtain a still larger mass. To do so would merely be to operate upon it with the equations {61} and {62}, or as stated in ¶195, with the unit of Life-Force of the Kosmic Logos, our Terrestrial Cosmocratore, the electrionic charge e. It is further evident that if this be done once, there is no inherent reason why it could not be done twice, or for the matter of that an unlimited number of times. We propose to show that by such repeated operations, the elements of the Ancients, and the chemical elements of the moderns can be generated by the light-process, and thus justify the teachings of The Secret Doctrine22, that Light is Matter, and that our minerals are light itself crystallized and immetalized, whilst the primary substance "is transformed from the state of fire into that of air and then into that of water", etc23.

¶198. If we multiply our radiation mass h, twice in succession by {61}, and {62}, we obtain

{72} hg2 + ha2 = h (1.02736) g2

If now we take a mass A', the weight of which under the acceleration of terrestrial gravity g, would be A'g, and equate this weight to {72}, we obtain the relationship,

A'g = h (1.02736) g2

{73} A' = h (1.02736) g = 6.5945 x 10-24

which within the limits of physical measurements is the same as the mass of Helium given by {71}, so that we may write for the mass of Helium

A = A' = h (1.02736)g = 4P

{74} = 6.598 x 10-24

CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY

¶199. In concluding this chapter, it may be helpful to review briefly the results so far arrived at, and to attempt an interpretation, and due recognition of their significance.

Out of a controversy which has divided both physicists and Occultists, we have deduced an elementary mass m', from the observed mass of the electron m, equation {47}, with which we built up the mass of Hydrogen H {49-50}. With this same elementary mass m', with the aid of terrestrial and lunar gravity, we also built the mass h, {59-65-67}, the well known radiation constant of Planck, and the energy or mass content of every light-wave. We have finally, by a further application of the forces of gravity to the mass h, constructed the mass of Helium A {74}. The difference in mass between the Proton P, and Hydrogen H, is less than one per cent, and has still to be explained. It appears to be in some way connected with the ratio of Rydberg's frequency R, and the auroral frequency n, {57}. With these two elementary masses, the Proton P, and the mass of Helium A, the modern Physical Chemist is able to construct the whole of the chemical elements, so that when the formation of P, and A are explained, the origin of matter as known to the western physicist has been accounted for.

The force of gravity is a derivative of an electric force e, acting upon electrionic masses, the number of which is determined by a light-frequency. In the case of the moon, this light-frequency is Rydberg's Constant R, whilst in the case of terrestrial gravity, this light-frequency is n, the observed frequency of the polar aurora {61-62}.

The electric force e, or the source of creation, appears to be an elementary unit of Will-Force of the Kosmic Loges of our Terrestrial Ray24. Our conclusions are therefore in accord with the Occult and Scriptural Teachings that the creation of Light preceded the creation of the physical Universe. The first act of the process was an exercise of Will-Force, on the part of the creative Elohim25, in accordance with the scriptural phrase: "Let there be Light"26, after which light in its turn becomes the creator of matter. This Kosmic Will-Force needs to be continually exercised, and were it to cease for an instant, the whole universe would vanish27. Thus the whole of the universe, as far as we know it, is sustained by the Cosmocratore of our Terrestrial Ray, the G. A. O. T. U. of speculative Masonry.

References

 

Chapter XVI

THE THREE ELEMENTS: AIR, WATER, EARTH


¶200. In the preceding chapter, we had traced the origin of all terrestrial matter to the powers residing in light, which has always been taught in Occult Schools, and is a fundamental teaching of the world's Scriptures. In western science, we are taught that the sun and stars are the sources of light; and in this respect it has mistaken the cause for the effect, for it is light that produces the sun and stars, and not the opposite.

In the introduction to an evidently inspired work, The Fire of Creation1, the Vice-President of the Theosophical Society quotes a mystic prophecy of Joachim of Flora. "The reign of the Father is passed, the reign of the Son is passing, the reign of the Spirit is at hand". In future ages, a student of the present times, will probably pronounce the publication of Occult Chemistry, one of the most epoch-making events of this prolific period, for it first disclosed to the physicist the tremendous forces of nature which, though hinted at and described in The Secret Doctrine, were nevertheless securely veiled. It has been said by someone that the functions of the Theosophical Society in the coming civilization will develop in three periods: the period of training; the period of work; the period of power. It is to the power aspect of nature, and perhaps to the society's future work, that we are introduced by the study of Occult Chemistry.

In Theosophical terminology, this is the department of Mahat, the third Person of the Trinity; known in India as Brahma, and in Christianity as God the Holy Ghost. This is represented in the Scriptures under two aspects; masculine and feminine. In the Upanishads, the feminine aspect is Uma; in China, it is Kwan-Yin, the mother of mercy; in Greece Demeter, the Magna Mater; in Egypt, Isis; whilst in western religions, it is the Immaculate Virgin. The story in the Upanishads is beautifully rendered in an article entitled "The Mystery of the Motherhood of God"2, from which we learn that the male aspect Brahma is Life, whilst the female aspect Urea is Light. Light, therefore, to which in the preceding chapter we traced the creation of matter, is an aspect of the Immaculate Virgin of the Churches, from whose prolific Womb emerges all created things. To Her, the Celestial and Terrestrial Eve, the wise student of Occult Chemistry will turn for inspiration, and direct his worship.

It is remarkable how small a portion of modern worship is directed to the Third Person of the Trinity. Dr. van der Leeuw3, states that in India, out of the thousands of temples, only one is set aside for the worship of Brahma.

Excepting the Church of Rome the leading churches of the world look upon the worship of Our Lady as something extraneous go the genius of Christianity4,

whilst the separate worship of the Holy Ghost is almost nil. The revival of Masonry, the lineal descendant of the Egyptian worshipers of Isis, and the nursery of the coming Mysteries, will perhaps correct this. It is well, therefore, for us to realize that the study of Occult Chemistry, or what is practically the same thing, the study of Alchemy, is the study of the operations of the Third Person of the Trinity, partly in the Life aspect as the Fire of Creation, but most especially in the Light aspect, as the Virgin Creator. In this second aspect we are indebted to the religion of Egypt, as transmitted to us through Masonry.

Isis, to whom the lesser Mysteries were ascribed, was not only the universal feminine principle expressed in nature, but also a real and very lofty Being, just as the Christ is the universal Life of the Second Logos, and also a high Official of the Occult Hierarchy. She by virtue of her high development and office was able to represent Feminine Aspect of the Deity to man. Isis was the mother of all that lives, and wisdom and truth and power; upon her temple at Sais the inscription was written: "I am that which is, which has been, and which shall be; and no man has ever lifted the veil that hides my Divinity from mortal eyes."

The moon was her symbol; and the influence which she outpoured upon her worshipers to the music of the shaken sistrum was of brilliant blue light veined with delicate silver, as of shimmering moonbeams, the very touch of which brought upliftment and ecstasy5.

Isis, therefore, is par excellence the patron Goddess of the man of science, and many are they who serve Her for the gifts at Her bestowal, but these are rigidly restricted to the outer court of Her Temple; only those can hope to learn the secrets of Her inner chamber who serve Her for love alone. For Her characteristics are typically feminine, and naught but he chastened love of Sir Galahad can penetrate the inner shrine.

¶201. Those of us who are able to recall our early school days may remember a rather laborious method of proving the correctness of our multiplications by reversing the process and dividing. Thus after multiplying a number x, by another number y, and obtaining the product xy; we would then take xy, and divide by y, which, if no mistake had been made, would give us x exactly, and some of us may perhaps recall the feeling of relief when the last figure of x came out right, and we realized that our task was accomplished. Suppose now we follow the above school-boy plan of testing some of the results so far obtained. That is to say, where we have multiplied let us divide, and thus get back to our original foundations; we may then examine these under a different aspect. For instance in {67}, we obtained Planck's constant h, from our small element of mass μ ', by a single multiplication,.

{75} h = μ '(g + a)

after which in {74}, we obtained the mass of Helium A, by another simple multiplication of h, thus

{76} A = h (1.02736)g

Now if, as modern science believes, all the chemical elements are, for the most part, built up from Helium, then practically the whole of the earth's mass has been built up in the way indicated by the above two equations, and if as stated in The Secret Doctrine6, the order of development was first Fire; then Air, then Water, and finally Earth; we should by the reverse process of division expect to obtain Water, Air, and Fire. Since the masses of the Earth and Air have been fairly accurately ascertained, it will be quite easy to test this with regard to these two elements of the Ancients. From The Smithsonian Physical Tables7, we have for the Earth's mass in grams,

{77} E = 5.997 x 1027

¶202. If now we use the multiplier (1.02736)g, in {76}, as our first divisor, we have for the mass of Water,

{78} W = E/(l.02736)g = 5.9537 x 1024

and for our second divisor, the multiplier (g + a), in {75}, we obtain for the mass of the gases of the atmosphere,

{79} G = W/(g + a)= 5.2107 x 1021

= 52.107 x 1014 metric tons

The metric ton is one million grams, and is preferred as a unit of weight by men of science to the English ton, (one metric ton = 0.9842 ton), because being a portion of the decimal system of weights and measures it involves little calculation. The observed weight of the gases of our atmosphere8, is

{80} G' = 52 x 1014 metric tons

which may be regarded as an exact agreement with the result obtained in {79}.

¶203. It would be difficult to exaggerate the sweeping nature of the above demonstration, which embraces in itself a clear proof that both ancient and modern theories of the formation of the elements are correct. It proves, in the first place, that the modern physical chemist is correct in thinking that the chemical elements are built up from Helium, and also that the ancient world was right in its theories, at least as far as the three lower elements; Air, Water, Earth, being generated from each other in the order given. The fourth element, Fire, has still to be investigated. The difference between the Ancients and the Moderns appears to be that the Ancients conceived the elements as taken in their totality. The totality of gases as Air, the totality of liquids as Water, and the totality of solids as Earth. The misconception between modern and ancient teachings arising through a difference of nomenclature. But equations {79-80}, complete the cycle of proof, in a still more important sense. They prove the fundamental teaching of Occultism that all matter is a creation, or precipitation, from the powers inherent in Light; for the whole-series of equations in the cycle {51-80}, are derived from the observed properties of the light-wave.

¶204. We have compared the observed mass of Air, G', in {80}, with the theoretical mass G, in {79}, and found an exact agreement; but the mass of Water, W, in {78}, has not yet been considered. Unfortunately there is so available means of getting at the exact quantity of Water; for in addition to the surface waters of the oceans, lakes, and rivers, there is water intermingled with the solid crust, both hygroscopic and combined9. In this publication, which may be regarded as the latest authority, various estimates are given of the volume of the oceans10. Sir John Murray estimates the volume of the ocean at 323,733,150 cubic miles. K. Karstens, more recently, puts it at 1,285,935,211 cubic kilometers, or 307,496,000 cubic miles. According to O. Krummel, the volume is 319,087,500 cubic miles, and a later estimate by E. Kossirma (1921), assigns to the ocean a volume of 327,672,000 cubic miles.

The fresh waters of the globe are too small in amount to be estimated directly; even the mass of Lake Superior being quite a negligible quantity11. The volume of the oceans adopted in the above work12, is

302,000,000 cubic miles = 1.2588 x 109 cubic kilometers

{81} = 1.2588 x 1024 cubic centimeters or grams.

¶205. On comparing the value of {81}, with the value of W, in (78), we see that the observed mass of the oceans, and the surface waters of the globe, are about one-fifth the amount required to satisfy our theoretical equation for W, the total water in the earth. But there is a considerable amount of moisture contained in the solid crust of the earth, and this, as will be seen, appears at first more than sufficient make up the other four-fifths of W, in {78}. If we compare the mass W, with the earth's mass as a whole, as given in {77}, we see that the theoretical amount of water is only about one-tenth of one per cent of the earth's mass. Now, even in the igneous rocks, or those which have been exposed to the internal fires of the earth, there is one per cent of water, or more than ten times the amount required to make up the deficiency, provided the whole of the earth's interior contains the same amount, which of course is not likely13. But many will be surprised to learn that even melted lava, in the interior of the earth, contains water; and the amount of steam ejected from active volcanoes is one evidence of this. To quote from the above work14:

Within a volcano the presence of water must be taken into account, together with the gases which are so powerfully operative in producing explosions. The magma before eruption, is something very different from the smoothly flowing stream of lava, for it is heavily charged with aqueous vapors and other gases. Under great pressure, exactly as the soda water bottle in an ordinary siphon bottle is loaded with carbon dioxide.

One of the effects of this intermixture of surface fluids is to lower the melting point of lava within the earth, as compared with the melting point at the surface. Thus, within the earth, pumice stone, owing to admixture with water melts at 1,250° whilst after eruption on the earth's surface its melting point is 1,650° 15.

It would thus appear that our difficulty in reconciling the observed quantity of water with the theoretical, as given by {78}, is not to explain the deficiency, but to account for the excess. We are therefore driven to the assumption that in the far interior depths of the earth the admixture of water is considerably less than that observed at the surface, and this, on the whole, is a reasonable assumption. For the present, we have to be satisfied with the statement that, as far as observation goes, there is nothing that contradicts and much that confirms, the correctness of the theoretical quantity of terrestrial water as given by {78}. We shall, however, return to this subject in considering the formation of the chemical elements in detail, where it will be found that the function of the ancient element water is of the greatest importance.

¶206. So far we have dealt only with the three lower elements of the Ancients, and as the fourth element, Fire, is, in a sense, sui generis, it will be reserved for a later chapter. In concluding the present one, it may be appropriate to draw the attention of Astrologers to the significance of the above results for the science in which they are interested. It will obvious that our studies of occult chemistry and physics have now expanded outwards into the kingdom of Astrology. Just as in the case of the exoteric sciences, it is impossible to draw a fine line of demarcation between one physical science and another; so, with the occult sciences: they are all interlinked, and mutually explanatory. In fact, the connections are even closer in occultism than in western science, for the atom of Occult Chemistry is not a point, as the atom of the chemist is supposed to be; it is the terminus of a line, the other end of the line being attached to a star, a planet, or a sun. It has, therefore, bored a channel through the Zodiac of Astrology, and become a part of his science. Alchemy and Astrology are not two sciences, they are one, and to study Alchemy without Astrology would be like studying railways by taking account only of the terminal railway stations, and ignoring entirely the traffic along the lines. It is well, therefore, to accentuate that the creative regions where the four transformations, Fire, Air, Water, Earth, are in operation, are the Zodiac of Astrology; and it is by the study of the alchemical processes continually going on in this elevated portion of our terrestrial universe, that the Mysteries of the Zodiac can receive an adequate explanation.

References

 

Chapter XVII

THE FOURTH ELEMENT: FIRE

¶207. In the preceding chapter1, we dealt only with the three elements of the Ancients and of the modern Occultist, leaving the fourth element, Fire, for later treatment. Although modern science objects to the name, element, being given to Air, Water, and Earth, it does admit their existence; but it denies the existence of the fourth element, Fire, as a substantial entity, or it did so up to very recently, and regarded it as a form of energy. But the emergence of Einstein's theory has somewhat modified this view, for according to Einstein all matter is energy, and all energy may be treated as matter multiplied by the square of the velocity of light. The divergence, therefore, between occult teaching and very recent science is less than it was. This, to a certain extent, fulfils a prophecy in The Secret Doctrine2, where we read:

Subject to some future specific name, the Force is substance of some kind, and can be nothing else; and perhaps one day Science will be the first to re-adopt the derided name of Phlogiston.

The Master K. H3. writing of what is believed in the Great White Lodge, says:

"Then what do we believe in? Well, we believe in the much laughed at phlogiston... The bodies of the Planetary spirits are formed of that, which Priestly and others called Phlogiston and for which we have another name". Again4,

He tells us that the flames seen around the sun during a solar eclipse, are the phlogiston of the sun, and its electromagnetic aura.

Thus having very high Occult Authority for doing so, we shall regard Fire as a substance, and the fourth Subplane of the physical plane.

To obtain the mass of Fire from the mass of the atmosphere G, as given in {79}, of the preceding chapter, we may use the same divisor, (g + a), that was used to obtain the mass of the atmosphere from the mass of water W, thus

{82} F = G/(g + a) = 4.56046 x 1016

{83} Fg = 4.47119 x 1021 dynes

In the above F is the total mass of the element Fire contained within the earth, measured in grams, whilst Fg in {83}, is the total pressure in dynes which this mass of Fire would exert on the whole of the earth's surface; provided it existed above the earth's surface, and had the same weight per gram as any other terrestrial substance.

