the members of this group, with the exception of Nitrogen, have the external
form of a cube. Fig. 76. They occur on the left hand swing of the pendulum.
Their characteristic valence is three, but higher valencies are developed.
They all have six funnels opening on the six faces of a cube, and in two
cases there are also spikes pointing to the eight corners of the cube.
At first sight it would appear that Nitrogen should not be placed in this
group but, as we shall see, the constituents of Nitrogen occur constantly
in the components
making up the funnels of the elements in this group.
Boron we have the simplest form of the cube. Fig. 77. It is as simple in
relation to the other members of its group as is Beryllium.
Central globe has four spheres of five Anu, 4B5.
funnels contain five bodies also, four ovoids each of 2H3, and one
Ad6. All six funnels are alike.
Boron = 4B5 + 6 [4 (2H3) + Ad6]
Central globe = 20 Anu
6 funnels each of 30 Anu = 180
Total = 200 Anu
Number weight 200 / 18 = 11.11tk
ATOMIC No. 7
does not assume the cubic form of its relatives, but is shaped like a sphere.
Fig. 77. The balloon-shaped body, N110, floats in the middle of the sphere.
This N110 contains six smaller spheres in two horizontal rows, and a long
ovoid in the middle. The balloon-shaped body is positive and is drawn down
towards the negative body. N63, below it. N63 contains seven spheres, each
of which has nine Anu within it, arranged as three triads. In addition
to N110 and N63 there are four more spheres in Nitrogen. Two of these,
N20, containing five smaller globes of four Anu, are positive and two,
N24, containing four globes of six Anu, are negative.
is there in Nitrogen which renders it so inert as conveniently to dilute
the fiery Oxygen and make it breatheable, while it is so extraordinarily
active in some of its compounds that it enters into the most powerful explosives
? Some chemist of the future perhaps will find the secret in the arrangement
of its constituent parts which we
able only to describe.
Nitrogen = N110 + N63 + 2N24 + 2N20
Balloon = 110 Anu
Oval = N63 + 2N24 + 2N20 = 151
Total = 261 Anu
Number weight 261 / 18 = 14.50tk
FIG. 78. Scandium, Vanadium
ATOMIC No. 21
Scandium for the first time we meet funnels of two different types in the
same atom. The three funnels of type A appear to be positive and those
of type B negative, but this must be stated with reserve. Fig. 78.
globe. The central globe repeats that of Boron, with an additional
sphere of four Anu in the centre.
the A type the Boron funnel Is
reproduced, the Ad6 having risen above its
companion ovoids; but the most important matter to note in respect to
this funnel is the introduction of the body N110. This body was observed
by us first in Nitrogen, in 1895, and we gave it the name of the "nitrogen
balloon," for in Nitrogen it takes the balloon form, which it also often
assumes in other gaseous elements. Here it appears as a sphere, the form
it always assumes on the E4 level. It will be observed that this N110 appears
in every member of this group except Boron.
B type of funnel runs largely to triads. It contains N63, which has not
only a triadic arrangement of spheres within its contained globes, but
each sphere has also a triplet of Anu. The funnel also contains two N24
and is completed by a sphere of five Anu at the top of the funnel.
central globe presents us with two tetrahedrons, recalling one
of the combinations in Adyarium and in Gold, and differing from that in
Gold only by the substitution of two quartets for the two triplets. Fig. 79.
funnels are of one type only, and we have here quite a new arrangement
of bodies within the funnel. At the bottom comes N63, followed by N110.
The N63 is slightly lengthened.
Ad6 whirl on their own axes in the centre near the top, while four globes
of eight Anu chase each other in a circle round them, spinning madly on
their own axes. This axial spinning seems constant in all contained bodies.
