The Four Noble Truths
and some
Modern Variations

Key points of Buddhism

"Suffering, origin of suffering and getting over suffering, and the noble Path of eight elements that brings one to the cessation of sufferings ... one is liberation from all sufferings."

(from the Dhammapada, chpt 14, verses 13 & 14)

"Light arose in me about things not heard before."


Key points of Buddhism

Four Noble Truths
  • Noble Eightfold Path
    Three Qualities
  • Three Characteristics of Existence
  • Five Aggregates (skandhas)

    Near enemy is a quality that can masquerade as the original, but is not the original.

    Far enemy is the clearly opposite quality.

    PaliEnglishDescription Near EnemyFar Enemy or Antidote for
    mettaloving kindnessgood-will, friendship, unconditional love for allbeings selfish lovehatred
    karuna compassion empathyto feel with someone instead of for someone pity cruelty
    muditasympathetic joyspontaneous joy in response to others success hypocrisy envy
    upekkhaequanimityeven-mindedness based on insight into the nature of things indifference anxiety

    a portion of The Heart Sutra in English

    Then, through the power of the Buddha, venerable Shariputra said to noble Avalokiteshvara, the bodhisattva mahasattva, "How should a son or daughter of noble family train, who wishes to practice the profound prajnaparamita?"

    Addressed in this way, noble Avalokiteshvara, the bodhisattva majasttva, said to venerable Shariputra, "O Shariputra, a son or daughter of noble family who wishes to practice the profound prajnaparamita should see in this way: seeing the five skandhas to be empty of nature. Form is emptiness; emptiness also is form. Emptiness is no other than form; form is no other than emptiness. In the same way, feeling, perception, formation, and consciousness are emptiness. Thus, Shariputra, all dharmas are emptiness. There are no characteristics. There is no birth and no cessation. There is no impurity and no purity. There is no decrease and no increase. Therefore, Shariputra, in emptiness, there is no form, no feeling, no perception, no formation, no consciousness; no eye, no ear, no nose, no tongue, no body, no mind; no appearance, no sound, no smell, no taste, no touch, no dharmas, no eye dhatu up to no mind dhatu, no dhatu of dharmas, no mind consciousness dhatu; no ignorance, no end of ignorance up to no old age and death, no end of old age and death; no suffering, no origin of suffering, no cessation of suffering, no path, no wisdom, no attainment, and no non-attainment. Therefore, Shariputra, since the bodhisattvas have no attainment, they abide by mens of prajnaparamita.


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