In order to ascertain the pressure on unit surface of the earth exerted by the weight of Fire Fg, we must divide it by the number of square centimeters on the earth's surface,

{84} S = 5.10064 x l018

{85} Fg/S = 876.5924 dynes per square centimeter

{86} 876.5924/1333.22 = 0.657483 millimeters of Mercury

{87} p' = Fg/S = 876.5924 dynes = 0.657483 millimeters

The number of dynes that are the equivalent of a pressure of one millimeter of Mercury5, is 133.22387, so that {86}, transforms the pressure p' in dynes to millimeters of Mercury, in which unit pressures are often measured.

The average pressure of the earth's atmosphere6, is 740 millimeters, and the standard atmosphere is usually taken at 760 millimeters of Mercury. On comparing this with p' in {87}, it will be seen that the pressure of the element Fire, is less than one thousandth part of the pressure exerted by the element Air.

¶208. The above relationship between the pressure of the Air, and the pressure of the Fire, brings us face to face with a very interesting problem. It is evident that the Fire pressure is normally altogether swamped by the Air pressure, and the question arises how can we design an experiment which will bring this small Fire pressure under observation. If we removed the Air pressure, say in a vacuum tube, should we not also remove the Fire pressure? Now there is reason for believing that the matter on the subplanes above the gaseous cannot be confined in closed vessels, but that such matter freely moves through the walls of the vessel. This peculiarity has been dealt with previously7, and used to reconcile observed facts of radiation with the equipartition of energy. We have, moreover, abundant evidence that Fire, in the form of heat, cannot be absolutely excluded from, or included in, any enclosed space, but that sooner or later, it makes its way through the walls of the enclosure. Hence if the substance Fire is the sub-plane above the gaseous, it is impossible to remove the Fire pressure from a vacuum tube, however good the vacuum, or the nonconductivity of the walls of the vessel.

¶209. This makes it possible to design a crucial experiment to test the reliability of our theory of Fire pressure. If the pressure of the Air in a vacuum tube is 0.8 millimeter or above, then since from {87}, the Fire pressure is below 0.7 millimeter, we should not expect any visible evidence of the substance Fire, but at a pressure between 0.8, and 0.1 millimeter we may expect the characteristics of the substance Fire to exhibit themselves. The following extracts are taken from Electricity in Gases8.

THE NEGATIVE GLOW AND UNIFORM POSITIVE

COLUMN IN AIR

In a cylindrical tube 3 centimeters in diameter with plane aluminum electrodes 2 centimeters in diameter and 22 centimeters apart, continuous discharge may be obtained with a battery of 1,000 volts when the pressure of the air is between 1.65 and 0.05 millimeters.

It will be seen that the range of pressure above set forth fits very well the test we require, the pressure being air pressure, and our critical pressure 0.7 millimeters, being about midway between the pressure range 1.65 and 0.05 millimeters.

When the gas begins to conduct at the pressure 1.65 millimeters, a uniform column of bright orange-colored glow extends from the positive electrode for a distance of 17 centimeters, where it ends abruptly, and the rest of the tube for the distance of 5 centimeters between the end of the positive column and the negative electrode is nearly all dark, except for a narrow glow about 2 millimeters wide that surrounds the negative electrode. A narrow dark space of uniform width, generally known as the Crookes or the Hittorf dark space, separates the negative glow from the electrode.

The negative glow, which is of a bluish color, ends with a well-marked outline on the side near the cathode, but on the side remote from the cathode the outline of the glow is not so well defined.

The Crookes dark space and the negative glow increase in width as the pressure diminishes.

This last sentence should be carefully noted, for as the pressure diminishes between the range 1.65, and 0.05 mm., it passes across our critical pressure, 0.7 mm., where the pressure of the air becomes less than the pressure of the Fire, and as this coincides with an increase of the Crookes dark space it points to the conclusion that the element Fire may be the substance which fills Crookes dark space. H.P.B.9, says that Prof. Crookes' theory of the generation of the elements is a near approach to The Secret Doctrine.

How true it is will be fully demonstrated only when Mr. Crookes' discovery of radiant matter will have resulted in a further elucidation with regard to the true source of light, and will have revolutionized all the present speculations.

Mr. Crookes originally described this radiant matter as the fourth state of matter, perhaps at the suggestion of Theosophical friends, who knew it to be the fourth sub-plane of the physical. It is evident that Madame Blavatsky considered this discovery of very great importance, and that eventually it would revolutionize modern theories especially with regard to the true source of light. This aspect has already exhibited itself in our investigations, for it would be difficult to conceive anything more revolutionary to modern theories than that the sun and stars are not the sources of light, as was pointed out in ¶192, and elsewhere; but the further prediction is made10, that Mr. Crookes' discovery boldly points to what will make Chemistry virtually cease to live; but that it will reincarnate as "New Alchemy", or "Meta-Chemistry". It will therefore be evident to students of Occultism, that the study of Fire, or the fourth subplane of the physical, may repay minute investigation, and should not on any account be lightly passed over. In the quotation from Prof. Townsend's book, we found evidence that Crookes dark space contained our element Fire; let us therefore proceed with the quotation.

The dark space between the negative glow and the end of the positive column is known as the Faraday dark space.

As the negative glow expands, the end of the positive column recedes from the negative electrode, and at very low pressures the positive column disappears, and the negative glow fills the greater part of the tube.

Now the glowing positive column which disappears as pressure is reduced, is known to be air, or whatever gas is in the tube, it is therefore matter on the Air sub-plane, so that what remains after it is pumped out, and which fills the expanded Crookes dark space must be our element Fire, if our equations, {85-7}, are correct. For further evidence we require a description of what takes place when the pressure is reduced from 0.8 to 0.6 millimeters, when it will be crossing our critical pressure 0.657 mm., as given by {86}. A further quotation will satisfy this requirement11.

The general appearance of the discharge, when the positive column and negative glow are the most prominent luminous effects, does not alter very much as the pressure is reduced from 1.6 millimeters to 0.8 millimeters, but at about half a millimeter pressure the appearance of the positive column begins to change... At the pressure 0.57 millimeter... the positive column... tends to break into striae, or alternately bright and dark sections... At a pressure of 0.24 millimeter the positive column is completely striated for a large range of currents.

¶210. If we had arranged a series of experiments specially to test the correctness of {86}, it would have been difficult to devise a series that would be a more perfect test than that above quoted. The pressure 0.8 millimeter, where there is no striation, and the pressure 0.58 mm., where the striation begins, are about equally distant from our critical pressure, 0.657 mm., the one being greater and the other less, the mean pressure between the two being 0.685, or only about four per cent greater than the value given by {86}. Within the errors of experiment therefore it supports our theory. This theory moreover is supported by the direct testimony of a high occult authority, the President of the Theosophical Society, Dr. Besant, who in an article entitled "Man's Life in Three Worlds"12 tells us that the physical

body is divisible into two parts capable of separation from each other, the dense physical body, composed of the four denser forms of matter, earthy, watery, fiery, and airy, or solid, liquid, gaseous and radiant matter, whilst the etheric body is composed of the three ethers.

Again in the Convention Lectures of December 192013, she says:

We have a certain type of matter in the physical world, but it is not all in the same state. You have it as earth, earthy matter, solid matter. You have it as liquid matter - water and other liquids. You have it as airy matter, the atmosphere all round you. Then you have it as radiant matter discovered in our own lifetime... The ancients used it to signify fire, earth, water, etc.

These statements definitely link together the element Fire with the radiant matter of the Crookes tube.

¶211. In the above Figure, we give a drawing of a Crookes tube showing the different parts above described. Near to atmospheric pressure a large electric force is necessary to produce a discharge, but a reduction of pressure facilitates the passage of a spark between the electrodes, and as the pressure is further reduced the spark is replaced by a collection of sinuous and irregular pink streamers which later broaden and fill almost the whole of the tube with a pink diffuse glow known as the positive column.

Meanwhile the cathode assumes at its tip a luminous tuft, the negative glow, violet in color, which as the pressure reduces grows until it completely envelopes the cathode. Between these two luminous glows comes a darker ill-defined region called the Faraday dark space. These general appearances correspond to a pressure of some 8 to 10 millimeters of mercury. Below this pressure the anode becomes tipped with a vivid spec of glow and the positive column proceeds to break up into thin fluctuating pink discs or striae, which subsequently thicken and diminish in number, intensity and extent. The Faraday dark space enlarges and as shown above, at a little below one millimeter pressure, the violet negative glow increases in brightness and volume, and the glass walls of the tube are seen to fluoresce with an olive-green light.

As the exhaustion proceeds, this fluorescence disappears, the negative glow detaches itself like a shell from the cathode, while a new violet film forms and spreads over the surface of the cathode. Thus the negative glow now consists of two parts: they are separated from each other by a narrow dark region called the Crookes or cathode dark space, which has a sharply defined outline running parallel to that of the cathode.

With a reduction of pressure, the dark space increases in width, and pushes the outer negative glow before it, and when as low as one fiftieth of a millimeter both positive and negative glows become less bright and definite in outline and finally lose almost all traces of luminosity.

Meanwhile the cathode dark space has grown at the expense of all else, until finally it becomes so large that its boundaries touch the glass walls of the tube. It is at this stage that the tube begins to shine, first in the region of the cathode, and then over the whole surface.

This fluorescence is apple-green, and much more brilliant than the olive-green light above described, and is well known to those accustomed to X-Ray tubes.

If the exhaustion is pressed still further, this fluorescence diminishes and the resistance of the vacuum tube to the passage of the electric current increases, until finally it becomes impossible for the current to pass at all.

¶212. The above description, taken mostly from Kaye's X-Rays14, along with Prof. Townsend's will serve for future reference, as well as for our immediate purpose, since many of our investigations will have a connection with the phenomena of the Crookes' tube. In fact the indications are that this Fire sub-plane is the most important of any, and will repay the most careful and detailed study. It is the Unity, having in its service two Trinities, the upper trinity being the ether one, two, and three, of the theosophic nomenclature, and the lower trinity, being Air, Water, and Earth.

Its appropriate symbol would be the two interlaced triangles of the Theosophical Society. This Fire sub-plane, or the plane of radiant energy, therefore, probably contains the master-key to the whole forces operating on the physical plane, and in this opinion we have the support of the highest occult authority at present available. For Master K. H., says of it15, "there is but one thing -- radiant energy, which is inexhaustible and knows neither increase nor decrease and will go on with its self-generating work to the end of the Solar manvantara... Yes; call it 'Radiant Energy' if you will: we call it Life - all-pervading, omnipresent life - ever at work in its great laboratory, the Sun".

CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY

¶213. The study of the physical sciences may be regarded as the investigation of the operations of the Third Person of the Trinity, especially under its feminine aspect; it constitutes the power side of Occultism, and culminates, at a stage beyond the human, in the uplifting of the Veil of Isis16.

All matter of the three lower sub-planes are the precipitation of the powers inherent in Light, the first formed of the three being Air, then Water, and finally earth. The ratios of mass creations being identical with the ratios of the elementary masses μ 'h, and A, where μ ' is the mass in the spirillae of the atom of Occultism, h is the mass in each light-wave, and A the mass of Helium. The ratio of the total mass of the Air to the total mass of the Water,or G/W, being μ '/h, and the ratio of the total mass of Water to the total mass of Earth, or W/E, being h/A17. It is further found within errors of experiment that the ratio of the total quantity of Fire to the total quantity of Air, or F/G, is μ '/h18.

The element Fire of the Ancients is identical with the radiant matter in the dark spaces of vacuum tubes19. It cannot be enclosed by, or excluded from, hermetically sealed vessels, as it interpenetrates the matter of the lower sub-planes20.

It follows as a corollary from the cycle of proofs that the modern chemist is right in thinking that all the chemical elements are built up from Helium21. The Fire sub-plane, or the fourth sub-plane of the physical, is probably the Master-Key to all the seven subplanes, being the Unity governing two Trinities, its appropriate symbol being the two interlaced triangles of the Theosophical Society22.

References

 

Chapter XVIII

THE MODERN CHEMICAL ELEMENTS

¶214. In the previous articles we have attempted to place the elements of the Ancients on a modern scientific basis, and it may be well at this stage to supplement by a study of the chemical elements as understood by modern chemists. In doing so, however, we shall take into consideration clairvoyant investigations of these elements as contained in Occult Chemistry, and elsewhere.

The list of elements given in the above work1, contains several which are not yet recognized by modern science; and no complete list of these has yet been published, and needs to be collected from scattered Theosophic literature. The following Table of Elements is taken from International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry, and Technology2, Occult Chemistry3, and THE T HEOSOPHIST4.

It may be regarded as containing the available information from Occult and scientific sources at the time of writing.

¶215. CHEMICAL ELEMENTS

ELEMENTSYM. N. TYPE

NO. OF ULTIMATE

PHYSICAL ATOMS

INTERNATIONAL

ATOMIC WEIGHTS

Hydrogen H 1 18 1.0077
Occultum Oc 2 54
Helium He 72 4.00
Lithium Li 3 Spike 127 6.939
Glucinum Gl 4 Tetra 164 9.02
(Beryllium) Be
Boron B 5 Cube 200 10.82
Carbon C 6 Octo 216 12.000
Nitrogen N 7 261 14.008
Oxygen O 8 290 16.000
Fluorine F 9 340 19.0
Neon Ne 10 Star 360 20.2
Meta-Neon Star 402
Sodium Na 11 Dbell 418 22.997
Magnesium Mg 12 Tetra 432 24.32
Aluminium Al 13 Cube 486 26.96
Silicon Si 14 Octo 520 28.06
Phosphorus P 15 Cube 558 31.024
Sulphur S 16 Tetra 576 32.065
Chlorine Cl 17 Dbell 639 35.458
Argon A 18 Star 714 39.91
Meta-Argon Star 756
Potassium K 19 Spike 701 39.095
Calcium Ca 20 Tetra 720 40.07
Scandium Sc 21 Cube 792 45.10
Titanium Ti 22 Octo 864 47.9
Vanadium V 23 Cube 918 50.96
Chromium Cr 24 Tetra 936 52.01
Manganese Mn 25 Spike 992 54.93
Iron Fe 26 Bar 1008 55.84
Cobalt Co 27 Bar 1036 58.97
Nickel Ni 28 Bar 1064 58.69
Copper Cu 29 Dbell 1139 63.57
Zinc Zn 30 Tetra 1170 65.38
Gallium Ga 31 Cube 1260 69.72
Germanium Ge 32 Octo 1300 72.38
Arsenic As 33 Cube 1350 74.96
Selenium Se 34 Tetra 1422 79.2
Bromine Br 35 Dbell 1439 79.916
Krypton Kr 36 Star 1464 82.9
Meta-Kryp. Star 1506
Rubidium Rb 37 Spike 1530 85.44
Strontium Sr 38 Tetra 1568 87.62
Yttrium Yt 39 Cube 1606 89.0
Zirconium Zr 40 Octo 1624 91.0
Columbium Cb 41 Cube 1719 93.1
Niobium Nb " " "
Molybdenum Mb 42 Tetra 1746 96.0
....... .. 43 .... .... ....
Ruthenium Ru 44 Bar 1848 101.7
Rhodium Rh 45 Bar 1876 102.91
Palladium Pd 46 Bar 1904 106.7
Silver Ag 47 Dbell 1945 107.88
Cadmium Cd 48 Tetra 2016 112.41
Indium In 49 Cube 2052 114.8
Tin Sn 50 Octo 2124 118.70
Antimony Sb 51 Cube 2169 121.77
Tellurium Te 52 Tetra 2223 127.5
Iodine I 53 Dbell 2287 126.932
Xenon Xe 54 Star 2298 130.2
Meta-Xenon M-Xe Star 2340
Caesium Cs 55 Spike 2376 132.81
Barium Ba 56 Tetra 2455 137.37
Lanthanum La 57 Cube 2482 138.91
Cerium Ce 58 Octo 2511 140.25
Praseodymium Pr 59 Cube 2527 140.92
Neodymium Nd 60 Tetra 2575 144.27
Samarium Sa 61 Spike 2640 150.43
X 62 Bar 2646
Y 63 Bar 2674
Z 64 Bar 2702
Europium Eu 65 Dbell 2736 152.0
Gadolium Gd 66 Tetra 2794 157.3
Terbium Tb 67 Cube 2880 159.2
Dysprosium Dy 68 Octo 2916 162.52
Holium Ho 69 Cube 163.4
Erbium Er 70 Tetra 2979 167.7
...... .. 71 Dbell .... ....
Kalon Ka 72 Star 3054
Meta-Kalon M-Ka " Star 3096
Thulium Tm 73 Spike 3096 169.4
Ytterbium Yb 74 Tetra 173.6
Lutecium Lu 75 Cube 175.0
Hafnium Hf 76 Octo 178.6
Tantalum Ta 77 Cube 3279 181.5
Tungsten W 78 Tetra 3299 184.0
....... 79 Spike .... ....
Osmium Os 80 Bar 3430 190.8
Iridium Ir 81 Bar 3458 193.1
Platinum Pt 82 Bar 3486 195.23
Canadium (Cn) Bar 3514
Gold Au 83 Dbell 3546 197.2
Mercury Hg 84 Tetra 3576 200.6
Mercury M-Hg " Tetra 3600
(Solid)
Thallium Tl 85 Cube 3678 204.4
Lead Pb 86 Octo 3727 207.20
Bismuth Bi 87 Cube 3753 209.00
Polonium Po 88 Tetra .... (210)
...... .. 89 Dbell .... ....
Radium Em Pa-Em Star
Radon Rn 90 Star 4140 222.0
.... .. 91 Spike .... ....
Radium Ra 92 Tetra 4087 225.95
Actinium Ac 93 Cube .... ....
Thorium Th 94 Octo 4187 232.4
Uranium-X2 UX2 95 Cube .... (234)
Uranium U 96 Tetra 4267 238.17

¶216. In the above table the first column gives the name of the element, the second the chemical symbol, the third the atomic number beginning with Hydrogen 1, and finishing with Uranium 96. The fourth column contains the external forms of the elements as observed in occult researches, and described in Occult Chemistry5. In the fifth column are given the number of ultimate physical atoms in each element, whilst the sixth contains the International Atomic Weights, on the basis of Oxygen being equal to 16, the values being taken from the recently Published International Critical Tables6. The periodic character of the above list of elements in shown in the table following.