Lower down in the funnel a similar arrangement is seen, with a globe, N20,
replacing the two Ad6, and four ovoids of six Anu replacing the globes
of eight Anu. This group is identified as Yb44.
funnel of Yttrium contains exactly the same number of Anu as is contained
in a gaseous atom of Nitrogen. Further. N110, N63 and N20 are all constituents
of Nitrogen. We put on record these facts, without trying to draw any conclusions
from them. Some day we, or others, may find out their significance, and
trace through them obscure relationships.
element is as closely related to Yttrium as is Vanadium to Scandium. Fig. 80.
globe. In the central globe we find two interlaced tetrahedrons each
of four Ad6, 2Ad24, and a central sphere of nine Anu, N9, spinning round
in the centre, seventeen Anu being thus added in each globe.
contains only one type of funnel, and these are exactly like
of Yttrium, save that the little globes which scamper round the two Ad6
contain twelve Anu instead of eight Thus each funnel contains N63, N110,
Yt44 and the new group which is identified as Nb60.
element is closely related to Vanadium and Niobium. It also uses two of
the forms belonging to the Calcium group, which have apparently been brought
over from its predecessor in atomic weight, Barium, by the evolutionary
force. Figs. 81, 82.
globe. The central globe is formed from a very striking group which
occurs very often. It is made of five interpenetrating tetrahedrons, each
tetrahedron being formed of four Ad6, making the group Ad24. The group
of five of these tetrahedrons occurs first in Neon and has been called
Ne120. In Lanthanum there is a small sphere of seven Anu, I.7, at the centre
of the Ne120.
in Vanadium we find here two types of funnels.
A. These three funnels contain six groups, that nearest the centre
being N63. Next we find N110, and then two groups from the Calcium type,
Mo46 and Ca70. Then comes the group Yt44, and finally the large group Nb60.
These three funnels differ from those of the A type only in having a group
Ca45 instead of the Mo46.
The Central globe, Fig. 84, is complex and is borrowed from Cerium, its
predecessor in the atomic weight list. It consists of a centre-piece of
27 Anu. Ce27, and then a ring of twenty segments, each containing 32 Anu.
Thus the central globe is identical with Ce667. It also occurs in Neodymium.
has six similar funnels. Fig. 83. At the bottom of the funnel comes a group
containing three ovoids, Mo11, making Pr33, and then the N63 and N110 groups.
Next comes the Yt44, and finally Nb60.
Central globe. In this element occurs the remarkable
central globe containing 819 Anu which is found in Radium and other
elements. As Lutetium is the element of lowest atomic weight in
which this globe occurs it has been identified as Lu819. The globe
is formed of a grand centre of 27 Anu surrounded by 24 segments of
the Ba33 form, making up the 819 Anu. Fig. 85.
has six similar funnels. At the bottom of the funnel we find first N63,
then N110, and then a group Lu53. Neat comes Ca70 and then another new
group Lu36 instead of the usual Yt44, and finally the familiar Nb60. Fig. 86.
globe. The central globe is identical with that of Lutecium. Lu819.
we find six similar funnels opening on the faces of a cube. Fig. 87. At
the bottom of the funnel we find first the N63 group, then N110. Next comes
a group peculiar to Tantalum, Ta63; after that we find one of the all
pervading Calcium type, Ca70, and then Yt44, and finally Nb60.
element shows relations with more than one of the preceding elements both
of its own and other groups. It has two types of funnels, and adds eight
spikes, directed to the corners of the cube.
is a true element and not the temporary product of a heavier element. It
is itself radioactive.
The globe is identical with that of Tantalum, Lu819. Fig. 88.
A. These funnels are very similar to those of Lanthanum. They contain the
whole of the Lanthanum A type funnel, with the addition of two Ca45 groups.
B. For these three funnels Actinium has borrowed from Antimony and
Zirconium. They contain the large ovoid from the arm of Zirconium, Zr212,
which we shall describe later when we come to discuss that element. In
addition to the Zr212, the funnel contains two groups from Antimony, Sb128.
and Sb113 plus three extra Anu making up Ac116. Fig. 90.
There are eight spikes, each consisting of Li63.