¶217. PERIODICAL TABLE OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS

0 I II III IV V VI VII   VIII    
         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

b

c

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

H

 

 

 

 

 

 

(A)

2

Oc

He

3

Li

4

Be

Gl

5

B

6

C

7

N

8

O

9

F

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

Ne

M-Ne

11

Na

12

Mg

13

Al

14

Si

15

P

16

S

17

Cl

 

 

 

 

 

 

(B)

18

A

Meta-A

19

K

20

Ca

21

Sc

22

Ti

23

V

24

Cr

25

Mn

26

Fe

27

Co

28

Ni

 

 

 

 

29

Cu

30

Zn

31

Ga

32

Ge

33

As

34

Se

35

Br

 

 

 

 

 

 

(C)

36

Kr

M-Kr

37

Rb

38

Sr

39

Yt

40

Zr

41

Cb

Nb

42

Mo

43

44

Ru

45

Rh

46

Pd

 

 

 

 

47

Ag

48

Cd

49

In

50

Sn

51

Sb

52

Te

53

I

 

 

 

 

 

 

(D)

54

Xe

M-Xe

55

Cs

56

Ba

57

La

58

Ce

59

Pr

60

Nd

61

Sa

62

X

63

Y

64

Z

 

 

 

 

65

Eu

66

Gd

67

Tb

68

Dy

69

Ho

70

Er

71

 

 

 

 

 

 

(E)

72

Ka

M-Ka

73

Tm

74

Yb

N-Yb

75

Lu

76

Hf

77

Ta

78

W

79

80

Os

81

Ir

82

Pt

Cn

 

 

 

 

83

Au

84

Hg

M-Hg

85

Ti

86

Pb

87

Bi

88

PO

89

 

 

 

 

 

 

(F)

90

Rn

91

92

Ra

93

Ac

94

Th

95

Ur-X2

96

U

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(G)

¶218. Apart from the first two rows which differ slightly from the rest, it will be seen that the elements are arranged in sets of 18, which may be termed the characteristic number of the Periodic Table. Every 18th element is one of the neutral gases having no chemical affinity, the so-called noble or inert gases Argon 18, Krypton 36, Xenon 54, Kalon 72, and Radon 90.

The first two horizontal lines are exceptional in character having two inert gases, Helium 2, and Neon 10. Moreover Hydrogen forms a group to itself, and stands apart from the other elements. It has been placed in the seventh column, along with the acid gases, Fluorine, Chlorine, etc., though some physicists place it amongst the alkalies Lithium and Sodium, in the first column. It should be regarded as different from the other elements, which as shown in ¶203, are built up entirely from Helium, and does not apparently enter into the composition of the other elements. Hydrogen, therefore, may be regarded as having a special function in chemistry and physics, and it was shown in volume one7, that Hydrogen is transformable into the electron by a change from the terrestrial to the solar gravitational fields. If the above periodical table be compared with the periodical table accepted in western science, important differences will be found. In the western tables, as for instance in the International Critical Tables8, the whole of the rare earths, Lanthanum to Lutecium, are taken out of the table and placed in a group to themselves, thus disturbing the order of the elements, and owing to the omission of the elements X. Y. Z., and the inert gas Kalon, which have not yet been discovered in the West, the atomic numbers after Neodymium, 60, are different in the two tables. This omission makes the western tables end with Uranium, 92, whilst the above ends with Uranium 96. It would at first appear that proof of the correctness of the occult tabulation cannot be given until modern science has discovered the missing elements, but modern investigation enables us to test the accuracy of our tables without waiting for this.

¶219. This arises from what is known as Moseley's law. Moseley was a young physicist, and a pupil of Rutherford, who was unfortunately killed in the early days of the war. In an article in The Philosophical Magazine9, H. G. J. Moseley showed that the characteristic wave-lengths of the chemical elements were in a proportion inversely as the square of the atomic numbers reduced by unity, or otherwise put "to a very close degree of approximation, the square root of the frequency is a linear function of the atomic number"10.

The fact that the atomic number has to be reduced by unity is equivalent to omitting Hydrogen from the tables, and beginning with Helium as unity.

This is additional evidence that the elements are built up from Helium, and that Hydrogen has a special function in chemical phenomena. It is evident, however, that where the wave-lengths of the characteristic rays have been measured, Moseley's law enables us to determine the actual atomic number of any element, and thus decide between the atomic numbers of the western tables and those resulting from occult investigations.

Let L1 be the wave-length of a chemical element whose atomic number is N1, and L2 the wave-length of another element having the atomic number N2, then according to Moseley's law

{88} (L1/L2)(1/2)(N1 - 1) = N2 = 1

Those who accept the occult investigations will need no further evidence, whilst those who do not, may regard the above as evidence in favor of the occult list, such evidence being taken for what it is worth.

References

 

Chapter XIX

HYDROGEN

¶ 221. It was pointed out in ¶218-219, that Hydrogen occupies a special position in the periodical table of elements, and that, since all the elements are apparently built up from Helium, we may expect it to have some special function in the economy of Nature.

According to The Secret Doctrine1, Hydrogen, in Alchemy, is "Spiritual Fire" or the Ray that proceeds from its Noumenon, the Dhyan of the First Element; it is gas only on our Terrestrial plane; it is fire, air and water in one, hence the chemical and alchemical trinity under three aspects; it is three in one.

¶222. It was by the study of the spectrum of Hydrogen, that Rydberg was led to the discovery of his famous constant R which, as we have shown in equation {56}2, hears a definite relation to our Great Tone frequency n.

It may be remembered, that in deducing the mass of Hydrogen from the electron and the number of spirillae in equation {49}, there was a small discrepancy, which we said would be explained later3.

It would appear that this discrepancy is in some way connected with the relationship between Rydberg's constant R and the auroral frequency n, which we will now attempt to account for. Let us suppose that the masses of the earth and moon were added together so as to form one body, as western science assumes was formerly the case, then from {55}, the joint mass, instead of unity would become p = 1.012278. If further, all the Protons in the combined mass were changed into Hydrogen the atomic weight of which, when the Proton is taken as unity, is from {57} y = 1.007586, then the joint mass would become

{89} py = 1.019956

in terms of the earth's mass as unity. We shall see later that there is reason to believe that the mass of the earth in its effects in space, is such as would be given by transforming all the contained Protons into Hydrogen. Now, from {56}, we have for the relation between Hydberg's constant and the auroral frequency n

{90} R/6n = py

which is the same relationship as given in {89}; if therefore, we understand this to mean, that one of the functions of Rydberg's constant is to transform the earth's mass to py, or inversely, to transform py into 1, we may, perhaps, look for the mechanism of this within the Hydrogen atom itself.

In searching for light on this problem, we find in Occult Chemistry4 that Hydrogen has 6 triplets in its constitution, and that each triplet is supplied from an emergent center of force, so that there are 6 emergent centers of force.

If, therefore, we assume that each center of force supplies ne charges per second into space exterior to the atom, whilst the interior supply is given Re' charges, so that

{91} Re' = 6ne

e' = 6ne/R = 6ne/6npy = e/py

{92} = 4.68059 x 10-10

the value of the electrionic charge e = 4.774 x 10-10 being the same as given in ¶160.

¶223. Now, as was shown5, if the mass of the electron is of electro-magnetic origin, its mass varies as the square of the charge, so that, instead of the electron of mass

m = 9.00496 x 10-28

carrying the charge e, we shall have an electron of mass m', and charge e' given by

m'/m = (e'/e)2 = 1/(py)2

{93} m' = m/(py)2 = 8.6560 x 10-28

{94} e'/m' = 5.40732 x 1017

{95} e'/m'c = 1.80328 x 107

where the ratio of charge to mass in {94} is in electro-static units, whilst in {95}, where c is the velocity of light, this ratio is in electro-magnetic units.

It should be understood that in outer space the electrionic mass is m, whilst within the globule of space containing Hydrogen, the mass is m', and the charge e'.

It is, of course, only in outer space that the mass and charge can be measured, so that observation gives the electrionic mass and charge as m, and e; moreover, it is only in the open space of the enclosing globule, that the charge is e', and the mass m'.

When the electron enters the spirillae of the occult atom, then, as shown in {43} and {47}, the charge e' is changed to e'/4 π and the mass is changed to

μ = m'/(4 π)2 = m/(4 π py)2

{96} = 5.4815 x 10-30

If now we take the number N of spirillae in Hydrogen, or what is the same thing in the Proton, as given in {48}, where N = 302,400 we have for the mass of the Proton,

{97} P = N Roman" μ = 1.6576 x 10-24

The accepted mass of Hydrogen is 1.663 x 10-24 and that of the Proton 1.6495 x 10-24 both of which are very near to the value given by {97}.

¶224. One of the conclusions that may be drawn from the above, in connection with the factor py, which occurs in several of the equations, is that there is something in the mechanism of the Proton, or of Hydrogen, which is concerned with the distribution of matter, between the earth and moon, since p is the sum of the masses of these bodies, and with the transformation of the Proton into Hydrogen, since y is the atomic weight of Hydrogen in terms of the Proton taken as unity.

It is possible that this mechanism may receive some explanation from the thickening of three out of the ten coils of spirillae, of which the atom of occultism is composed.

As stated in the Appendix to Occult Chemistry6:

The atom consists of ten wires, which divide themselves naturally into two groups - the three which are thicker and more prominent, and the seven thinner ones which correspond to the colors and planets... The ordinary sevenfold rule works quite accurately with the thinner coils, but there is a very curious variation with regard to the set of three.

As may be seen from the drawings, these are obviously thicker and more prominent, and this increase of size is produced by an augmentation (so slight as to be barely perceptible) in the proportion to one another of different orders of spirillae and in the number of dots in the lowest.

This augmentation, amounts at present to not more than

{98} 0.00571428 = 1/175

¶225. Some further light may be thrown on the meaning of this thickening, by the results of clairvoyant observations which have recently been made in connection with these researches.

When traveling to Ommen, Holland, in the summer of 1926, Mr. Hodson and the writer agreed to meet periodically, and by means of Mr. Hodson's clairvoyant powers, investigate some physical phenomena; the idea being, that these mathematical researches and the clairvoyant observations would be mutually illuminative; the results of these researches being intended, if found suitable, to be a contribution to the work of the Theosophical World University, now in course of formation.

The subject first chosen to investigate, was magnetism, and for this purpose, a steel spherical magnet was procured, of about 2(1/2) inches in diameter.

The poles were first examined, from which important information was obtained - this, however, may be deferred to a later article, specially dealing with magnetism - but at the center of the sphere, there was found to exist, a central globular structure (named by us, the central globular vortex, or the c. g. v.), which from the description, appears to be identical in structure with the atom of Occult Chemistry, enlarged to about half an inch in diameter.

After examining this on the physical plane, it was again observed on the astral and mental levels.

On the Causal level there was seen to enter the atom, a stream of energy from some higher plane.

This stream of energy had a dark core, composed of a substance from a plane higher than the investigator could reach.

A co-operator on these higher planes informed us, that this stream of force was from the Átmic Plane, and we have given it the name of the Átmic Shaft.

Who this co-operator was, we were not told; it may, of course, have been a friendly Deva, or some One still higher. In this connection it is of interest to note that Mr. Hodson learns, that since the coming of the World Teacher, the Deva-evolution is now preparing to co-operate with humanity, as in ancient times, and this help, so opportunely given, may be one of the early results of the new order of things.

¶226. Below the causal level of the mental plane, this Átmic Shaft is not visible, being apparently absorbed by the atoms of the four lower sub-planes, which it vitalizes or renews.

This process continues downwards to the astral, and finally reaches the physical plane, where, having reached the densest matter, it rebounds and re-ascends to higher levels, presumably to the Átmic, to begin the cycle once more.

We thus have a continual circulation through the five planes of our system, such as is apparently hinted at in The Secret Doctrine7.

The globular atom seen in the center of the magnet, on all three planes, is whirling with great velocity round its axis, which is at right angles to the line joining the poles of the magnet, and in the process, throws off streams of energy through the interstices of its surface, like whirling jets of water spray; these outrushing streams of energy induce the magnetism of the plane. Each plane thus has its own characteristic magnetism, which it would seem, are known in practical occultism as the seven radicals8.

Information received intuitively during the process of clairvoyant investigation, was to the effect that what occurs in the magnet, is identical with what occurs in an atom, a planet, a solar system and in a universe; so that a magnet is a little universe complete in itself, as is also an atom.

When Mr. Hodson placed his consciousness within the central globe of the magnet, the effect perceived was not that of the receipt of a continuous stream of energy, but of a succession et exploding "bombs". These explosions however, were cushioned by the walls of the central globular Vortex, which received or absorbed the expanding energy of the explosions, so that the energy of the whirling globe was fed by the contents of the "bombs".

¶227. The above facts of observation may give us a clue to the function of the thickened wires in the atom, since an atom is simply a magnet on a much smaller scale. Let us assume by way of hypothesis, that the Átmic Shaft passes along the axis of the three thicker coils of the atom, and thus causes the slight thickening given by {98}.

In the process of exploding, this central core expands outwards until it eventually constitutes the whole substance of the atom.

If we observe a stream of water falling from a circular pipe, we note that as the water descends the diameter of the falling stream gets less and less, the greater the distance from the issuing pipe.

This is due to increasing velocity in the course of descent, but the quantity of water passing any part of the descent in unit time, is the same.

If we measured the relative thickness at different points, we could at once ascertain the relative velocities at these points.

Similarly, by the relative thickness of the core in the three thickened coils, we can measure the relative velocities of the core and the coil of the atom, but this measurement will give, not the relative masses of the two, but the relative energies, that is, the respective masses multiplied by the squares of the respective velocities of core and coil.

Thus if m is the mass of the core, and M the mass of the atom, and if C is the velocity of the core, and c the velocity of M and of the coils, we should have

{99} Mc2 = mC2

{100} M/m = (C/c)2

This of itself is not sufficient to determine either m or C, but from the relative thickness of core and coil as given by {98}, we might say on the assumption of equal density, that (C/c)2 = (175)2 for the three thickened coils, but it the Átmic Shaft supplies the energy, not only of the three thickened coils, but that of all ten coils, then in place of the above we should have, (C/c)2 = (175 x 10/3)2 .

There is however, a further modification to take into account, and that is, the change of m into m', as given in {93}, which is concerned with the distribution of matter between the earth and moon, and the reduction of Hydrogen into the Proton, which was the prime reason for this investigation, as stated in ¶224. To make this reduction we must multiply the right hand term by (m'/m), so that we have finally from {93}, for the relative velocities

(C/c)2 = (m'/m) (1750/3)2

{101} = (1750/3py)2

¶228. Now let us suppose that the velocity C, is the radiation velocity of some body at present unknown, the mass of which is S', then from the law announced in the pamphlet Einstein's Theory9, that the square of the radiation velocity is proportionate to the mass of the body, we shall be able to ascertain from {101}, the mass of this unknown body, since the value of the right hand term is known, and c is also known, being the measured velocity of light. We need, however, to take another point into consideration; it was stated in ¶222, in connection with equation {89}, that there is reason to believe, that the effect in space of the earth, is increased in the ratio y, the atomic weight of Hydrogen, a change which, though small, is important where accuracy is desirable.

We will, therefore, assume that c2 is based, not on the earth's mass E, but on this mass, with all the Protons transformed into Hydrogen which is equivalent to making the effective mass yE.

We should then have from {101}, for the relative masses of the two bodies,

{102} S'/yE = (C/c)2 = (1750/3py)2

{103} C = c (1750/3py) = 1.71496 x 1013

S'/E = y(C/c)2 = y(1750/3py)2

{104} = 329573

In the Smithsonian Physical Tables10, the mass of the sun S, in terms of the earth E, is given as

{105} S/E = 329390

which within errors of observation is identical with the mass of the unknown body S', as given in {104}.

¶229. It would be difficult to enumerate the consequences, and describe the sweeping nature of the conclusions that can be drawn from the above result, for they are in many respects highly revolutionary.

But in the first place we may note, that in this central core, and its relationship to the spirillae of the occult atom, as a thickening of three of the coils, we have apparently a mechanism which distributes the energies of our planet in such a form, that a suitable proportion goes to our satellite the moon, and the Proton is either changed to Hydrogen, or Hydrogen deprived of its surplus mass, and transformed into a Proton.

On comparing the solar velocity C in {103}, with the earth's distance from the sun D = 1.495 x 1013 we see that a particle carried from the sun to the earth with the velocity C would arrive at the earth in less than one second after leaving the sun, and from this we can understand, that elements created at the sun's center, can appear simultaneously at the earth's center, or what would appear to be simultaneously to an observer.

According to a statement by Bishop Leadbeater11, the center of the earth is utilized by the Third L OGOS for the manufacture of new elements, and from there is a direct connection with the heart of the sun, so that, elements made in the sun, appear immediately in the center of the earth.

From the above observation of Bishop Leadbeater, and from equations {103-5}, we may safely conclude that the Átmic Shaft as seen by Mr. Hodson has its source in the sun, and travels to the earth with the velocity C.

The interchange of energy and matter between earth and sun above implied, may be regarded as a partial confirmation of the conclusion arrived at in our first volume12, that there is an interchange of matter between earth and sun, so that the whole mass of the earth is transferred to the sun, and vice versa, once every year, and this is probably the occult reason why in all religions the order of ceremonies and services has an annual cycle, in which it repeats itself.

¶230. Since the emergence of the solar radiation velocity C, and its operation on the terrestrial atoms, introduces an entirely new factor in physics, it may be useful at this stage to search for other evidence of its existence.

An interesting and important feature of the velocity is, that the matter or energy brought by it, does not come in a continual stream, but in the form of bundles or "bombs", just as in the case of light there is a transference of bundles of energy or "quanta".

The question naturally arises: What amount of matter is contained in each "bomb"?

Let us assume by way of trial that this amount of matter is the electrionic mass m, as given in ¶160.

Such a mass having the velocity C, would strike the terrestrial atoms and impart to them a momentum mC.

If a constituent of an atom was held within it with insufficient force, it might be driven out of the atom.

This at once suggests that radio-activity might be one of the effects of this electrionic bombardment; now, our own investigations, and those of western science, agree in concluding, that all the elements are practically built up out of Helium.

Let us therefore suppose, that a loosely held atom of Helium in Uranium was struck by one of these "bombs", then, if no momentum was expended in extricating itself from the atom, the Helium of mass A, would leave Uranium with a velocity v, and a momentum

{106} Av = mC

{107} v = mC/A = 2.34182 x 109

It should be noted however, that all the Helium contained in the chemical elements must be held together with some amount of cohesive force, so that no Helium atom could leave the element with a momentum quite so great as the above, hence the velocity v in {107}, must be always little greater than any observed Helium or Alpha-particle.

In other words, v is the maximum velocity, which Alpha-particles may approach closely, but never reach.

The following are a few of the highest velocities observed in Alpha-Rays13:

A LPHA-RAY RADIATION VELOCITIES

ELEMENTVELOCITY
Thorium C' 2.22 x 109
Radium C' 2.06 x 109
Actinium C' 2.00 x 109
Actinium A 1.98 x 109
Thorium A 1.94 x 109
Actinium Emanation 1.91 x 109 {108}

All other Alpha-Ray velocities are less than the above, but the velocity of Thorium C', is very close to the maximum velocity given by {107}, which implies that its cohesive force is only just sufficient to hold it together. This is also indicated by its extreme instability and shortness of life. The life of Thorium C' is so short that the half of it vanishes in one hundred thousand millionth of a second. Even Radium C', the next lower in velocity, has only a life period of one millionth of a second, during which, the half of it is battered to pieces by the solar "bombs".

The half of the period of Actinium C' is not given, but the next to it, Actinium A, has half its mass dissipated in one five hundredth of a second. We thus see that the length of life increases rapidly as the difference from the maximum velocity v increases, and this remarkable law continues down the list, for the half life of Thorium A is 0.14 sec., and Actinium Emanation 3.9 secs., but it is only when the cohesive force is so great that half the velocity v is lost in extricating the Helium atom, that the element possesses a respectable life period.

Thus Radium is so stable, that half the velocity of the Alpha-particle is absorbed by the Radium, leaving a balance of 1.61 x 109 and Radium retains the half of its initial mass for 1730 years.

As the velocity falls still further, the half period increases enormously, and Uranium with an Alpha-particle velocity of 1.45 x 109 has a half life period of five thousand million years.

Thus for a change of velocity from 1.45 x 109 for Uranium, to 2.22 x 109 for Thorium C', the half life period is reduced from five thousand million years, to one hundred thousand millionth of a second, a truly enormous difference.

¶231. This rapid decrease of life of the radio-active elements, as the velocity of the Alpha-particles increases, has been a great puzzle to western physicists, and can be best understood, perhaps, by an illustration from engineering.

If an engineer built a bridge able to carry a load of ten tons, and only five ton loads were allowed to pass over it, the bridge might last for a thousand years, but if loads of 9 tons 19 cwt. and 111 lbs. were allowed to pass over it the bridge might not last a day, perhaps not even for a minute. There would be a similar rapid fall in the life period of the bridge, as is shown in the life periods of the elements, as the velocity of the Alpha-particles approached the maximum velocity v, and from this, we can legitimately infer, that the velocity of the Rays from Thorium C' with its exceedingly short life, is very close to the velocity v, so that the velocity v, and the velocity C, in {106}, cannot be greatly in error. Moreover, if in place of one bridge, there were a million bridges, the life of these million bridges would follow the same mathematical law as the life of the radio-active elements.

On the assumption, therefore, that the solar "bombs" are electrons of mass m, the reality and correctness of the solar radiation velocity C, can be deduced from the observations of western science, as well as from the observed facts of occult investigations.

C ONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY

¶232. The modern chemical elements, as determined from occult investigations, supplemented by those of western science, consist of 96 elements, only 92 of which are recognized by western science.

In the periodic table the 96 elements distribute themselves in sets or cycles of 18 elements, in which the chemical character of the element repeats itself14.

By means of Moseley's Law, which shows that the characteristic X-Rays have frequencies proportionate to the square of the atomic number, it is shown that the number of elements from Hydrogen to Uranium is 96, as determined by occult investigation15. Hydrogen occupies an unique position in the table of elements, and its existence as one of the elements, is not taken into account in applications of Moseley's Law.

In Alchemy it is termed "Spiritual Fire", and the alchemical trinity, or fire, air and water in one16.

There is something in the internal mechanism of Hydrogen that distributes matter in proper proportion between the earth and sun, and transforms Hydrogen into Proton, or vice versa.

The investigation of this mechanism enables us to remove the discrepancy in the mass of Hydrogen, obtained theoretically in ¶16417.

By means of the clairvoyant observations of Bishop Leadbeater and Mr. Hodson, assisted by a co-operator on the higher planes, a further study of the three thickened coils of the occult atom has been made.

From this it has been deduced that these thickened coils are an essential part of the mechanism which distributes the matter between the earth and moon, and between Hydrogen and the Proton, and that the thickening is due to Átmic Shaft, seen at the causal level of the mental plane18.

This Átmic Shaft renews and revivifies the matter of the three lower planes, and rebounds when it reaches the physical. Its origin is traced to the sun, since it travels with the solar radiation velocity C, as given in {103}.

By means of the law that the radiation velocity of a body is proportionate to the square root of the mass, the correct value of the sun's mass is determined from the velocity C19.

The correct value of the velocity C, and its action on terrestrial phenomena, is further inferred by the explanation it gives of radio-activity. The whole of the matter and energy of the earth's physical plane, is apparently brought to us from the sun with the velocity C, and elements formed within the sun's mass immediately appear within the mass of the earth20.

References

 

Chapter XX

OXYGEN


¶233. Suppose we take a number N, of units of atomic weight, or Protons, each of mass P, so that altogether the mass is one gram. We then have

{109} NP = 1 gram

{110} MNP = M grams

{111} N = 1/P = 6.061 x 1023

The above number is known as Avogadro's constant1, and is the number of Protons in one gram, and the number of molecules in M grams, where M is the molecular weight. M grams of a chemical element or compound, is known as a "mol" or "mole".

If the substance is in the state of a perfect gas, at a constant temperature and pressure, then whatever the molecular weight M, the volume v is the same for all gases. If the temperature is that of the freezing point of Water, or 0° Centigrade, where the absolute temperature

{112} T = 273.1

and the pressure is that of one atmosphere so that the pressure

{113} p = 1013300 dynes

per square centimeter, then the volume

{114} v = 22412 cubic centimeters2

The fundamental equation connecting pressure, volume, and temperature, for one mol of a perfect gas is

{115} pv = jRT = NkT

where R is the gas constant for a gram molecule, and equal to 1.9885 gram-calories per degree centigrade3, whilst

{116} k = jR/N = 1.372 x 10-16 erg

and the mechanical equivalent of heat at 15° C.

{117} j = 4.185 x 107 ergs per gram-calorie4

The constant k in {115-6}, is known as Boltzmann's gas constant, and performs the same function for the individual molecule as the factor R for the gram mol.

If in place of a gram mol of the gas we take a cubic centimeter, then in (115), we have v = 1, and the pressure

{118} p = nkT = 1013300

{119} n = p/kT = 1013300/kT = 2.705 x 10-19

where n is the number of molecules in a cubic centimeter, and is known as Loschmidt's number5.

¶234. Again from {119}, we have

{120} kT = p/n = 3.746 x 10-14

{121} k = p/nT

Boltzmann's gas constant k, is of great theoretical interest, and its many functions in the economy of nature has exercised the minds of our greatest physicists. It is given amongst the list of "Nature's Constants" in Chapter IX6, and is one of the few that have not yet been examined in these articles. It bears a simple relation to the constant of molecular energy.

{122}7 New Roman" ε ' = {3/2)k = (3/2)p/nT = 2.058 x 10-16

We may define k as the amount of pressure contributed by each molecule of a gas, for each unit of temperature centigrade, whilst ε is the amount of energy contributed by each molecule for the same temperature Unit. Hence the numerical values of both k and ε ' depend upon the unit of temperature chosen. For instance the values of both would be different if the scale of temperature was expressed in degrees Fahrenheit. This is evident from {121}, for the value of T for the freezing point of water in degrees Fahrenheit would be greatly different, whilst p and n would be unchanged, hence both k in {121}, and Roman" ε ' in {122} would be proportionately changed. We may therefore say that the numerical values of k and ε ' vary with the scale of temperature chosen.

¶235. This presents to us a difficulty, for hitherto we have investigated the nature of these constants by noting their numerical values in relation to other numerical values. But it is evident that a numerical value that can be varied by the will or fancy of the physicist according to the temperature scale he chooses, cannot have any significance. The measurement of temperature is further complicated by the properties of the substance chosen to which the heating process is applied. The heat absorbed in raising a gram of iron one degree in temperature is quite different from that required to raise one gram of water one degree, and almost every substance has its own peculiarities in this respect. Hence the measure of temperature to be used by us must be independent both of the scale chosen, and of the substance used in the formation of the scale, unless the substance be fundamental.

Fortunately Lord Kelvin removed for us these difficulties so early as 1848, by the use of what is known as Carnot's Cycle8. By means of this he devised a scale of temperature in which the ratio of any two temperatures is equal to the ratio of the quantities of heat taken in and ejected by a reversible engine working between these two temperatures, and which is independent of the properties of any particular substance9.

¶236. Lord Kelvin showed that if we possessed a substance which rigorously obeyed the laws of a perfect gas, then a thermometer constructed with this substance would give a scale of temperature which obeyed the above conditions10, and as shown in ¶233, a perfect gas is one which obeys Boyle's Law as given in {115}, pv = jRT. A gram mol of any perfect gas contains

{123} (3/2)jR = 1.2473 x 108

ergs of energy for each degree of temperature on the centigrade scale11. This removes one of the difficulties, by making the scale of temperature independent of the substance chosen, but there remains the question of the scale of temperature to be chosen, which must not be arbitrary, but based on the C. G. S. system of measurement in which all the other constants are expressed.

Since Lord Kelvin based his Absolute Scale on the relationship of temperature to work, and the unit of work in C. G. S. U. is the erg, the scale adopted must be the measure of the number of ergs of work contained in some perfect gas at the given temperature.

Such a scale might be obtained by multiplying the absolute temperature on the centigrade scale by the number given in {123}.

¶237. But in order to conform to the conditions imposed on other constants, the scale of temperature must be based on the gram, and not on the gram mol. For this purpose we are obliged to select some particular substance which may introduce an arbitrary factor into the scale. Some recent results of occult research may help us to avoid this difficulty. Bishop Leadbeater says12:

We have been told that the elements hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (which constitute approximately half the crust of our globe and nearly all its atmosphere) belong at the same time to another and greater solar system, but we understand that the rest of the elements have been developed by the Logos of our system.

Now as it happens all these three gases within a limited range act as approximately perfect gases, and the one which approaches most closely to a perfect gas is hydrogen13.

Hence if we base our scale on a gram of hydrogen gas, we make the nearest approach to the elimination of all arbitrary elements in our scale, since it is the most universal and most fundamental substance we have at our disposal. Moreover, it is shown in ¶224, that the mass of hydrogen is practically the same as that of the Proton, and physicists are agreed in thinking that hydrogen and the Proton are transformable the one into the other, so that a scale based on hydrogen treated as a perfect gas, maybe taken as equivalent to basing the scale on the Proton, which is the substance out of which all matter is composed. In this way we effectively eliminate all arbitrary factors from the scale.

¶238. Since {123} gives the number of ergs per degree centigrade in a gram mol of a perfect gas, it gives the number in a gram mol of hydrogen, the weight of which is two grams, so that the number in one gram, or alternatively in a gram of Protons, is

{124} b = (3/4)jR = 6.2365 x 107

and if θ be the absolute temperature in this new thermodynamic scale, and T the absolute temperature on the centigrade scale then,

{125} θ /T = b = 6.2365 x 107

{126} θ = bT

and by means of b, we can always transform the absolute temperature as used in physics into a scale which is expressed in C. G. S. Units, and based only on a gram of the substance from which all matter is formed, namely, the Proton.

¶239. Since the constant of molecular energy ε ' in {122}, when multiplied by the temperature T, on the centigrade scale, gives the energy of the molecule at that temperature, we need to replace this constant ε ', by another constant New Roman" ε , which when multiplied by Roman" θ , will give an equal energy, or from {122},

{127} εθ = ε 'T = (3/2)p/n = ε bT

{128} ε = ε 'T/ θ = ε '/b = 3.3000 x 10-24

from {125}, which gives us the numerical value of our new constant of molecular energy, in C. G. S. Units, and freed from all arbitrary factors. The constant ε can therefore be compared with other constants of nature, and legitimate conclusions drawn from the relationship.

¶240. Before proceeding to obtain a corresponding value for the pressure constant k, in {121}, it will be well to consider first the function which k is held to perform in the gas in order to produce the pressure p. A mathematical theory of this will be found in works on Physical Chemistry, and the Kinetic Theory of Gases14, and from this it will be seen that the method is to find the total pressure upon the six faces of a cube each having unit area, or the cubical surface of unit volume of the gas. When this is found the total pressure is divided by six and called p. From this it is clear that what the entity represented by k really produces, when multiplied by the number of molecules in unit volume, is not p, but 6p; hence if this factor in the dynamical scale of temperature is K, we have from {120},

{129} K θ = 6kT = 6p/n = KbT

{130} K = 6kT/ Roman" θ = 6kT/bT = 6k/b = 1'3200 x l0-23

¶241. To understand the meaning of the above result, we have from {129},

{131} nk θ = 6p

where p is the pressure on one face of a centimeter cube, containing n molecules of a perfect gas at the temperature θ , so that 6p is the pressure exerted on the six faces of this unit cube; or, in other words, it is the total pressure exerted by the molecules of the gas, and since there are n of these, it is evident that the pressure exerted by each molecule is 6p/n =K θ from {131}, and K = K θ / θ , is the pressure exerted by each molecule, per thermodynamic degree. Hence our constant K is some kind of entity which produces a quantity of pressure in a gas for each molecule, and for each erg degree of our absolute temperature scale New Roman" θ . It is therefore of interest to find out the nature of this entity.