This element is very similar to Actinium. It contains two types of funnels and
The globe is the familiar Lu819. Fig. 91.
A. These three funnels are exactly like the A type funnels in Actinium
and contain 483 Anu. Fig. 92.
B. These three funnels contain the whole of the Actinium B funnels,
Ac456, with the addition of a new group Pa29. Pa29 contains four Ad6 and
a B5, the Ad6 being in a ring as shown. Fig. 93.
The eight spikes are the Li63 groups as in Actinium.
constituents of Nitrogen are used constantly in this and other groups.
consists of six bodies, N110, N63, two N24 and two N20, each of these being
complex. Fig. 94.
The "balloon," N110, changes to a sphere, and holds together on the E4
level; on the E3 it yields six globes each containing seven duads, and
these are all set free as duads on the E2 level. The ovoid is also set
free on the E3 level, becoming a sphere; and on the E2 level it liberates
its contained bodies, as two triplets, two quartets and two sextets which
immediately become triplets.
This body is liberated on the E4 level. On the E3 level it sets free seven
bodies of 9 Anu and these become twenty-one triplets on the E2 level.
two N24 spheres are liberated on the E4 level. On the E3 level each assumes
a tetrahedral form with six Anu at each point. On the E2 level each gives
the E4 level each N20 is found as a tetrahedral arrangement of pairs of
duads at the angles of a square-based pyramid.
the E3 we find a similar arrangement though the distribution of the forces
is changed. On the E2 level the groups separate into 10 duads from each
FIG. 95. DIsintegration of Boron, Scandium, Vanadium, Yttrium
DISINTEGRATION OF BORON
Central globe, with its four quintets, is set free and breaks at once
into two groups of ten Anu. Fig. 95.
the E3 level four quintets are formed which, on the E2 level, are resolved
into triplets and duads.
funnels. The six funnels are first set free on the E4 level, where
they assume the spherical form, showing a central Ad6 and four globes each
containing two triplets.
the E3 level the Ad6 behaves as usual and the triplets separate. On the
E2 level the Ad6 gives triplets and the other triplets give duads and units.
DISINTEGRATION OF SCANDIUM
Central globe shows a cross at its centre, with the four quintets whirling
round it, on the E4 level. On the E3 level the quintets are set free and
follow the Boron type, while the cross becomes a quartet. On the E2 level
each quintet gives a triplet and a duad and the quartet two duads. Fig. 95.
A In funnels A the Ad6 and the ovoids behave as in Boron, but the
N110 escapes from the funnel as it changes to a sphere and holds together
on the E4 level. The N110 disintegrates as shown under Nitrogen and the
rest of the funnel as in Boron.
B. The N63 escapes when the funnel becomes a sphere on the E4 level.
The remaining sphere contains the two N24 and the quintet B5. On the E3
and E2 levels these groups behave as in Nitrogen and Boron.
DISINTEGRATION OF VANADIUM
Central globe follows the pattern of the globe of Boron. Fig. 95. The
centre sphere I.7 is shown in Iodine.
A funnels of Vanadium repeat the A funnels of Scandium with the addition
of N20. All these disintegrate as shown under Nitrogen or Boron.
B funnels also repeat the B funnels of Scandium with the addition of
a N20 group and the substitution of a sextet, N6, for a quintet. These
also disintegrate as shown under previous elements.
DISINTEGRATION OF YTTRIUM
Central globe breaks up into two groups which disintegrate as shown
in Fig. 95.
the E4 level the six funnels are first liberated and then the N110 and
N63 escape and behave as shown in Nitrogen. The ovoids. 2H3, and the cigars.
Ad6, are set free on the E3 level and behave as in Boron Fig. 95.
is a tetrahedral arrangement of duads on the E3 level and these are set
free as duads on the E2 level The N20 behaves as shown under Nitrogen.
Fig. 96 shows the Cube Group A in a condensed form, from which the relationships
in the group may be studied.