Since the pressure p, and the temperature θ , are directly proportionate to the heat content of perfect gases, it seems likely that K will, in some way be connected with the element Fire of the occultist, and as in Occult Chemistry15, it is shown that all the chemical elements can be raised to the Fire sub-plane, called Ether four, or proto-elemental, we may presumably find the entity K on the Fire sub-plane of some widely distributed chemical element. Since the Proton P is the unit of atomic weight, if we interpret K as the mass of substance on one or other of the sub-planes, and if A be its atomic weight, then

{132} AP = K = 1.3200 x 10-23

{133} A = K/P = 8.0025

so that the atomic weight of K is 8, or half the atomic weight of Oxygen, the most widely distributed of all the elements.

¶242. We find16 that Oxygen on the gas sub-plane, consists of two corkscrew spirals revolving on the same axis in opposite directions, and that on the Fire sub-plane these spirals separate, and have an equal number of atoms in each separate spiral, so that the atomic weight of each is 8, or equal to K, as given by {131-2}.

In the Data of Geochemistry17, we read under Oxygen.

The most abundant of the elements, forming about one half of all known terrestrial matter. In the free state it constitutes about one fifth of the atmosphere, and in water it is the chief element of the ocean. All important rocks contain oxygen in proportion ranging from 45 to 53 percent.

Oxygen, therefore, satisfies the condition of being all-pervading better than any other known element, and is moreover, as stated in ¶237, one of the trinity of elements, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, that belong to another and greater solar system. Combining with this the fact shown above that on the Fire sub-plane its mass is identical with K, which performs the fire-function in gas pressures, we may reasonably conclude provisionally that K, and proto-elemental oxygen are identical.

¶243. The constant of molecular energy e, which from {127}, is given by

{133a} ε = (3/2)p/n θ = 3.3000 x 10-24

in a similar way, is the energy of each molecule for each unit of thermodynamic temperature, in the absolute scale of θ . Treating New Roman" ε as a mass, as in the case of K and if A be the atomic weight of this mass, we have

AP = ε


{134} A = Roman" ε /P = 2.0006

or the mass of Roman" ε is 2, which we take as Helium, (atomic weight = 4), on the Fire sub-plane, for just as oxygen and hydrogen are divided into two equal portions on the Fire sub-plane18, so also with Helium, which even more than oxygen is regarded as a universal constituent of all chemical elements, with the exception of hydrogen.

¶244. The significance of the unit of mass, or energy,

(135) ε = 2P

becomes still more apparent as we realize that all chemical elements can be built up from the mass ε, and the atomic number v, as given in the third column of the table of chemical elements in ¶215.

Let g be the acceleration of gravity at the earth's surface and γ this acceleration at some point above or below the surface, so that in general v is less than g; then if A be the atomic mass of any chemical element, other than hydrogen, we may write,

{136} Ap γ = v ε g = 2vPg

{137} γ = 2vPg/AP = 2vg/A

By means of {137}, and the known values of v, and A, for the chemical elements, we can find a suitable value of the acceleration Roman" γ which fits each element, and having found γ we can further find from the law of gravitation, a spherical shell above and below the earth's surface and concentric with it, where the acceleration is v, and where, therefore, the weight of the element is just equal to the atomic number of the element v, multiplied by the weight ε g or the weight, at the earth's surface, of our element of mass ε , which we have identified with Helium on the Fire sub-plane.

By the above means, therefore, we are enabled to describe a series of pairs of spherical shells, one shell of each pair being above and the other below the earth's surface, and each pair we may regard as the home, or natural abode, of a particular chemical element, so that excluding hydrogen, which is unique, there will be 95 such pairs of spherical shells.

We hope to show, in later articles, how the above series of spherical shells can be used to explain the formation, and some of the properties, of the chemical elements.

References

 

Chapter XXI

THE FLOW OF THE COSMIC WATERS

¶245. In order to give a physical interpretation to the results of the previous article, it will be necessary to recall an important difference between the concepts of western physicists, and those derived from occult studies. One of these has already been treated in the chapter on the "Conservation of Power"1, and the concept there described will be frequently utilized to give a physical meaning to our equations. From the western view-point an atom is a static center of force or energy, which is normally unchanged or unchangeable, except in the case of a few radioactive elements, whilst the concept which suits our equations, would liken an atom to a sharp hairpin bend in a river of energy, where a stream of energy from outside strikes against the atomic center, and there rebounds, returning on its course. This view of physics has recently been confirmed in a very remarkable way by the clairvoyant investigations of Mr. Hodson, who is co-operating in these researches2. In the second volume of The Brotherhood of Angels and of Men, which at the time of writing is not published, we are told that the four elements of the Ancients, Earth, Water, Air, and Fire, exist on all planes. They represent principles and functions which are operating in all substance on every plane3, and are therefore more universal than the elements of the modern chemist. Thus Earth is the rebounding point of greatest density on all planes, where the streams of energy return upon their course, and flow outwards into space. The principle of Water exists as a universal solvent and its key-note is flow. It is the great lubricator of the mechanism of the system; without it,

the atom could not fulfil its function as receiver and conveyor of power. The atom is to the system, what the river is to the earth: power is generated at the heart4.

Air has two functions; it permits freedom of movement to more solid bodies and offers resistance to pressure, thus serving as a buffer or cushion. The physical air is the ultimate recipient of, and cushion for, the energies of the astral plane. On every plane Air reduces the pressure from the plane above5. The special function of Fire is to regenerate and transform so as to ensure continuity of growth by means of change. This invisible element is at work behind the whole system; in every rock, jewel, plant, animal, and man. It is "the power that maketh all things new"6.

¶246. A more general idea of what is really happening in the inter-atomic world throwing light upon the forces indicated by the equations of the previous article may be obtained by an account of clairvoyant investigation at a meeting of a section of a scientific group on May 10th, 1927, held, for the purpose, amongst others, of observing phenomena suggested by these mathematical researches.

It may be said that in general they tend to confirm the concepts put forward in these studies, and to illustrate, in fuller detail, many of the teachings in The Secret Doctrine, and other occult writings.

¶247. There is a continual discharge of energy from the whole surface of the globe, at right angles to each point of the surface, and a highly concentrated tubular discharge at the north pole. This seems to arise at a point north of the equatorial plane but near to it; it is a colossal discharge of power, and shoots out into space to meet a descending current from a source, which, at present, is not visible; it widens slightly as it travels upwards, but keeps its shape, and becomes an enormous funnel-shaped column traveling far away into space; into this funnel is poured another force from a far distant source. Looking down the "funnel", there is an appearance of spokes; it resembles a chakram, and has a diameter far greater than that of the earth.

The condition of the center of the globe is one of enormous compression, from which power is escaping in highly concentrated jets. The earth is linked to all the planets by magnetic forces; magnetically, the system is solid, the position of the globes being shown by greater degrees of density and complexity in the glowing magnetic energies.

If I use magnetic cognition only, the lines of force are visible; these seem to be solid, and make the planets look relatively ethereal, as if the forces were more real than the forms.

This force is streaming out from the sun, or from some great central source of energy, which also resembles a spinning vortex, as in the case of the earth, but has a greater number of spokes, and complexity of arrangement. The dimensions are such that the vortex presents a full face, whichever way it is looked upon.

It is possible to trace the appearance of the granules of which the streams of force are composed. The spin of the whole system is visible. The connecting lines of force between the sun and the external limits of flow give the impression of a wheel in which the spokes are so close together that they touch.

This general magnetic discharge appears to be equal throughout the whole system, so that it fills the interspace between the planets. Each planet in turn radiates a similar type of energy to that of the sun from the whole of its surface. From this level I see no direct single stream, but rather a magnetic whole in the system. The outflowing force reaches the confining boundary of the system, and rebounds towards the central source inside itself, the rebounding force traveling backwards inside the outgoing force, (diagrammatically, though not actually); diagrammatically, we could imagine that the central outgoing energy is tubular, the outgoing making the walls, and the backward making the central axis; the force returns along the same line by which it went out. Even with magnetic vision, the speed at which it travels is so rapid, that I cannot, as yet, watch a portion of force to time it; it appears like a continual flash; it does not travel in a curve, or complete an external circuit, but returns by exactly the same route as it went forth; the only suggestion of time, space, and form, I receive, is a slight flicker, or ripple, rather like a heat wave, but infinitely more rapid and subtle, and only noticeable when viewing the whole discharge. It is not apparent/rom a closer detailed view. An interesting point of view emerges from this, the planets seem relatively unimportant as compared to this magnetic discharge, and appear as dark shadows.

¶248. The rebounding force above described, which returns along the axis of the outgoing tube of force, and which has a velocity so great that magnetic vision cannot time it, is probably what forms, in the physical atom, the thickening of the three whorls, and which in ¶103, is shown to have the solar radiation velocity C, or nearly six hundred times the measured velocity of light. On asking for the source of this stream of force, we were told that it was the sun, although it enters the earth in all directions, and not only from the direction of the observed sun. There is a sense, it appears, in which the sun embraces the whole solar system, so that the planets around it are organs of its body; this body being seen from the higher planes, as extended to the confines of the System. Hence, whatever the direction of the rebounding stream, its source is the sun, and this observation may be regarded as confirming, and explaining the equations given in ¶227-8.

It is further shown in ¶139, by equation {31}, that the value of the earth's mass E, is just equal to an outgoing stream of magnetism having the observed intensity I of terrestrial magnetism, and a velocity half the velocity of light, so that the value of the earth's inertia is accounted for by such an outgoing stream.

The above clairvoyant observations tend to confirm the reality of these equations.

The two results of the preceding article7 that the molecular pressure is K θ , and the molecular energy New Roman" εθ , the first being the Fire sub-plane of oxygen, and the second the Fire sub-plane of helium, both multiplied by the temperature θ , can be best interpreted by the above observations combined with the article already referred to, in ¶245, "The Conservation of Power". The most significant feature of the observations is the continuous flow of substance and energy towards, and away from, the sun and planets. Nature is not seen as conserving energy, but rather as expending it. In other words, it is always doing work, or expending energy at a definite rate. But the expenditure of energy is the physicist's definition of power as explained in ¶77. Hence what the Western man of science interprets as the law of the conservation of energy, is, in reality, the law of the conservation of power, and the reason why we cannot use such power is that we are unable to invent a mechanism which will gear into nature's energy-flows. We cannot construct a motor, which will stand the enormously rapid vibration frequencies of nature's electromagnetic dynamos. In the meantime, the prevailing theories prevent us from attempting this.

¶249. Let us now try to interpret our equations in the light of these occult observations, and compare this interpretation with the usual one accepted by western science. Taking first the expression for the atmospheric pressure given by {131}, nK θ = 6p. We there see that the pressure on the six faces of a unit cube is 6p, and equal to nK θ , where n is the number of molecules contained within the unity cube, and therefore K θ is the pressure contributed by each molecule in unit time. The question naturally arises, what is the molecule doing to cause this pressure.

Western science replies that it is continually colliding with the inside faces of the cube, and rebounding therefrom. By this means it causes the observed pressure.

We shall, however, suggest that what is really happening is that from each molecule there is emerging a stream of substance which consists of oxygen in the proto-elemental state, the mass of each particle of which is given by the pressure constant K = 8P, when taken as a single quantum of pressure; and by K θ , when taken as the pressure per second. The total mass, therefore, or the mass emerging from each molecule per second is K θ , the temperature Roman" θ , measuring the number of emerging quanta in unit time, so that θ has the dimensions of a frequency. This gives to it the same character as radiation formulae8. There we use the expression hn, where h is Planck's constant, and n is the light frequency. Thus hn and K θ represent processes of essentially the same type, n being the light frequency, and θ the heat frequency, whilst h and K are both quanta, the one for light, and the other for heat, the ratio of these, or hn/kT = 6hn/K θ , occurs in most radiation formula, and is, perhaps, the most theoretically important relationship of modern physics. In later articles we shall treat of this in detail.

¶250. The above interpretation of the source of gas pressure falls naturally into place with what is clairvoyantly seen, and described in ¶247. The continuous discharge of energy from the whole surface of the globe exhibits itself within the atmosphere as a pressure, caused by the emergence from each air molecule of a substance which we have identified as the Fire sub-plane of oxygen. This substance need not be identical with that seen radiating from the earth in clairvoyant vision, though it may be transformable into it. As it emerges from the molecule it may be denser, and of lower velocity; a velocity probably comparable with the accepted molecular velocity of gases.

In order to test the question of transformability, let us assume that each of the spirillae in proto-elemental oxygen is expanded into a light wave, and contains within it the light quantum h. When arranged in linear form such a group of expanded spirillae would leave the earth's surface with the light velocity c. Then if x be the number of spirillae in the group, the momentum of the group would be xhc, and xhc would be a definite quantum of momentum which might possibly come under the observation of physicists, and, considering its universality, we might venture to predict that it would be found to be one of the recognized properties of light, magnetism or electricity, or even of all three.

The number of occult atoms in oxygen = 16P9, is 290, so that in the mass K=8P, we may expect to find 145. In each of these atoms there are 16800 spirillae10, so that

{138} x = 145 x 16800 = 2.4360 x 106

and using the values of h and c as given in ¶160, we have for this quantum of momentum,

xhc = 4.7823 x l0-10

but from the same paragraph, we find that the electrostatic charge on hydrogen, and on the electron, is

{140} e = 4.774 x 10-10

which within errors of observation is the same as xhc in {139}, so that we may write for this universal constant of electricity

{141} e = xhc = 4.774 x l0-10

Hence by means of Occult Chemistry, the clairvoyance of Mr. Hodson, and the theory of gas pressure, above set forth, we have obtained a key to the nature of three quanta: the electrostatic quantum e, the light quantum h, and the pressure quantum K. Owing to the fundamental nature of these constants, the above relationship should prove important.

¶251. A further feature may here be noted. Since K = 8P, or half the mass of oxygen, the number of spirillae in oxygen is 2x, and 2xhc = 2e. Now, since the valency of oxygen is 2, and each valency bond has the charge e, we may say that 2e = 2xhc accounts for the observed valency of oxygen, and may be a key to all valencies. It should be observed in this connection that no other substance, except the proto-elemental sub-plane of oxygen has the correct number of spirillae to give e, when multiplied by hc, and since the electrical quantum e is universal, and oxygen is the most universal of all terrestrial elements, the physical connection between the two has the requirements of probability. In the meantime we may conclude that the pressure constant K, after serving its purpose in sustaining the pressure of the atmosphere, expands out into a group of x light rays, and leaves the earth with the velocity of light c, as observed in clairvoyant vision, and as above described.

We need, however, to consider now, the energy constant = 2P, as given by {135}. The unit11 of mass ε is fully as universal as the constant of pressure K, since all the elements are built up from it, the weight 2Pg being added to each chemical element for each atomic number12. Let us first note that 2K = 16P, which is oxygen, and that ε = 2P = 2H, or a molecule of hydrogen, when combined with oxygen becomes OH2, or a molecule of Water, which represents the principle of the flow of energy, as shown in ¶245.

We may further observe that the valencies of oxygen, and the molecule of hydrogen, are equal and opposite, since they combine to make the most perfectly neutral substance, Water. If, therefore the oxygen valency represents an outward going energy, the hydrogen, or Proton valency, should represent an inward flowing energy. We have thus in Water the physical expression of the combined outward and inward flowing energies clairvoyantly seen and described in ¶247. We must therefore look for the evidence of the incoming streams of energy εθ = 2Pθ in the atomic nuclei, from whence these energies rebound. Now this is exactly the place where western physicists find evidence of them, for New 2Pθ is the mass forming stream, and the number of these streams for each element is given by its atomic number. This brings to our consideration the principle of flow above described, and which the Ancients, and the modern occultists, represent by the element Water. It is not without significance, perhaps, that the substance Water, which thus embodies the outgoing and incoming energy streams, should cover by far the greater portion of the earth's surface. But it is important to note here, that this principle of flow is that required to give a physical meaning to equation {136}, of the preceding article, where the molecular weight of each element at definite zones above the surface and below it, are equal to the atomic number of the element multiplied by the weight cg, measured at the earth's surface. This could not be well explained, except on the assumption, that the substance of the elements is in a state of flow. If we construct lines of force between the two zones which satisfy the conditions given by {136}, in which the substance of the element is continually flowing towards, and away from, the earth's center, then in any intermediate position, any such element can link up with its own particular line of force, and retain the molecular mass appropriate to the two terminal zones: Such is a brief explanation of equation {136}, which accounts both for molecular weight, and atomic number, and which may be treated in greater detail in later articles.

¶252. At the conclusion of the observations described in ¶247, the following additional information was dictated, some of which relates to this principle of flow.

DICTATED

"You have observed the ebb and flow of the Logoic Life-Force throughout the system - the Universal All-Pervading Divine Life - the Immanence in terms of flowing E NERGY. Remember that the Logos is also immanent in terms of Consciousness, and in terms of Love, or Cohesion. The ripple is in reality a rhythmic pulse - the governing rhythm of the System - the Major Time-Period by which all others are ordered. Planets are miniature suns from a magnetic point of view, and each radiates in a similar way, throughout the whole system: each has its own rhythm and time-period, and contacts all external manifestations through its own outflowing and returning energy, and in terms of its own period. The time-period of each planet is a harmonic of the major-chord of the system - the chord of the system, in its turn being a note in the chord of the scheme to which it belongs.

The discovery of the nature of the Central General Life-Force, or Energy, and of the individual energy of each planet, and their mutual relationships and interactions, is one of the next steps of scientific progress. Gradually science will cease to study form, and begin the search for the Universal Power from which all other powers spring. In other words, the new science will begin at the center and work outwards. Gravitate yourself towards the center, and envisage it from the point of view of a single central force, seeking to discover the relationship between the observed phenomena and the central force - that is the way.

As you are discovering, there is a mathematical formula for every phenomenon, and mathematics alone provides you with all the physical means of research you require. Intuition must enlighten mathematics, and mathematics must prove, and give orderly expression to the findings of Intuition. Essay the task of reducing the Solar System to terms of mathematics, and fear not to press forward from one mathematical demonstration and verification to another".

References

 

Chapter XXII

DIMENSIONS

¶253. In ¶86, we referred to the importance which physicists usually attach to the physical dimensions of the two sides of an equation, so that although the numerical values may be equal, the relationship is doubtful unless the dimensions agree as well. This view of physics has been largely a development of the late Lord Rayleigh, and in the volumes of Nature for 1915, will be found his exposition of the subject. During recent years, however, the views of physicists have undergone a change, and in The Philosophical Magazine1, Dr. Norman Campbell dismisses the subject as follows:

The use of dimensions in checking an equation by examination of its two sides has also proved worthless; for equations which do not satisfy the criterion can be found in the writings of the most eminent physicists... but if the retention of dimensions in all our textbooks cannot save us from such errors, if it encourages so greatly the activities of the modern equivalent of circle-squarers, and leads to the abuse of one of the most valuable weapons of experimental research, is it worth while to puzzle with it the heads of our students and, incidentally, our own?

The reader who wishes to form his own opinion on this subject may refer to Bridgman's Dimensional Analysis2, where the subject is fully dealt with. It has become necessary to refer to this matter again because some of our equations do not satisfy the conditions claimed by dimensional analysis. One of these, equation {67}, h = μ '(g +a), has been privately pointed out by a correspondent. This equation, as is shown in a later article3, etc., is connected with the creation of matter and as such a process is not recognized at present, any equation, expressing it, is likely to be defective when the dimensions are examined. We would point out that Occult Chemistry deals with much more fundamental matters than those treated in classical physics and chemistry, and the correct dimensions cannot be given until the nature of the processes are more fully understood.

Other equations where we shall be likely to clash with western views, are those involving temperature, especially4. In ¶249, we interpreted the temperature θ , as a frequency, or the reciprocal of a time, in correspondence with the frequency of light waves to which temperature is proportioned. In this connection we may quote from Bridgman's Dimensional Analysis5.

Many persons feel an intuitive uncertainty with regard to the dimensions to be assigned to temperature... how the absolute temperature, as we have used it above, is the thermodynamic absolute temperature defined with relation to the second law of thermodynamics... The size of a degree of thermodynamic temperature may be fixed entirely arbitrarily so that there are any number of degrees between the freezing and boiling points of water, for example, absolutely without reference to the size of any other unit. We are concerned in the dimensional formula with the definition in terms of the second law only in so far as this definition satisfies the principle of the absolute significance of relative magnitude, that is, the principle that the ratio of the measures of two concrete examples shall be independent of the size of the units. Now it is evident that the thermodynamic definition of absolute temperature does leave the ratio of any two concrete temperatures independent of the size of the units. The dimensional formula of temperature, therefore, need contain no other element, and temperature may be treated ss having its own dimensions.

¶254. The scale of temperature we have deduced from first principles in {125-126}6, fulfils all the conditions above set forth, with the additional property that there is no arbitrary number of degrees between two temperatures and no dimensions are required beyond the centimeter, gram and second.

It must, however, be admitted that the nature of temperature thus disclosed may react on other dimensional formulae. Take, for instance, K θ , in {129}, which is shown to be the pressure exerted by each molecule of a gas, caused by a stream of proto-elemental oxygen emerging from the molecule, in K quanta, at a rate of θ per second.

If now we conceive these individual quanta expanding into light-waves, when released from pressure, so that each of the x spirillae in a quantum K becomes a light-wave, and each K becomes x light-waves, we then have for each group of light-waves, as shown in {141}, the emergence of the electrionic charge e = xhc, or the electrical quantum. This concept may serve as an illuminating picture of the function of quanta in physics. It conveys the idea of what maybe termed light-darts, each containing x light-waves, so that light-waves need not be continuous, but may have dark intervals between each light-dart. It is interesting to note that such a theory has been advocated by Einstein7.

Einstein put forward the light-dart hypothesis according to which radiational energy is not only emitted or absorbed in quanta, but also exists in free space in the form of discrete localized bundles of energy or quants... later work has shown that if there is conservation of energy and momentum in individual absorption and emission processes, there seems no escape from the conclusion that radiational energy is propagated by means linearly directed spatially localized quanta. This is supported by the recent work confirming the Compton-Debye quantum theory of scattering. Thus our investigation of the nature of temperature, and the deduction that it has the character of a frequency, serves to explain some obscure physical problems when combined with the observed facts of Occult Chemistry.

¶255. By an obvious development, the light-dart hypothesis discloses the nature of electrical potential, for from Einstein's equation given in {37}8, and equation {141}9, we may write,

{142} hn = Ve/c = Vxh

where V is the electrical potential giving the light-frequency n, and from this we obtain the ratio

{143} V = hn/xh = n/x

Since n, is the number of light-waves per second, and x is the number of these waves in a light-dart, n/x = V is the number of light-darts issued by the radiation per second. Thus electrical potential V, is likewise identified with a frequency, in the same way as n and e. It is the frequency of the light-darts or quants from the radiating body.

It is well known to physicists, as will be shown in later articles, that these three frequencies, V, n, and θ , all vary together in definite proportions, which also favors the view that they are similar in nature, function, and dimensions.

¶256. As in other cases, it is probable that in this controversy about dimensions the middle course is the truest and safest. There may be reasons why an equation, which is true numerically, and in disagreement dimensionally, may nevertheless be significant physically, though it should be accepted with caution; but there is no doubt that when true, both in number and dimensions, the equation is more illuminative, and intellectually more satisfactory. There may be reasons, however, why the dimensions do not agree, which call for further investigation. For instance, it may be that the phenomena is not being treated in a manner sufficiently fundamental, and, in consequence, important factors which enter into the process are not taken into account. Such cases happen when constants enter as factors, the value of which is unity, and which therefore disappear from the equation. These suppressed constants do not affect the numerical equality, but they may effect the dimensional equality. We shall deal with some instances of this which are important for the understanding of the hidden forces which occult chemistry discloses.

In ¶233, equations {109-10}, we have NP = 1, and MNP = M, so that in an equation involving the mass M, we may use either M, or MNP, without affecting the numerical value of the term. Avogadro's number N, is a mere numeric, and does not affect the dimensions of the terms; but the Proton P, is a mass, and affects the dimensions. Moreover, if accompanied by N, it may be inserted any number of times without altering the numerical value, thus

{144} M = MNP = M(NP)2 = M(NP)3 = M(NP)n

where n can have any value, positive, negative, or zero. Now when we speak of a mass M, we merely give the number of grams, but since all matter is held to be built up of Protons, each gram contains N Protons, so that the expression for M, is, at least, MNP, and may be any one of the expressions covered by {144}. Only by a more fundamental investigation can we ascertain the powers of P, which enter into M, thus affecting the dimensions but not the numerical value.

This concept is particularly important when the matter of other planes than the physical have to be taken into account as is the case in occult chemistry, etc. Thus, suppose the mass of the proton on the astral plane is P1, and on the mental, buddhic, and atmic, P2, P3, and P4, respectively, whilst the corresponding Avogadro numbers are N1, N2, N3, and N4, so that we have

NP = N1P1 = N2P2 = N3P3 = N4P4 = 1

{145} M = MNP = MNPN1P1 = MNPN1P1N2P2

{146}= MNPN1P1,N2P2 N3P3 = MNPN1P1N2P 2N3P3N4P4

¶257. The above result may appear at first sight fanciful, but we shall find later that some of the above Protons, are recognized constants in western science. The different expressions for the mass M, in {146}, may be taken to indicate the ensoulment of the mass M. Thus the mass of a man's body, when dead, might be represented by MNP, and when living by MNPN1P1N2P2, if an ordinary man, whilst the body of an Adept would have the mass MNPN1P1N2P2N 3P3N4P4, since the average man is living on three planes, and the Adept on five. We have here, perhaps, one of the keys to the influence of talismans, and particular stones and jewels. These bodies may have some special ensoulment operating from planes other than the physical, which interact with the different bodies of man. The question of ensoulment will assume greater importance, as the nature of the occult forces operating through matter become better understood. It is a further and more direct influence which the Divine Life exercises throughout the worlds of form, and may be the special function of the Deva evolution, with its staff of elementals and nature spirits. These ensoul planets, districts, individual mountains, trees, etc., and affect the rate of evolution, in the mineral, vegetable, animal, and human kingdoms10. This is of special interest to medical science, since the medicinal and healing properties of substances, districts, etc., are a department of this study.

The concept of ensoulment enables us to understand also why the consecrated wafer in the Eucharist, may be utterly different in its effects on humanity, as compared with ordinary bread, although the mass and chemical properties are not changed; for the mass of the wafer instead of MNP, may be raised to that of an Adept, as given above, or even higher, since the ensoulment is from the World Teacher Himself.

¶258. Matter, on the earth's surface, is, in general, measured by its weight, that is, by the force exerted upon it by the earth's gravity, which is given by Newton's formula,

{147} GEM/R2 = Mg

where G is the gravitational constant, E the earth's mass, and M the mass of the body weighed, whilst g is the surface value of terrestrial gravity, and R the earth's radius. Now the expression for the earth's mass is, at least, E = ENP, and, at least, also M = MNP, So that the above becomes,

{148} GENPMNP/R2 = MN2P2g = Mg

At the very least, therefore, there is always involved for the weight of the mass, the mass of the Proton P, to the second power, or P2 . If we combine the observations of western science, and occult research, we perceive the reason of this. Rutherford's observations show that the mass of the chemical element is at the nucleus of the chemical atom, which occult observation finds to be a center of intense energy flow; and since energy and mass are interchangeable, we may take it as proved that this central energy flow is equal to the mass of the atom.

As that center is positively charged electrically, we have there the whole mass positively charged. But Occult Chemistry shows that the mass also consists of occult atoms composed of electrons strung together as given in ¶224, equation {97}. This duplicate mass is, therefore, charged negatively. Now a positively charged center, and a negatively charged exterior, will normally give rise to a centripetal force, or an attraction, which, since the charges are proportionate to the masses, will be proportionate to the product of the two. For a single Proton, therefore, of mass P, the force will be proportionate to P2 , and for N Protons proportionate to N2P2 . Such is the rational of the occurrence of the factor N2P2 , in the expression of every mass M, as shown in {148}.

¶259. In comparing, therefore, the units of mass of the different planes, we should compare the square, or second power, of the units, or P12 with P2 , etc., and we will now proceed to do this. We have seen in {97}, that the mass of the Proton P, consists of the mass μ , multiplied by the number of spirillae in the Proton. But each turn of the physical spiral contains seven finer spirals of the plane above, or astral plane, set at right angles to the primary turn11. On the assumption that the mass μ, in the physical spiral, is divided amongst the seven finer astral turns, and that on the astral plane, there are 16,800 turns per atom, as on the physical, and 18 atoms in the astral Proton P1. It follows that

{149} P = 7P1


{150} P2 = 49P12

An explanation of the above can best be given in the words of Bishop Leadbeater12.

It must be noted that a physical atom cannot be directly broken up into astral atoms. If the unit of force which whirls those millions of dots into the complicated shape of a physical atom be pressed back by an effort of wilt over the threshold of the astral plane, the atom disappears instantly, for the dots are released. But the same unit of force, (italics mine), working now upon a higher level, expresses itself not through one astral atom, but through a group of 49. If the process of pressing back the unit of force is repeated, so that it energizes on the mental plane, we find the group there enlarged to the number 2401, (= 492), of those higher atoms. Upon the buddhic plane the number of atoms formed by the same amount of force is very much greater still - probably the cube of 49 instead of the square, though they have not been actually counted. Therefore one physical atom is not composed of 49 astral or 2401 mental atoms, but corresponds to them, in the sense that the force which manifests through it would show itself on those higher planes by energizing respectively those numbers of atoms.

¶260. The important principle to note in the above, is that the relative quantities on the planes are determined by the force unit, and not by the breaking up of the matter of one plane into that of the other; and that force, in general, is proportionate to the product of two masses, or electrical charges, so that when the masses are equal, the force varies directly as the square of the mass. This gives us the 49 ratio between the mass units of the planes: hence from {145}, and {150}, we have for the ratios of the Protons, and Avogadro numbers in the respective planes,

P02/P2 = P2/P12 = P12/P22 = P22/P32

{151} = P32/P42 = 49

N2/N02 = N12/N2 = N22/N12 = N32/N22

{152} = N42/N32 = 49

from which, with the known values of N and P, the Avogadro numbers and Protons for all the other planes can be calculated. P0, and N0, are the Proton, and Avogadro number for the plane below the physical.

¶261. It was shown in ¶227, that the energy and mass of the occult atom was supplied from the three thickened whorls, and this process may be conceived as continually going on. The law of the equipartitlon of energy, as previously explained13, will ensure that the two sets of whorls in each atom, (the three thickened and the seven planetary,) on the average, will be equal both in mass and energy. The fundamental unit of energy and mass, therefore, will be half the mass of the atom, and since there are 18 atoms in the Proton, and two of these elementary mass units in the atom, the total mass units in the Proton will be 36.

If z be this unit of mass then

{153} z = P/36 = 4.582 x 10-26

and if these two halves of the atom act on each other like charged bodies, charged in proportion to mass, the unit of force operating will be proportionate to

{154} z2 = 2.0994 x 10-51

Taking the value of Planck's constant h, as given in ¶120, we have,

{155} z2/h2 = 48.98

{156} z2 = 49h2

and from {150}, {153}, and {156}, we have

P2 = 49P12 = (36)2z2 = (36)249h2

P12 = (36)2 2h2

{157} P1 = 36h

{158} P = 36z

{158a} P/P1 = z/h

or just as z, is the physical half-atom of the atomic subplane, or the physical unit of mass, so Planck's constant h is the astral half-atom of the atomic subplane, or the astral unit of mass; we thus have an important constant of western science identified with a known constant of "Occult Chemistry", and the problems of eastern and western science, at once, become mutually illuminative.

¶262. To interpret the above expressions, we see from ¶261, that the unit of force on the atomic subplane of the physical is x2 , as given by {154}, and from the observations of Bishop Leadbeater, ¶259, if this unit of force be pressed back over the threshold of the astral plane, this same unit of force expresses itself on the atomic subplane as a group of 49 units of force. But from {156}, the unit of force on the atomic subplane of the physical is z2 = 49h2 , hence h2 is the unit of force on the atomic subplane of the astral plane.

This identification of the square of Planck's constant with the first subplane of the astral, is of great theoretical importance, since the constant h enters into the equations of modern physics more frequently than any other. We have shown in ¶201-3, that the three elements, Earth, Water, and Air, can all be generated from it. It is the energy content of every light-wave, and from light, all physical matter is created14.

It is the basis of the quantum theory of light, and its discovery by Planck has revolutionized modern physics. Practically much of current theories resolves itself into the interpretation of about half a dozen constants: Planck's Constant h, the radiation velocity c, the pressure constant K, the mass constants P, and m, and the electrionic charge e; but, perhaps, the most important of these is h. By identifying this last with the atomic subplane of the astral plane, we have practically completed this list, though the electrionic mass m is not yet fully identified; but the main foundations are laid for a fundamental interpretation of physical phenomena on the basis of occult teaching.

References

 

Chapter XXIII

NITROGEN

¶263. Western science, at present, has accepted two units of magnetism, called magnetons; one of which was discovered by Weiss in 1911, and the other deduced from Bohr's theory which originated in 1913. The value of the Weiss magneton1,

{159} Mw = 1126

and the magneton of Bohr,

{160} Mb = 5593

Physicists are inclined to favor Bohr's magneton as the real unit of magnetism, since Bohr's theory, at present, holds the field. Against this view it may be noted that Bohr's value is theoretical, whilst the Weiss magneton, though based on the theory of Langevin, is supported by the magnetic experiments of Curie and others2. Moreover, Bohr's theory, in its current form, is not confirmed by clairvoyant observation; hence we shall use the experimental value of Weiss, rather than the theoretical value of Bohr. The Weiss magneton given by {159}, is that of the gram-mol, or N molecules, where N is the constant of Avogadro, and equal to 6.061 x 1028, as given in {111}. If μ be the value of the Weiss magneton per molecule, we have from {159},

{161} N μ = 1126

{162} μ = 1.8578 x 10-21

If what is known as Curie's constant per gram-mol be Cm, and the same constant per molecule be C, then

{163} Cm = NC

and the relationship between the magneton and Curie's constant3, is given by

{164} N2 New Roman" μ2/3jR = Cm = NC

{164a} N μ2/3jR = Cm = C

where jR is Boltzman's gas constant, as in {116}, and therefore equal to Nk, we may therefore write

{165} 2/3jR = N μ2/ 3Nk = μ2/3k = C

Since Curie's constant C, is measured in absolute units, and the value of k depends upon the arbitrary choice of a degree of temperature as explained in ¶236, it is evident that the numerical value of Roman" μ is also arbitrary, and that nothing can be inferred from it until k is replaced by the constant of molecular pressure K, of ¶240. But the numerical ratio Roman" μ2/3k, is fixed by C, which is in absolute units, so that any change in the denominator must also be made in the numerator. From {130}, we have 6k = bK, where b has the value given by {125}, and is the ratio of the absolute scale of temperature θ , and the centigrade scale T. Hence from {130}, and {165},

{166} μ2/3k = 2 μ 2/ 6k = 2 μ2/bk = C

To remove the constant b, take a magneton of mass μ 1, so that

{167} μ 12 = μ2/b = 5.5341 x 10-50

from {162}; we may now write for the Curie constant in absolute units throughout

{168} C = 2 Roman" μ2/bK = μ 12 /K

From the mass of the physical Proton, as given in {97}, and from {150}, we have for the numerical value of the astral Proton P1,

{169} P12 = P2/49 = 5.5527 x 10-50

{170} P1 = P/7 = 2.3564 x 10-25

On comparing the value of μ 12 in {167}, and P12 , in {169}, we see that they differ from each other by less than one per cent, which is not too great for observation error in the case of the magneton, hence the magneton of Weiss can be taken as identical with the Proton oi the astral plane, and we may write from {157}, and {167-9},

{171} μ 12 = P12 = (36)2h2 = 5.5527 x 10-50

{172} P1 = μ 1 = 36h = 2.3564 x 10-25

whilst from {168}, and {171}, we have

{173} C = 2 Roman" μ 12/K = 2 P12 /K

¶264. The result given by {172}, is important, for it identifies the magneton of Weiss, when expressed in absolute units, with the Proton P1 of the astral plane, and makes for us another link between the observed experimental facts of western science, and the clairvoyant observations of Occult Chemistry. Having thus established this identity, we may first note, as an important deduction, that the matter of the astral plane, is what we know as magnetism when acting through the physical, though there may be other forms of magnetism, and that the atomic subplane of the astral is what we know as light. Let us first make the reasonable assumption that the elements on the astral plane are built on the same model as the chemical elements on the physical, so that just as 14P is Nitrogen on the physical plane, so, in like manner, 14P1 is astral Nitrogen, and the same with the other elements, each to each. We then have for the unit of molecular energy c, in {135}, and the ratio P/P1 = 7, as given by {170}, the equation

{174} ε = 2P = 14 P1

so that our molecular constant c is simply astral Nitrogen, and the molecular energy εθ , of {127}, is simply the rate at which the substance of the astral plane is pouring down into the physical, as described in Occult Chemistry4.

¶265. In order to realize the full significance of the above, let us return for a moment, to the subject of Chapter XX, which dealt with the energy and pressure of gases. In that article, we deduced two molecular constants, the constant of molecular pressure K, and the constant of molecular energy ε , which are the same for all gases, and hence for all the chemical elements. We showed in {132}, that the pressure constant K, was identical with the Fire sub-plane of Oxygen, and we have shown above that the molecular energy constant Roman" ε , is identical in mass with astral Nitrogen. We further showed in {136-7}, that ε is the unit of mass for each atomic number of the chemical elements, and all of them can be built up from it. It follows from this, that all matter can be built up, and the phenomena of their energies and pressures explained, by the use of two elements alone, the two principal constituents of the terrestrial atmosphere, Oxygen and Nitrogen. When this is combined with the results of Chapter XVI, where it is shown that Air, Water, and Earth, can all be transmuted, the one into the other, we shall have gone far to demonstrate that the four elements of the Ancients are much more fundamental than the elements of the modern chemist, and that the knowledge handed down to us from previous civilizations is not the mere babbling of infant humanity, but knowledge of a more fundamental kind than has yet been attained by modern science. This conclusion may hurt our pride, but otherwise it may do us good. It will, at any rate, vindicate the teachings of The Secret Doctrine and prepare our minds to treat them, in future, with more respect.

¶266. We noted in ¶237, a statement by Bishop Leadbeater, that Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen, belong to another and greater solar system, but that the rest of the elements have been developed by our own Logos, and this statement, received presumably from a high occult authority, is confirmed by the above. A fuller key to the nature of Hydrogen may, perhaps, be found in the sun, since the solar atmosphere consists largely of Hydrogen5. It may be noted that solar gravity is 28 times that of terrestrial gravity, so that if g be the acceleration of gravity for the earth, and G that for the sun, we have

{175} G/g = 28

If we take the weight of the astral Proton on the sun's surface, and on the surface of the earth, we have the relationship6,

P1G = 28 P1g = 4Pg = Ag = h(g2 + a2)

{176} = 2 Roman" ε g

{177} 2P1G = 8Pg = Kg = ε 1G

from ¶198, and equations {170-5}. The above equations link together all the quantities out of which matter is built up, and just as ε g = 2Pg in {136}, builds up the chemical elements of the earth, so ε 1G =2P1G builds up the astral elements of the sun.

The Fire sub-plane of Hydrogen, or the Proton, as in the case of Oxygen, is just half the mass of Hydrogen7. Assuming this to be the same on the astral plane, according to the rule, "as above so below", we have for the mass of the Fire sub-plane of the Proton on the astral plane, (1/2)P1 and from {176},

{178} (1/2)P1G = 2Pg = ε g = 14 P1g

¶267. By means of equations {176-8}, we may now attempt to describe in detail an interchange of matter and energy between earth and sun, using for this purpose the clairvoyant observations of Occult Chemistry, etc. Let us first take an atom of Nitrogen from the earth's atmosphere, the weight of which is 14Pg. If we keep to the first power of the masses, the equivalent of this on the astral plane, from {149}, is 7 x 14 P1. Let these astral mass units, 14 P1, be poured into the gas molecule, at the rate of θ per second, where θ is the temperature on the absolute scale. The mass or energy, therefore, poured into each molecule in unit time is 14P1 θ = 2P θ = εθ , from {174}, where εθ is the energy of the gas-molecule. Let this stream of energy disappear at the center of the atom or molecule, and form one of those centers where physical matter is poured outside into the astral plane as described in Occult Chemistry8 . Arrived on the astral plane, as 14P1g Roman" θ , it may be pictured as passing along a line of force to the sun, where it emerges as (1/2)P1g New Roman" θ = 14P1g θ , or in the form of the Fire sub-plane of Hydrogen on the sun, as shown in {178}.

The above may be regarded as the element-building process for terrestrial elements.

Now suppose we reverse the above process, beginning with the sun, but instead of the astral plane, let us begin on the mental plane, or one plane higher than on the earth. From {151}, we see that the Proton of the mental plane is P2 = P17, so that Nitrogen on the solar mental plane will be 14P2 = 2P1, and the weight of this on the sun's surface will be 2P1G = ε 1G = 8Pg = Kg, from {177}. If the frequency be θ , as at the earth, the number of returning lines of force from the sun must be only one fourth of the outgoing since 2P1G = 4 x (1/2)P1G. We have then an elemental building process on the astral plane of the sun, consisting of ε 1G θ = 2P1G θ , which pours into the molecule or atom, and constitutes its molecular energy, corresponding exactly with the molecular energy of the physical matter of the earth, as given by {127}, and building up the chemical elements of the sun's astral plane, in the same way as the chemical elements of the earth's physical plane are built up in {136-7}. This stream of matter or energy may be further conceived as passing along lines of force from the sun to the earth, where it emerges at the centers of the terrestrial molecules as ε 1G θ = 2P1G θ = Kg θ , from {177}. This gives us on the earth K θ , or the observed gas pressure per molecule at the temperature θ . We have thus accounted for the molecular energy and pressure of terrestrial gases, by taking astral Nitrogen through the atomic centers to the sun, and returning mental Nitrogen from the sun, where on the earth it emerges as the Fire sub-plane of Oxygen, and enters once more the terrestrial atmosphere, using for the purpose equations {176-8}, and the clairvoyant observations of Occult Chemistry. As above noted, the lines of force that carry away Nitrogen from the earth to our times as many as those which return the Oxygen, which is rather significant, since in the composition of the atmosphere, Nitrogen is about four times as plentiful as Oxygen.

¶268. It will be noted that in the above explanation of gas pressure by the term K New Roman" θ , we altered it from Kg θ to K θ , thus omitting the factor of acceleration g. This factor, however, although not directly entering into the expression for the gas pressure, is intimately connected with it, as we will now endeavor to show. In dealing with the 4 Roman" π controversy in Chapter XIII, it was explained how the release from a set of spirillae was equivalent to transforming a line force into a surface force, and is expressed by multiplying the line force by 4 π r9. Now the Proton P1, on the astral plane, is released from the physical spirillae, and hence has the freedom of another dimension when operating on its own plane as astral matter. To make this more clear, we may say that astral matter of mass P1,, when within the 7 x 16800 astral spirillae of the physical atom, has its mass P1 unchanged, but when set free from the physical atom with its additional set of spirillae, and allowed to act as purely astral matter, the mass becomes 4 π P1. We may, therefore, write for the mass of the magneton, or astral Proton, on its own plane

{179} π 1 = 4 π P1

and if we apply this astral plane value to {177}, we have

{180} 2P1(4 π G) = ε 1(4 π G) = 2 π 1G = K(4 New Roman" π g)

But from {40}, 4 Roman" π g = V λ , where V is the electrical potential for the light ray of wave-length x, and the product V λ is a constant. Hence

{181} 2 π 1G = KV λ

{182} 2 π 1G/V λ = K

from which it appears that the element building force on the astral plane of the sun appears on the earth as the product of two constants, the gas pressure constant K, and the radiation constant V λ .

From the above it would be interesting to ascertain if these forces could be taken in bulk instead of in individual atoms, and a result obtained which agreed with observation.

¶269. Let us conceive the whole weight of the sun's astral plane 4 π SG, as pressing along lines of force towards the earth, and being resisted by the earth's astral plane 4 π E, multiplied by the radiation constant V New Roman" λ . We might infer from {182}, that the ratio of this total force 4 π SG, and the resistance 4 π EV λ , would give the mean atmospheric pressure for the earth's atmosphere. If the solar force were all generated at the sun's surface, and passed first to the earth's center, and outwards through the crust, the inertial resistance as explained in ¶70, in place of E, would be E' = sqrt E, and the ratio of force to resistance would be

{183} p' = 4 Roman" π SG/4 π E' V λ = SG/E'V Roman" λ = 966710

from {105}. The standard atmospheric pressure at 760 millimeters, is given in {118}, where p = 1013300, but at the sea level, the average atmospheric pressure is only 740 millimeters10, hence the average atmospheric pressure in dynes is,

{184} p(740/760) = 964110

which differs from the value of p' given in {183}, by less than one half of one per cent. If therefore we take p, as the mean pressure at sea level, in place of p', we have for this pressure,

{185} p = SG/E'V Roman" λ = 966710 dynes

{186} pV λ = SG/E'

Thus {185}, expresses the same result, when the forces are taken in bulk, as {182} expresses for individual atoms. The first giving an expression for the average atmospheric pressure, and the second an expression for the constant of pressure K. The two expressions, therefore, mutually support and supplement each other. In {182}, we have 2 π 1G/V λ = K, or the weight on the sun's surface of the element building mass unit 2 π 1, resisted by the radiation constant V λ , giving the molecular pressure constant for all gases K. In {183} and {185}, we similarly find that when the total force of the sun's astral plane 4 π SG, is resisted by the force of the earth's astral plane, 4 π E', multiplied by the same radiation constant V λ , we obtain the observed value of the mean atmospheric pressure p, at the earth's surface.

These two relationships, therefore, definitely connect the two phenomena.

¶270. The above relationship can be put, at once, to the crucial test of observation. From {129}, if n be the number of molecules in unit volume producing the pressure 6p, on the six faces of a unit cube, then n'= n/6, is the number producing the pressure p, and combining this with (186], we have,

{187} n'K θ = p

{187} pV λ = n'K θ V λ = SG/E' = Constant

Since n, and K are constant, if the wave-length λ in the second term is constant, we have

{189} θ V = Constant

{190} θ varies inversely as V

so that the temperature of the earth's atmosphere varies inversely as the electrical potential, a result which can be tested against observation.

In the Traité d'Electricité Atmosphérique et Tellurique11, we translate as follows:

"All observations agree in attributing to temperature an influence, direct or indirect, on the electric field. Ordinarily, in the same place, all the highest values of the potential gradient occur simultaneously with the lowest values of the temperature, and all the lowest values of the potential gradient with the highest values of the temperature". A result which is immediately deducible from {189-90}.


 

Some Critical Remarks by DR. H. A. C. DENIER VAN DER GON on "Studies in Occult Chemistry And Physics"1

Ever since the Theosophical Society existed, efforts have been made from time to time by leading occultists to compare statements on scientific subjects with the later results of scientific research. Not all of these efforts have led to publicly expressed results, though such publication seems eminently desirable with a view to promote enlightened Theosophic thought. It was therefore with vivid interest that I became acquainted with Mr. G. E. Sutcliffe's Studies, in which one of these efforts is embodied; and I was very pleased to accept the invitation of a small group of Dutch scientists2, all of them members of the Theosophical Society, to study and discuss his book.

Our studies commenced with a sincere wish that we should be led to appreciative and fruitful criticism; we firmly hoped that we should be able to deepen our insight into the fundamental principles of physical science by comparing notes with one who, in his Introduction, announced himself':

Primarily as a pupil in an eastern school of science and philosophy, and secondarily as an interested reader and student of western science.

I may here, at the very outset, state that our study of the book became entirely a disappointment, caused in the first place by the way in which Mr. Sutcliffe interprets the pronouncements of leading representatives of modern science; secondly by the way in which he connects these statements with ideas expressed by H. P. Blavatsky and other Theosophical authors; and thirdly (and this is not our least objection) by the liberty he takes, in one case, in abusing a quotation from The Secret Doctrine and in mutilating this quotation in order to support his own theories. In this article I intend to state a few of the objections which led us to this adverse opinion.

In the Introduction we find3 that the author, who evidently still accepts the view - now scientifically almost entirely abandoned4 - of a really existing luminiferous ether, confuses an undulation, moving through a certain medium, with a movement of that medium itself. The author quotes from Jeans: "the wave-surface is a sphere having the observer as center"; and: "it would seem to follow that each observer must carry a complete ether about with him"; and from Pickering: "the light surface, or wave-front, is a contracting, not an expanding sphere". From such quotations Mr. Sutcliffe draws the conclusion "that the observer is at the center of the sphere of contracting ether, which is collapsing into its center"; and: "the molecules of the observer's body are actually consuming a spherical volume of ether with the radial velocity of light". Whether or not this conclusion may be in harmony with occult teachings, to support it on the basis of scientific opinion is certainly a fallacy.

On page ix, ff., the attracting force (better:intensity) exercised by a planet at a given distance D is divided into two component parts, one part proceeding from the planet's mass, the other from the volume of ether, comprised within a sphere of radius D; of these two parts one is inversely proportionate to the fifth power of D, the other to the second power. At the planet's surface these two parts, added together, yield the local gravitational acceleration - for the earth: 981. The author construes the hypothesis that, in the case of the earth, five sixths follow the second power law, one sixth the fifth power law. From this hypothesis, it follows that the acceleration of the moon depends almost exclusively on the second power component: that is to say that this acceleration will have to be computed at five sixths of the value hitherto accepted. This is a rather strong remedy against the small differences existing between the moon's observed and calculated orbits! On this supposition we should have to change the duration of the moon's revolution round the earth, or the hitherto accepted value of the earth's mass. This, however, would bring us into serious conflict with experimental results. Nor can we agree with the author when he alters the gravitational constant, the well-known value of this constant having been corroborated by various methods in which the earth's attractive force does not play a part.

Among the speculations in further chapters, I should like to draw attention to what is said in ¶33, ff., on the "terrestrial sun". We find here a calculation showing that a quantity of gaseous hydrogen at normal temperature and pressure, having the same mass as the earth, would, it transmitted to the solar surface, cover this surface with an atmosphere of the height of the sun's chromosphere, whereas a similar calculation made with regard to the total mass of all the planets yields an atmosphere as high as the sun's corona. From this calculation Mr. Sutcliffe draws the conclusion that there is a connection between the sun's chromosphere and the earth's mass, and that every particle of the former corresponds with a particle in the earth (¶38); whereas for every one of the other planets a similar relationship exists. This reasoning assumes that in the chromosphere and the corona hydrogen would exist under "normal" conditions of temperature and pressure, or would at least have the corresponding density. It is quite certain, however, that this assumption is very far from being fulfilled. In the sun's atmosphere the density of matter decreases from values already very low at the sun's "surto excessively small values in the corona's outer parts. The correct values are not known, but it may suffice to say that even at the very high temperatures existing there, the pressure has been estimated at a value of the order of magnitude of one millionth part of one atmosphere! Mr. Sutcliffe does not even mention the question, under what circumstances hydrogen would exist in the sun's atmosphere. The calculation about "normal circumstances" would suggest that he assumed the hydrogen to exist in the molecular condition! It need hardly be remarked, that this part of the Studies seems to us to be devoid of all sense.

We pass on to the discussion in ¶51, ff., on the Proton and the Electron. Mr. Sutcliffe here wants to lend strength to his conclusions by quoting a table of experimentally determined mobilities of various ions; this quotation is an instance of the inadmissible and slipshod manner in which he allows himself to deal with experimental data. The mobilities quoted have been measured under circumstances which exclude the existence of "free" ions; the electric charge attracts a number of molecules which materially influence the velocities reached. If measured under correct circumstances, the ratio between the velocities of negative and positive free ions is found to be hundreds of times larger than the ratio given by Mr. Sutcliffe. But this does not harmonize with the conclusions drawn by him. Is it possible that he did not understand the real meaning of these velocities? We may add that in finding the ratio 20:16 not only for hydrogen but also for other gases, Mr. Sutcliffe proves rather too much; for this would imply that also in a gas like nitrogen a neutral atom can be divided into two oppositely charged ions whose masses - and therefore, according to Mr. Sutcliffe, the charges as well - bear the same proportion. This is in direct conflict with experimental results.

In the speculations of ¶53, ff., there is a very serious mistake, for which we can find no excuse at all: the confusion between the conceptions of "weight" and "mass". If we compare the earth's attraction on an object on the earth's surface (i.e., its weight) with the force which the same object in the same place would experience if only influenced by the sun's attractive force (Mr. Sutcliffe uses the expressions "terrestrial weight" and "solar weight ") we find a ratio of about 1600. As it happens, the same ratio exists between the masses of Mr. Sutcliffe's negative ion of hydrogen, which consists of 16 ultimate atoms, and the electron. From this coincidence the author concludes to the identity of the electron (existing in the sun's gravitational field) and the negative ion of hydrogen (existing in the earth's gravitational field); a conclusion which entirely disregards the well-known fact that the constant ratio between weight and mass does not exist, unless we consider a gravitational field of the same intensity in each of the cases in question. Mr. Sutcliffe's advice to "those readers who have not quite clear ideas on the difference between mass and weight", to consult Sir Oliver Lodge's Elementary Mechanics, should have led him to refresh his own ideas on the subject; after which he might have seen the fundamental errors made in his ¶56. The same mistake lies at the bottom of his misinterpretation of Einstein's and Eddington's remarks, quoted in ¶57 and 58.

Mr. Sutcliffe is not very fortunate in his explanations in ¶ 68. He thinks that he can use quotations from Professor Jeans in order to support his statement that sound-waves are responsible for a continuous creation of new matter in the "terrestrial laboratory". Professor Jeans utilizes the mathematical expedient which analyses the random movement of the molecules of the air into the resultant of a great many trains of "sound-waves" of varying direction, wave-length and amplitude. Mr. Sutcliffe identifies the velocity of these wave-trains (i.e., the product of wave-length and frequency) with the molecular velocity (i.e., the product of the mean free path and the number of collisions per second). This is, however, a mistake: the two velocities are not equal; in fact, between the two there exists a definite and well-known proportion, differing from unity.

If we understand the author's intentions in this respect, on p. 77, c, not the density of air under normal conditions ought to have been used, but the density in the "isothermal layer", where the temperature is much lower, and the pressure very different as well. Furthermore, the author does not take into consideration the fact, that in this isothermal layer the various gases composing the air are mixed in very different proportions from the air at the earth's surface, so that the average molecular velocity, which Mr. Sutcliffe puts down at 40400 cm. per sec., will have to be put at a different value. Finally: at the end of his calculation, ¶70, the author falls a victim to the same delusion which I pointed out before, and reduces to three quarters of the calculated value the mass of the sound-created matter, because of the diminution in weight which this matter must suffer in penetrating into the body of the earth! We may in this respect refer to later calculations, made in Chapter VIII (The Mundane Egg) where the author finds that since the earth existed5, the mass created in the "terrestrial laboratory" is equal to the mass of the sidereal universe. In this calculation Mr. Sutcliffe quite forgets to change the mass of the matter transferred from the earth's body to the stars of the universe, where after all the "weight" must have a totally different value! The confusion of mass and weight is a serious mistake, but if this mistake is made in some places, why not make it everywhere?

All these questions arise in one's mind, when reading Mr. Sutcliffe's calculations about the "terrestrial laboratory "; but they find no answer, because of the misleading vagueness of these Studies.

`

I might ask a few more questions on this subject. What about the destructive hurricane which must be blowing for ever in a vertical direction as a result of this transportation of newly formed matter into the earth's interior? On what foundation does the author base his assumption that this process of the renovation of matter is entirely localized in a layer of the thickness of one "free path" - about one hundred thousandth part of a centimeter?

The equality of the amount of matter newly formed in one year, with the earth's total mass, certainly seems a strikingly interesting result of Mr. Sutcliffe's calculations. After the objections raised above, however, we cannot but look upon this result as a coincidence, brought about by several mistakes and misconceptions, and devoid of all real value.

Objections of a different nature have to be raised against the manner in which Mr. Sutcliffe speaks of lines of force and tubes of force in an almost childishly realistic manner, whereas physicists do not use them in any other meaning than that of geometrical representations of qualities belonging to the field of force. Where in ¶105 he allows vibrations to "pass along these lines of force", whereas corpuscles "pass within the hollow tubes", he gives to both lines and tubes a degree of objective existence, with which no serious physicist would ever have dreamt to invest them.

In the beginning of this article I formulated a third (and not the least serious) objection which we have against these Studies, viz., an incorrect application of a quotation from H. P. Blavatsky's writings, incorrect both in letter and spirit.

In The Secret Doctrine6 , quoted in Studies, ¶103, H. P. B. writes:

While the spectroscope has shown the probable similarity (owing to the chemical action o[ terrestrial light upon the intercepted rays) of terrestrial and sidereal substance, the chemical actions peculiar to the variously progressed orbs of space have not been detected, nor proven to be identical with those observed on our planet.

Mr. Sutcliffe then proceeds:

An important hint is contained in the words intercepted rays of terrestrial light;

and he uses this latter expression in order to support his own view, that:

we see the sun and the stars by means of terrestrial light which is intercepted by these bodies.

The words used by H. P. B. are obscure, and we do not pretend to be able to interpret correctly what she had in mind, but so much is certain, that H. P. B. does not speak of "intercepted rays of terrestrial light". We shall have to take the view that this inadmissible misconstruction has been an unconscious act, probably in accordance with the saying that the wish is father to the thought; but at the same time we must acknowledge that a mistake of this serious nature greatly diminishes our appreciation of the scientific value of Mr. Sutcliffe's writings.

We have wished to publish these criticisms in a Theosophical journal, because we think it better for readers to know that these Studies do not necessarily have the approval of Theosophists who have specialized in the study of physics. We cannot but state that Mr. Sutcliffe's publications have greatly disappointed us. However high we may value good intentions, these studies will not tend to recommend Theosophic lines of thought to scientific readers. It is true that the Theosophical Society must not be judged by the work of any individual member - no more by Mr. Sutcliffe's publications than by the present article. But it may be useful to show that, according to some Theosophists at least, Mr. Sutcliffe's articles contain many misconceptions and miscalculations; that we need not necessarily wait for criticism from outside the Theosophical Society, but that such criticism may quite as well proceed from the pen of such students of modern science as have enrolled on the list of membership of our Society.



 

References & Bibliography

The information on the references were obtained from either the OHIOLINK online database, or from OCLC. In as many cases as possible, an effort has been made to find the edition that Sutcliffe used (if known), or if there was no specific edition referenced, the edition nearest the publication date of the book was used.

An Atlas of Astronomy, R. Ball, D. Appelton and Co, New York, 1892
Astronomy; a Revision of Young's Manual of Astronomy, H. Russell, R. Dugan & J. Stewart, Ginn and Company, Boston, 1927.
At the Feet of the Master, J. Krishnamurti, Rider, London, 1910 .
The Atom, E. Andrade, Ginn, London, 1927.
The Brotherhood of Angels and of Men, G. Hodson, Theosophical Publishing House, London, 1927.
The Chakras, C. Leadbeater, Theosophical Publishing, Chicago, 1927.
The Chemistry of the Radio-Elements, F. Soddy, Longmans, Green, London, 1914, 2nd Edition.
Conduction of Electricity Through Gases, J. Thomson, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1906.
The Corpuscular Theory of Matter, J. Thompson, A. Constable & Co., London, 1907.
The Data of Geochemistry, by F. W. Clarke, United States Geological Survey, Bulletin 770, Government Printing Office, Washington, 5th Edition, 1924.
Dernières Pensées H. Poincaré, Flammarion, Paris, 1913.
Dimensional Analysis, Bridgman, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1922.
The Dynamical Theory of Gases, J. Jeans, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1916.
Einstein's Theory, G. E. Sutcliffe, Vasanta Press, Adyar, 1922.
Electricity in Gases, J. Townsend, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1915.
Electromagnetic Theory, O. Heaviside, D. Van Nostrand, New York, 1893-1912.
The Electron, Its Isolation and Measurement and the Determination of Some of its Properties, R. Millikan, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1924.
Elementary Mechanics, Including Hydrostatics and Pneumatics, O. Lodge, D. Van Nostrand, New York, 1891.
Encyclopedia Britannica, XI edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1911.
The Fire of Creation, Dr. J. J. van der Leeuw, Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1925.
First Principles of Theosophy, C. Jinarajadasa,Theosophical Publishing Society, Adyar, 1921.
Five Years of Theosophy, Theosophical Publishing Society, London, 1910.
Glimpses of Masonic History, C. Leadbeater, Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1926.
Grammar of Science, K. Pearson, A. & C. Black, London, 1900.
The Great Plan: Four Lectures Delivered at the Forty-fifth Annual Convention of the Theosophical Society, held at Adyar, December, 1920, A. Besant, Adyar, Madras, India, Theosophical Publishing House, 1921.
Handbook of Climatology, J. Hann, Macmillan and Co., London, 1903.
The Hidden Side of Things, C. Leadbeater, Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1913.
History of the Theories of AEther and Electricity, E. Whittaker, Longmans, London, 1910.
Illustrations of the C.G.S. System of Units, with Tables of Physical Constants, J. Everett, Macmillan and Co, London, Fourth Edition. 1891.
The Inner Life, C. W. Leadbeater, Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1917.
International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry, and Technology, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1926.
Isis Unveiled, H. P. Blavatsky, Theosophical University Press, Pasadena, 1960 [c1877]***.
Isotopes F. Aston, Edward Arnold & Co., London, 1923.
Laws of Physical Science, E. Northrup, J. B. Lippincott, London, 1916.
The Letters of H. P. Blavatsky to A. P. Sinnett and other Miscellaneous Letters Transcribed, A. Barker, T. Fisher Unwin, London, 1925.
Life in Freedom, J. Krishnamurti, H. Liveright, New York, 1928.*
Magnetism and Atomic Structure, E, Stoner, Methuen & Co. London, 1926.
Man's Place in the Universe, A. Wallace, Chapman and Hall, London, 1912.
The Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism, J. Jeans, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1915.
The Meaning of Relativity, A. Einstein, English Translation, Tr. E. Adams, Methuen & Co., London, 1922.
Modern Electrical Theory, N. Campbell, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1907, 2nd ed.
The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition, Vol. I, Longmans, Green and Co., New York, 1908.
Occult Chemistry, A. Besant and C. Leadbeater, Theosophical Publishing Society, Adyar, 1908.
Occult Chemistry, A. Besant and C. Leadbeater, Theosophical Publishing Society, Adyar, 2nd Edition, 1919.
Optical Theories, D. Mallik, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1921.
Philosophy and the New Physics, L. Rougier, P. Blakiston Son and Co., Philadelphia, 1921.
Physico-Chemical Tables for the Use of Analysts, Physicists, Chemical Manufacturers, and Scientific Chemists, J. Castell-Evans, C. Griffin and Company, London, 1902-11.
Physics of the Air, W. Humphreys, Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia, 1920.
A Popular History of Astronomy During the Nineteenth Century, A. Clerke, A. & C. Black, Edinburgh, 1885.
The Principle of Relativity, E. Cunningham, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1914.
The Principle of Relativity, Albert Einstein and others, Methuen, London, 1923.
Relativity and Gravitation, J. Bird, Methuen and Co., London, 1921.
Report on Radiation and the Quantum Theory, J. Jeans, Electrician Printing and Publishing, London, 1914.
Report on the Relativity Theory of Gravitation, A. Eddington, Fleetway Press, London, 1920.
The Science of the Sacraments, C. Leadbeater, St. Alban's Press, Los Angeles, 1920.
The Secret Doctrine, H. P. Blavatsky, London Theosophical Society, 1888-97, 3rd ed.
Smithsonian Physical Tables, F. Fowle, Smithsonian, Washington, 1920.
Smithsonian Physical Tables, F. Fowle, Smithsonian, Washington, 1923.
Space, Time and Gravitation, A. Eddington, The University Press, Cambridge, England, 1921.
Space, Time, Matter, H. Weyl, Tr. H. Brose, Methuen and Co., London, 1922.
The Stars; A Study of the Universe, S. Newcomb, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1901.
Stellar Movements and the Structure of the Universe, A. Eddington, Macmillan, London, 1914.
The Spectroscopy of X-Rays, M. Siegbahn. Oxford University Press, London, 1900.
Studies in Occult Chemistry and Physics Volume I, G. E. Sutcliffe, Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, Madras, India, 1923.
The Sun, C. A. Young, D. Appleton and Company, New York, 1895.
Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants and Some Mathematical Functions, G. Kaye and T. Laby, Longmans, Green, London, 1918.
A Textbook of General Astronomy for Colleges and Scientific Schools, C. Young, Ginn, Boston, 1916.
Theory of Electrons and its Applications to the Phenomena of Light and Radiant Heat, H. Lorentz, B. G. Teuber, Leipzig, 1909.
Theory of Heat, T. Preston, J. Rogerson Cotter, New York, 1919.
The Theory of Relativity, L. Silberstein, Macmillan, London, 1914.
Theosophy in Relation to Human Life, A. Besant, Theosophical Publishing House, Benares, 1905
Traité d'Electricité Atmosphérique et Tellurique, E. Mathias, ed, Les Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1924.
Translation of the Surya Siddhanta, C. B. Leis, Calcutta, 1861.
A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism , J. Maxwell, Clarendon, Oxford, 1892.
A Treatise on Magnetism and Electricity, A. Gray, Macmillan and Co., London, 1898.
Treatise on Natural Philosophy, Lord Kelvin and P. Tait, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1903.
A Treatise on Physical Chemistry, H. Taylor, D. Van Nostrand, New York, 1924.
A Treatise on the Analysis of Spectra, W. Hicks, The University Press, Cambridge, 1922.
Treatise on the Sun's Radiation, and Other Solar Phenomena, F. Bigelow, John Wiley & Sons, 1918.
X-Rays, G. Kaye, Longmans, Green, London, 1917.
Ziegler Polar Expedition 1903-1905, J. Fleming, National Geographic Society, Washington, 1907.

*** - A reprint of the original edition.

END


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Acknowledgements

David G. Walters

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